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Thn number of inhabitants has been at any port not much frequented by Fuestimated at turty thousand; of thete rupeans, I thall not fail to send you an above uue thousand are Chinefe. The account of my adventures, and of whatfemainder coniitts of Malabars, Englith, ever thail feem curious and intereteing Funparan and Asiatic Portuguese, a few Prince I'ales' Jjiand, Your's, Kc. Dutch and Danith families, Malays, Jan. 3, 1800.
J. WALLACE. Japanese, Acheenefc, Siainele, Burians, Buggules, Bengalees, Perfecs, Armenia For the Monthly Magasine. ais, and Arabs. Each of these tribes
TIIE EXQUIRER. bare a part of the town allotted to them,
No. XXI. aud nomurates one of their own class for their head man, who is in some degree
CONTINUATION OF THE QUESTION," That Telponsible for their conduct.
are the Ultimate Projjrečls of the dirts The thops in the Bezar, which are
in England!" very numerous, are kept hy Chinese and “ If it be a lin to covet honour, I am the Matadvars. The Chinete are a very ini- most offending foul alive."- -Sbakajcare. dutrious quiet pcople, exercise aluost all to I f
V the preceding part of this question, retail trade iu these parts.
arguments were oftereik, tending to prove The harbour is fusticiently capacious that one of the greateii obtiacles to the to bol a large fleet, being the whole of ultimate advances of the Arts in England, tinut space between the north-eatt part of arose from this circumttance, viz. that the land and the Qaida ihore, extending commerce, the most general and extentive a very little wny to the point where Fort fource of British profperity, dues not l'orowallis kards. In the whole of this afford the species of aid refuilite tv the pace there is good anchorage for the perfection of the liberal arts; that, from larveit thips, os the water is always its nature, it neither participates in their fruoti, luwerer trongly and from whac higheid views, nor coalefces with their ever quarter the wind may blow.
nublett interelts. In hne, the polition of Prince of Wales It was proposed to conlider, next, the Idan, its climate, its fertility, its har probable effects of encouragement given bours, its produce of large timber, its con- to the cultivatiou of the arts, and of exeguity to Pegu, which contains moft citernent produced in their progress, by abundant tenk-forcfts, will renter it all the means of honours, and through the acquititin of great importance, both in channels of distinctive rank. a commercial and political point of view; Tip experience of the naturalist deand I doubt out that it will foro, under montirates, that nothing more powerfully the tottering care of the Britith govern- contributes to bring a tender and sentitive ment, aud by the enterpriting fpirit of plant to maturity, and finally to perfecthe British merchants, become wbat Ma- tion, then the nourishment of it by a Incra was during the profperity of the continut renewal ot' inaterials agreeable l'ortuguese Empire in India, and in later to its original growth, or nature. times Batavia, --he centre and emporiuin fimilar inanner, reafun will thow us, that, of the commerce of the Ealiern fca. in the intellectnal, as in the phylical gar
The Direcursot the batt India Company den, the bottoms of the tree will ever be were lu lentible of its importance, that most beautiful, when the nutrition it rethey have crected it into a separate fettle ceives from the care of fuperintendance, menit under a goreruór and council, and is congenial with its effential qualities. cortina: der of the garrison of Fort-Corn- Ilonour, if it may not be contidered as wallis, which counts of a conliderable an innate object of delire in the breast bonty of Sca-poys and Europeans. Thiere ofinen ot' talents, is at least the sensible slikewife a cierryman of the church of image of that impression on the infant Enginnd, a cicrk and schoolmatter. Jultice mind, inscrutable in its origin, bat indebaltainistered nearly in the same man- liblc in its eflect, which alone appears to mer as in the Englith fettlements in In- coronand the energies and direct the fudia, by Mayor, Alderman, and Jultices perior exertions of genius. The painter of the Peace,
and the poet, indeed, often turn zuide I am so well pleased with this place, from the guiding brightness of their : warthat I shall with reluctance leave it for dian star, to seek support, r eafe, under the purpose of fulfilling my engagement ignobler influence ; but it will be found with my prefent employer. Should we that they never do fo without a conscioutin the soutle of our trading voyage touch uels that they degrade, or, is it were,
desert their native faculties, nor without, deserts the paths of instruction, to obey at the fame time, deviating from the the impultes of irritated feelings, derides pathis which lead to excellence and im- or ftigmatizes what nature would have mortality.
pronipted it to adinire, and endeavours On the other hand, necessity may fome- tofubvert what it is not allowed to polih. times chain down the reluctant fpirit, and Every laudable purpose of society, with the sente of honour may remain tir and regard to the arts, is therefore accomvivid, although its call can no longer be plished by annesing honours to the fucobeyed; but, on the supposition of the cessful cxertion of talents. Nor is this trecdon of choice and action being on an doctrine new in respect of the general inaverage footing with the moderate cone ftitutions of all civilized nations, for the ditions of life, it is unquestionable thať progress of intellectual studies. It is, forthe wish, the contest for honourable dif- tunately for learning, new only in respect tinctions, inay be regarded as the invari- to the cultivation of the arts of painting able test of such talents as are deligned and sculpture ; and, unfortunately for us, hy proviecoce to illumine and intruct it is, in this respect, uewer in England mankind.
than in any other country in Europe. An It is not meant, by honourable diltince Academy of the Arts eftablithed by royal tions, to imply thancquitition or powietlion favour bas, indeed, elevated a certain of inerely oftentatious, or inappropriate number from the common mats, and the titles, but the acquiation of such marked industry ot its members has secured them acknowledgment of eminent powers, as from the desolating prospect of mendicity; may every where fecure the clains of the but there is no great honour in attaining pollefior to deference and respect. Titles what it is a dilgrace not to avoid; the and rank bear no esential relation to seat which mediocrity may reach cannot intrinsic merit, yet are they stillthe agreed be a ground of distinction; for other diffymbols, or, in a manner, the current and tinctions are necessary towards the exallegal coin of public esteem. The coin, tation of the arts. it is allowed, is often debased, and orien Let us now enquire what other rewards counterfeit; but these are circumstances of honour are open to those arts in Engwhich produce no alteration in the value land. The only one which our siate acof its original standard.
knowledges, is i he title of King's Painter, It dillinctions, then, imply the acknow, annexed to an otfice to which the pamter ledyment of superior merit, if they reflect is generally advanced, not by public back to the mind the senfation of honour, competition, but by private favour, and they muit be found w fornu one of the fo little regarded as an object of taine, moit congenial modes of eliciting the that the artitt, if he do not disdain, at native powers of genius.
leaft overlooks the employment; for he But, they inay likewise be considered hires integrior painters at a cheap rate, to as neceffary to the most falutary exertions paint the pictures required of hin, and to of genius. It is desirable, not only to enable him to take what he regards as cultivate the genius of our land, but to the only respectable fruits of his office, give to its cultivation a philanthropic into his pocket
, This oflice was, fome tendency, to make it beneficial as well as years ince, ludicroutly conferred on the powerful, and that, while it acquires the late Sir Jothua Reynolds: I fay ludiforce requisite to win admiration, it croully, for who but must smile on reflectfhould allo adopt the modes moti calcu- ing that an artist, to when the fovereign lated to obtain our affection, These always declined to fit for his portrait, modes it will the most readily allume, was chosen to couvey the resemblance up while it looks forward to a return of fac that very monarch to foreign nations, and vourable attention from the minds of to their latest polierity? Yet, ridiculous thofci
, to whoin it directs its ipliuence, as this circumstance inay appear, it was, Verit, compelled to watch and cherith in alas! the only infance of royal favour solitude the gerins of internal talent, and which graced the professional eifurts of unable finally to rescue is claims tiora that must accomplitued painter, either obscurity, will not, indeed, lose its powers, before or after he became, froin secondnor forfeit its eflential tile to superiority, ary views, the titled President of the Acabut it is in danger of eventually affuming demy.-lic, 19 whose band nature gave an air more savage than benevolent, of her own truth, and from whole pencil the dictating ruler than persuading, of de borçowed grace, be, by whom Alexander wrrmg instead of inviting: if urged to would have chosen, in the polithe age of cuntei by oppolition, it ico frequently Greece, tu tranlinit his image to future
ages, absolved his long career of public of life would profesionally engage? The admiration, wholly unemployed by the father who would bring his son up to the finer ign, whose reign and country he practice of phytic, or the law, will belitate adorned.
to make bin a painter or a sculptur. This extraordinary, nay, almost incre- Our present lyttem of opinions theredible circumstance, leads to the fuller fore, allows painters to be gentlemen, eincidation of the nature ot'those national but will not allow gentlenien to be painditinctions, which may be contidered as ters. Men of liberal rank, in their interprosocative of talent. Reynolds, with course with artitis, rather contider them Us, was a Kuight, and King's Painter; as entitled to their condescension, than as buc thote honours were to far from ferving admitted to their pretence on a footing As a ground ut future emulation in bis art, of equality. Indeed, so little has the protur tiey have merely lett a riddle, scarcé fellion of it painter been hitherto made to be solved by posterity, wherefore no the fubject of attention, by the reflecting picture of an artiit fo tignalized, is to be clafles ut fociety, that the mental part of Lound in any of the various palaces of his it, and ihe mechanical, are full fpoken of forereign. It is evident, therefore, that under the fame denomination; and a the case of Reynolds, notwithưanding painter is equally a terin exprellive of the Doinual honours, cannot be quoted as au man who tills the inind with the awful inft:ince of due diftinction contcrred on exhibitions of the Sistine Chapel, and of toerit; on the contrary, it may be fately him who covers the wainscot or the walls alerted, that at leali hali of ihe oppor- of our houles, to secure them from the tunity offered by the lite of so illustrious injuries of Imoke and rain. an artit, u raile the character and ge- There is, no doubt, a reason of a more neral ellamation of Engi!( art, was lo:i to fubftantial nature to be given, wherefore, our country for want of proper excite- an Englith gentleman Should not contider ments, whereby his talents might have painting as an eligible employment for his been fully called into exertion.
ion, viz. the impollibility of acquiring This inttance is futficient to explain the wealth by the pursuit of it; and this, as views of our enquiry, regarding the inilu- was thewn in the former part of the quefence of honours and rank on the arts. tion, is a fault inherent in its nature. such logours as empty titles can befiow, With regard merely to honour, many situby no means appear to constitute thé ations in lite are preferred for our children, pecies of diftinction, which may be fup- which yet we can hardly esteem more posed at once to reward and itinulate ge- creditable to the holders. lt, certainly bius. Before the arts can be expected to is no where thought more honourable, reach their ultimate degree of elevation for instance, to brew than to paint, to in a philofophical land, a nore tulid and fabricate that which eclipses the intellect pern:nent balis muit iupport the honours than that which enlightens it, but brewto be allotted to them, and they inuft find ing is productive of immense opulence, their esubhithment on fair and public painting of none. Let it not be supposed, ground, where their claiius may be duly from this comparison, that ihe Enquirer, invettigated, and as duly rewarded. If who is an Englishman, harbours the leatt they be truly denoininated liberal arts, it thought of disrespect to the patrons and is among the national clafles of liberal providers of a liquor from which he definds that they muit take their station, rives daily comfort. In an enlighteued It is here that they puti be taught to seek country like our own, every honest emfue distinction, not froin the favour of a ployment should fit a man for the most artial admirer, or a courtly patron, but distinguished general society. It is only from the more exaited fuffrages of learn- ' meant to affert that, in the probability of itres and patriotifin.
acquiring opulence, painting cannot and It may be the more requisite to inlift ought not to enter into competition with ou this point, on account of fome unjutt such trades as England displays. But prejudices under which the arts of delign there is, therefore, the stronger necellity Lvidently labour in this country. The for enforcing its claims to reward in an. Hegree of rank or estimation, in which we other line; and, until this be done, until hold those tudies, is at variance with the the various classification of the arts he terms in which we speak of them. We farther determined, and their proporfall theu liberal arts; but how can that tional degrees of rank and value ascertaihe conttrued liberal which is unconnected ed, it will, with respect to national chapith etablithed liberal education, and racter, be a magniticent, but vain profuin which no person in the literal claties non, to offer medley premiuins to the
pretensions of merit, or to tempt an en- the sculptors of Italy, or any other modern crease of the number of perforujances by country, are to the English sculptor. pecuniary reward.
Grant, if you will, that some nice advan. From a confideration of the whole vi tage of talenis lay on the side of the foreign these circumstances, is not the fpecies of artist, would it be, in that case, the spirit of honours, rcquitite for the advance of the patriotism, which should consent to forleit the arts in England, clearly pointed out to
Splendid opportunity of adding arduur to native US? Can it be denied that painting, in invite the attention of the universe to our
genius? Would it be her voice, which should the present view of the nation, demands interiority ?-to our interiority durink to have its place alligued to it amongsi period when the exalted faculties of England fınlar liberal liudies of our Universities, were directed by the man, to whose glory the and its progreflive steps of cultivation re- monument is raised? Or would it add to that warled with similar honours?
giory, to perpetuate, in the very means by In what manner such an arrangeiñent when the monument exifts, the record of ai could take place in our colleges, may ad- insuficient culture of the arts under his ad. mit of doubi. The arts would run a rilk miniftration-insutlicient even to the exhiof being regarded as innovation, by the bitio. of a fonn, or a feature? Alas! poor Yettied cultivation of other longettablithed
England! modes of learning. But it an opportunity verlity of Cambridge yet unapprized that there
But are the learned members of the Uni. fonld ever present itself, propitious to
exist sculptors in our own country, who fear the wishes of the artill, if the firucture of
no living competitors ? a new college Mould be planned, open to The source of the error, into which a well. any nould of inttitution which the defire intentioned zeal has been led on this occafion, oi the founder, and the laws of the coun- lies in the want of proper acquaintance with try inay unite to fancion, within the the arts, and the whole circunstance contriwalls of luch an edilice would it be extra- butes to strengthen what has been already vagant to hope that every latter advance- propoled in this paper, with respect to a Nament of focial illumination may atlume tional Establiment for Painting and Sculpits juft itate and privileges ?
Had those arts been matriculated in To fiate the whole retult of the quef; could not have fallen, in the present day, on
the colleges of England, such an opprobrium tion: in congenial cultivation, watchful
our Arts, and on our Univerfities. encouragement, and just, public diftincLions, will be found the true fupports of To the Editor of the Monthly Megazine genius. Such is the real channel of' hopour, in which the graphic artist, under SIR, fie philosopluc guidance of Englih patri- I Chat is Taid by the author of tie
CANNOT refill fome obfervations on otifin, may liope to rival
“ What e'er of Latian or of Grecian fame Memoirs of the Duke of Richmond : Sounds in the ear of Time;"
which I admit in general, to be respect
ably written, and such are the desirable means of perfecting the ultimate prospects of the Arts relates to the remark on Mr. Fox.
The first objection which ftrikes me, in England. P.S. The writer of this paper has just heard
That excellent mau, the belt and greatest with astonishment, and let him be pardoned if and moti dilinterefted of our statesmen, he adds, not without sentiments of indigna. was in oilice only from the beginning of tion, that the University of Cambridge has February, till lis death on the 13th of fent a commillion to a foreign artist, for tlie September following. Coming into ottice execution of a statue, voted in grateful re- at luch an arduous crisis; what more, in membrance of William Pitt. Such a ru. fo fhort a time, could he be expected to mour would perhaps be best received with dif- do than he performed? What pledge belief; but, if it must be credited, let an En.' has be delerted? And how has he atquirer be allowed to asi, on what ground of chieved little as a practical statesman? public or private duty to our ceuntry, is such llad he carried nothing but the Resolve a commision fou:ded? Let him alk of the for the Abolitiou ofibe Slave-trade, that Directors of the learned Colleges, whether, if they were di firous to celebrate the late it in itself would have been an achieve futtrious statesman of Britain in a fuperai ment, especially all the dilcouraging and Eulogy, they would propose to feel an enco. impeding circuimionces confidered, fufmiat, properly accomplished for the nationaj ticient to fill the thort career of luis admi. task, in the schools of a foreign land? Yet niftration with a glosy worthy of his pre: the orator of France and Germany are ex. ceding life; 1utlicient to have proved the ally as far fuperior to the Englith iratør, as fincerity of his other pledges; il, indeed,
in such an open ingenuous mind, a mind that any plan which does not so clotely In alive to freedom and humanity, that approximate to this, as at leatt to include incerity could bave been doubted. The all' householders, will be thockingly des negociation for peace-willany doubt lis fective in point of justice, policy, utility, tiucerity in that? will any doubt whether and permanence. All terrors founded it contains great and characterillic tea upon the example of France, and bringlit Gires ut ability, openness, and conciliating up to bear againti this system of retirin, esildore? And what fairer or beiter qua- are groundleis in point of fact. The repreJoldes of a practical statesman? It can sentation of France das graduallydwindled they only be conjectured low far be to a narrower and a mrrower scale, till We have succeeded in obtaining a it became evanescent; and the horrors prac, honourable, and which, with rea- ut detpotilm which have overclouded tou, thould have been fatisfactory, to all the fair protpects of the Re-olution, have parties, trad his life been continued fome originated in cantes quite opposite to low months longer. I know from his own equality and un-equality or repretenta brand his unchanged fentiments on the tion. Ainerica, the only part of the glute greatett political objects which can con- which can be quited at all, certain! cern us and the general interetts. They will not be quoted as an arguinent against were the sentiments of his life. I know the rights of universal fuffra_c. them by a letter with which he honoured But were it even true that universal me after he cane into uffice this laft fuffrage were 1:ot fo fafc and beneficial, tone. I know thein by the general tenor the causc wly all degrees and mcature of of lus life, character, and conduct, which parliamentary reform has been deterted, hr maiutained to the last. The honour is not to be fought here; the cause wly of Mr. Fox I regard as a iplendid, ample, the mention of parliamentary reform has mortiblc part of the honour of the been brought into the most unmerited Englith tation; and of humanity itself. fufpicion and difyrace, is not to be fouytit It cannot therefore he but that I must here. Those who dare to open their strongly feel any thing which tends, (moft eyes, ere it be too late, cannot be at a canselessly, in my firm opinion,) to diminish löfs wbere to tind it. Partial interess, die public elteem and affectionate vene- prejudice, groundless and extravagant ration, which, for the sake of the public, alarıns, apathy, and defpondency, will Gught perpetually to accompany his name explain the whole. and memory.
I have reason to be convinced, and To the Duke of Richmond it is objected there are public proofs of it, that the most that he "recoinmended universal futfrage; early and active friends of universal fufand, by inducing the corresponding fo- frage would have co-operated with Mr. cirties to act on exaggerated principles of Flood's, and Mr. Grey's plans. And Mr. refortu, brought the idea of reforin into Wyvill, whose distinguillied perseverance disrepute; and tended not a little to in the cause of reform ought cier to be Feuder every propolition of reform ob- remembered with respect, would have Donous."
extended, and bad extended, his views of Now the fact is, that long before thosc reform: though he declined going to far called correlpending societies exitted, as univerfal fuffrage; thinking it inexpo Major Cartwright, whom but to name is dient in the present state of fociety in kis encomium, had recommended univer- this country. A fuffrage : had recommended it with a Only not precluding gradual reform, force of reasoning and facts, more enfy to nor palling an injurious, unfounded, and brincountered by vaguc oljections, than at beit muncceitary sentence on the calınly and dittioctly anfwered. Ainong friends of the most extentive reform, that the friends of that lyttem was to be found great object might and would have gone ibat true, und calin, and energetic pa- on, bad not Mr. Pitt chofen to lay it triet, Dr. John Jebb; and others, whoru alide; and not merely to lay it asdc, but death has removed from the iphere of to abandon it to difcredit, lifpicion, and human usefulness, The Constitutional abuse, thrown on those who had the cute Society had acted upon these recommen- itaucý tu avow theinfelves itill con de wows. For one, I have never relin- vinced of the expediency and necetlity qenhed my opinion: tint this reform is, of carrying it into effect. 'This, from ling in far sprit of our conftitution, the certainly ought not to have been imagin bulk practicable, the most beneficial, able. I do not willingly blame the dead; Fet it adopted. I am convinced too, atid the only characteritiic feature or lis