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For the Monthly Magazine, mounted on different parts of the castle, FACTS relative to the PRESENT STATE of to command the city, adjoining country, the CITY OF TRIPOLI; conununicated and harbour. Several of the apartments in a LETTER from JONATHAN cow in the west end of the cattle are large, DERY, SURGEON of the late AMERICAN commodious, and airy, ornamented with IRIGATE PHILADELPHIA.

a variety of fine marble, mosaic and ftuca Malta, July 10, 1805. co work, and richly furnished in the TIDO NASKS to the activity of our bavy, Turkish ftyle.

and to the efforts of General Eaton Here the Bashaw veceives and holds and his tew but valiant men, who much audience with foreign ainballadors and attonilhed every Muffulman in Tripoli, confuls; holds his divan, which be often and put the whole regency on the point imperiously over-rules; and gives his of a revolution, we were libernted on mandates, which are often enforced by the Sd of June, for 60,000 dollars, as a the moft cruel torture and death. Here balance of prisoners.

are a great puniber of finalier apartWe left about 200 faves, who were ments; a large open court and fpacious subjects of the King of Naples, mucha gallery, for the accommodation and reliregresting that they could not claim dence of the Bashaw, his wives, chilso happy a country as ours, whose fo- dren, and attendants : here is also a vereignty had the spirit to deliver its bomb-proof rooin, to which the Bathaw Subjects from tlavery and inifery. I have flies in times of danger. The apartünce vidited the once opulent and powe ments in the east end of the cafele are ertul, but now wretched, Syracuse. Atables for the Bahaw's horses, and priWe arrived here yefterday, and find the fons where our officers and myself were people of Malta very civil, politc, and confined, and where the Balliaw confines emmercial, and the immenfe fortifica- lis hostages and criminals; and in the tions filled with Britith troops.

midti of which is the magazine of gun

powder. Thefe glooiny mentions of hors The city of Tripoli stands on the north ror are in bad repair, full of vermin, and coaft of Africa, in north latitude 32° 31, is the filthieti place jn all Tripoli. I was and longitude east from London 13° 11'; taken out of this prison fome months and is built upon the ruins of the ancient before our liberation, and put on a very Oca, on a fandy fuil. It contains about limited parole, to attend the fick and 40,000 Turks, 5,000 Jews, and 1,000 lame of our crew. Roman Catholics and Greeks. It' bas The city, including the cattle, is three eight mofques and one clirittian church; miles and a half in circumference. The some of the mosques are very furge. country about Tripoli, nearly to the foot · The baths are places of conliderable of Mount Atlas (which is two days jours refurt, un account of the injunctions of ney from Tripoli), is all, except ile garMahomet, which direct the keeping the dens and orcharıls near the eity, a faudy body clean: but I have seen many devi- and barren defert. The houtes, the ramiate from this, and rub their bodies with parts and batteries which surround it, dry land initead of water. This custom, are built of the ruins of the 'ancient I am informed, originated from the pit- cities of Oca, Leptis, and Sabrata, which fotos and travellers not being able to are chiefly of marble and a variety of und water while travelling over the de- other calcareous stones, and columns of fort. The Bedouins, a kind of fojon- granite, many of which are very large, ing Arabs, and people from the interior put together with a ceinent of time and of Africa, often prefer tos imperfect fand; but without the rogularity of fquare, method of purification, even when water plumb-line, or lotel. The walls are is at lund.

nerally white-wallied with new-Nacked Many of the buildings have the ap- lime, at the commencement or the Platpearance of great antiquity; of which statau or. Carvival. "The tops of the the Turks cau gire no account. Among loudles are flat, and covered with a cointhem is a Roman palace and a triumphal position chiefly of lime, which (wlien auch. The castle stands on the water's dry) forinis a very firm terrace. To ward edge, in the north-easierumoft corner of against the vengeu.ce of their enemies, the city. Its ramparts are of different the whole city is fire-proof. brights; on the land side they are from 40 to The fresh waterlated in Tripoli (ex.

tile cept the to 40 feet in height. Twenty-five pieces tiege, when it is brought to the wells of Lruls ordnance, of difercat sizes, are in the Desort on mules, afles, and chrilHOSTILY Mab., No. 153,

B

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tian laves) is rain-water caught in win- generally not longer than the first twelve
ter, the only time of rain in this counc of the twenty-four hours. The want of
try: it runs from the terraces, through proper apparatus rendered me upable to
well constructed earthen tubes into large learu the different degrees of the ten-
vaulted reservoirs, which are built of perature of the cliinate. The nights
done and line, and well coated with and mornings are fometines cool after
lime, and are in the earth below the in- rain; but I never, while in Tripoli, faw
fluence of the sun; where it is preserved any front or Inow.
from filth, and when drawn for ute it is The priucipal market is held every
remarkably clear, cool, and pleasant. The Tuctday, on the sandy beach, about oujc
wells in and about Tripoli

, 'for about two milc earterly of the city, where a variety miles from the sea-lhore, produce brack- of articles are told, and the butchers ish water, which is used for scrubbing and kill and tell their meat, chiefly to Chrisdrenching the links, neceslaries, sewers, tians, Jews, and the higher order of &c. and for watering the gardens and Turks. Very little mcat is killed in the orchards during the dry feafon. Sinks city. The cominon clafs of people; lead from the houses through the bot- and the Balbaw's troops and feanien, eat toms of the necessaries into very large but little ineat; their diet is chictly dates, common fewers, which lead into the tea, olives, oil of olives, bread, and a variety all of which are built of stone and lime. of vegetables, which they cook in oil. The seamen and marines of the late The Turks are, with a few exceptions, frigate Philadelphia can atteft the valt strangers to luxury and diffipation. quantity of lime used in Tripoli; a num- The prevailing disorders arnong the ber of whom were driven, by unfeeling natives of Tripoli were, ophthalmia in barbarians, to work in it for nineteen summer, and catarrh and light pneumomonths.

nic affections in winter. The former I The streets not being paved, are na- attributed to a remarkably serene and i turally very dusty; but every thing of the brilliant iky, and the scorching winds

pature of manure is diligently fought for, . from the continent; the latter to the gathered into large baskets, llung upon want or neglect of proper clothing. The cainels, inules, and afses, and carried to dead, except those of the Bathaw's fathe gardens and orchards, to raise the mily, and a high order of marabuts, or foil filoin its natural, ftate of barrenness. prieits, are buried out of the city. On These little plantations are each enclosed the beach, one cable length eati of the with bigh walls; they contain from two caille, and half a cable length above to tix acres each; leveral of them are high water mark, myself, with our boatcultivated by European gardeners, and swain and twelve of our crew, did lail are mude to produce all the useful roots, tuminer (through the delire of Captain plants, and fruits that are natural to the Bainbridge, and permission of the Batorrid and temperate zones. These en fliav) bury our brave xoticers' and fea. closures are about 2000 in number, all men, who were killed in the explotions interspersed with tall date trees, and are and in the engagements o1L -Tripoli, and laid out in such a manner, that college who tluated on thore. In dioging the tively they form a semicircle, which ex- graves, our bien hove up, vatt quantities tends froin thore to More, at a little of human bones. The Lurks informed distance from the city. This ever-green me, that they were the bones' of the balt zone, the sandy desert which it lies people who died of the plogue mony upon, and the proud Atlas which bor- seus agn; they collected them into barJcrs the profpect, when viewed from the kets, and carited them away as falt as top of the castle-gate of the city, or the pollible, muttering and furing that they tipping on the coast, presents a beauti- ihould not be polluted with clurittian Sul polpet.

bunes. The winus from the north, north-eaft, The, calcareous subfiances of which and north-wet, are generally very falu- Tripoli is.chiely built, the well-confirucsa brious ; those froin the south, fouth-wett, ed drains, the killing the meat and buand south-east, come over the parched rying the dead at a distance from the continent, and are generally very op- city, the removing the offil and filth to prelive: they are called the Sirocco, and the grudens for manure, and the tempeSometimes rise to that degree of beat rate inupner in which the Turks and cand violence, that those who are not able Araba live, hare withont dombt been the to and felter in houtes, tents, &c. osten cause of the late remarkable continua lloc perish: it forgetimes lalis three days, but of health in Tripoli.

J.L.

l'a

SIR,

62

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. be reckoned about 10 days in which fogs

laave prevailed the greater part of the

day. presenting to your readers

The state of the wind has been as folfrom Chrifimas-day 1805 to the same day 48, S.E. 26, N.W. 76, S. 69. 1300, I will previoully lay before them the average heat for each month of the able for storms and heavy rains, that

The month of January was remarkluit year, and ot' those in the preceding:

occurred usually in the night. February 1805.

1806. was noted for its great variableness, both Jan.

in the pressure and temperature of the 31.333

41.276 Feb.

atmosphere. March, for its levere frosts 35.5

41.3 March 13.568

and heavy snows. April, for its irorth and 42.25

north-ealierly winds, May, for its easterApnl 45.76

44.76

ly winds, which were attended with much May 49. 15

55.20

mischief to the gardens, particularly to June 55.895

62

the fruit trees. June was noted for the July 59.132

great heat of fone of its days, though August 61.850

62

on others the northerly and easterly Sept. 58

59.70

winds were severe; in some parts of the Out. 47

52.50 Nov.

were torms, attend39.333

country there

50.00 Dec.

ed with thunder, lightning, and hail : 38.3

47.00

this was a remarkably dry month. But

the following month was uncommonly The year 47.368

51.665

wet, and the heavy rains were accompa

nied with foune tremendous ttorms. AuIn the former of these years, the ave- gult was allo marked by the storminels rage heat encreased from inonth to month of many of its days; but on the whole till Auguft; but in the latter there was it was favourable to the harvest. In Sepno increase of heat after June: for that tember and October the weather was and the two following months, the inean mild, and very suitable to the season and heat was 62. It ipuit indeed be in climate of the country. The months of the recollectiou of all your readers, that November and December were remarkthe hottest days in the whole year were able for their high temperature, and for in June; and it now appears to have, the great quantity of rain which fell. been fo much the cafe, as to equal the It may be observed, that there have higher tempcrature that is usually ex. been fewer fogs in these months than perienced in the months of July and usual, Augut. With regard to the whole

year, the average of 1803 was rather lower than usual, and that of 1800 has been For the Monthly Magazine. higher than that of common years. The CONTRIBUTIONS TO ENGLISI SYNONYMY. mcan height of the barometer for the year is equal to 29.815, which is not

One. Only. Alone. Lonely. Lunesome. quite Path of an inch lower than it was NITY is the common idea which for the preceding year; though the quan- pervades all these words. That is tity of raiu for 1806 bas been cqual to one, of which there are any. That is only, 42 inches in depth, while that for 1805 of wliich there are no inore. That is alone with ouly 25 inches: this is a frelh proof which is actually unaccompanird. That of what in the course of our monthly is lonely, or lonesome, which is hibitų. reports we have frequently referred to, ally unaccompanied. One child. An that the quantity of raia is in all cales

. only child. A child alouc. A lonely ix proportion to the high temperature of child. the atmosphere.

According to the Gentiles, Jupiter was Dariug the year there have been 141 one god, and Neptune another; accordday very brilliant; 119 in which there ing to the Jews, Jehovah was the only Las been rain; on 17 there bas fallen god : if god means an object of human wow or fail; the remaining 88 days worfiip, the Gentiles were right, and may be nearly equally divided into fair the Jews were wrong; but if god means and cloudy days, among the latter must the Supreme Being, there can be but

B.

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one by the terms of the definition. In :* A traveller reinarks the most striking
the fenfe of the Gentiles, Chrift is un objects he fees.'— Blair.
deniably God; in the sense of the Jews, *Remember that is thine eye observes
Chritt is undeniably not God.

others, to art thou observed by angels Alone, for other creature in this place,

and by men.'--Jeremy Tuylor. Living or lifelcss, tu be found was done.

• If the remarker would but once try

Milton. to outllune the author, by writing a bet-
I go alone,

ter book on the faine subject, he would Like to a lonely dragon, that his sen

foon be convinced of his own infufficiMakes tear'd and wilk'd up, though but sel- ency.'—l'atls. dom scen.

Soakipeare.

" He reads much; For the adjcctive lonesome authorities He is a great observer ; and he looks can be adduced; but it is impurely Quite through the deeds of men.'— Shakspeare. forinet': the tyllable jome being the imperative mood of jumnian, to gather,

To aknowlege. To confefs. To urow, can only unite with fubitantive etyions,

To'aknowlege, is to inakę known; to as in sportjome, irklime, heulsome, lengths confess, is to make known by speaking fome, buroine, Nortjome, jetjome, ligjome,

with another ; to avow, is to make known toillome, lighijome, tircjime, gamejome, by declaration before the gods (ad and &ri; here it occurs in' union with the tovere). Simple exposure, private paradjective lone, and forins an insignificaut ticipation, and public promulgation, are compound, like the words with-alone.

the ideas relpectively suggested.

We aknowleye our faults to one an-
Ti Nudy. To learn.

other; we contefs them to the priest ; we Studere, to study, appears to be a avow them in public worship. To aknowprivative of the impersonal verb tædere, lege defire ; to confess illicit intercourse ; to grow weary: he studies who does not to avow marriage. A gentleman aknows tise of application.

leges his mistakes. A prisoner confesses Leornan and laeran, to learn, arc ety. his crimes. A patriut avows his oppomologically connected with words rigni- fition. fying to borrow : he learns who borrows Dr. Johnson characterizes to aknowtroon bis master intellectual flores. lege as a hybrid word, produced between

To ftudy implies uniform application Latin and English: it is of wholly Enga in pursuit of knowledge; to learn im- liña genealogy, and formed by the same plies successful application. We study rule of aualogy as to accmmpany, to acto learn ; we learn by dint of study. couple, lo accustom, to affront. : Lively men study withi difficulty, but Difficulty. Obftacle. learn with case.

A difficulty renders our progress unThe more we learn the more we know. easy (dis and facilis), an obstacle withThere are those who the inore they slunds it fub and stare): we furinouat study the less they know. He has ftu- the one; we reinove the other. The died well who has learned to doubt. first describes iinpediment arising from

There are many things we learn with tlie nature and circumitances of the afout study; there are others we itudy fair; the second describes hinderance without learuing.

from a foreign caule. Philip found a Those are not the wisest who have difficulty in inanaging the Athenians, fiudiod mott, but who have learned from thic nature of their difpofitions; be Inoft.

found an obilacle in the eloquence of
Youth is the time for ftudy, but man- Deinvilhcnes.
kood is the time for learning.

Prudence. Wifitom.
To remark. To obferve.

Pradence is a contraction of provi. To remark, is to mark again for the derice, which means foreught. Wildon, purpose of reinembering: to obferve, is being derived froin wiljen, to know, tiga to watch over, as a shepherd does luis nifies knowlege. I'rudence is hypothea theep. To remark, iinplies only atten- tical wisdor; and wisdom is realised tion; to observe, implies dritt, or pur- prudence. Cautious people, who act pofe : hence we call the Itatement of an from prospective motives, are called prue individual fact, a remark; and the trate dent.' Prudent people, who attain their ment of an inference, en observationeuds, are called wife.

Succes

Success is the mark which conduct baš the word. • Enow of reasons ;" why not to hit: the prudent take a safe and a also enow of argunent?' In other go right direction, but commonly underfhont thic dialećts, to enow is the verb for to their alın; the ruth ting tidewards, or fly fatisfy: Nug is ttrong beer; probably beyond, they commonly overthoot their enough defcribed originally the fatista siin; the wife choose titly, both their di- tion which precedes intoxication. The tection and their effort. The prudent French wyjez, feated, allo describes an excel in collineation, the rath tend to atter-dinner fecling. hyperbole; bat every unforefeen contin- Sufficient is contracted from fatis fagency ettectually disappoints the prudent, ciens; and fatis ineans filled with food, and may bring the rafh to the precisé not with liquor. It describes therefore a goal. It is wifer to trufi in the prudent calmer contort, mere contentment. He than in the raih, if you value the means; bas sutlicient, who has just what he water to trust the rain than the prudeut, wants; he has enough, who has any * you value the cod.

thing less than too much. The covetous Profufion, Extratagance.

man never has enough, although he has Ile is profufe, who pours-forth his more than a futiciency. If iny hott

is

helping me to wine : that is lutficient,' wbule fupply; he is extravagant, who vanders from his right direction.

permits hiin to stop; that is enough,'

forbids him to proceed. The prufuse mun errs by the quantity, the extravagant man by the quality of his

Peace. Calm. Tranquillity. expenditure. Hle, who praises excellive- Peace, being derived from the fame ly, is profuse; be, who praises inappro- root as pause, ineans a ceßation of trouprately, is extravagant, in his flattery. ble. From the Italian culare, to înk, to The writer who sticks too long to his to abate, comes the substantive calamento, pic, is profuse; he who quits it too often, decleution, descent, decay; and hence is extravagant.

probably the verb calmare to cause to

abate, and the substantive calma, calın. Presuming. Presumed. Prefumptuous. Tranquillity means finoothness, and does Presumptive.

not, like peace and calın, imply previous He is presuming, who takes rank before perturbation. Peace is opposed to war; it is allotted himn. That is preluined, calın to itorm; and tranquillity to agitawhich is taken for granted before it is tion. proved. To prelumne, is to take before Whole. Entire. Complete. Finished, bund. The presumption of good faine is u motive for authorihip.

Whole derives from the same root as Participial adjectives bear to partici- to heal, and was at firft synonymous with ples the relatiou of habituality to actu- healthy : fo the German ganz comes ality. Prefumptuous is habitually pre- in Latin integer, meanis covered in, and

from the same root as gelund. Entire, Laming; presumptive is habitually pre- describes that sort of health which con fumed. Presumptuous prief. Shak peare.

lifts in a whole skin. To be free from Presumptuous hope.'— Milion. wounds, from fores, from inutilations, butts French and Englith, the prefump- entire are both opposed tó parted and to In the technical Language of lawyers, contitutes the primary idea of whole

ness, entirely, or integrity. Whole and tive heir is used for the heir-at-laws; not as Johnson and Truller say, in oppolition deficient; and in their metaphorical apto the heir apparent: bui this word, bc- plication are identical: but whole is ing irupurely formed, is in both lunguages tire is not.

fumetimes used for healthy, whereas enobluleiceut.

• They abode in the camp till they Enough. Enon. Sufficient.

were whole. - Jodhua. Enough and enow are different fpell- Complete incans tilled up, and finished ings of the faine adjective; but these means 'ended. The vintner coinpicies, orthographic variations have acquired an the tuper finilhes, a bottle. Of an apartvieles distinction. Caprice has made ment which has all its furnicure, one Enow into the plural of enough. "Ile may say it is complete, or it is finished. bus meat enough. He has had ments A dictionary may be completed by inenow.' Enow being the more eupho- terpolatious: it is finished at the last pous, thould become the only forta of page.

For

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