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abstract accident according affirmative analysis animal applied argument Aristotle asserted assumed assumption called class denoted common commonly concepts conclusion considered consists constitute contained contradictory conversion corresponding defined definition denoted determined Dictum distinction distinguished division doctrine effect equal equation equivalent error essential example excluded existing experience expressed extension fact fallacy false figure formal former genus given Hence human illicit illustrated important included individuals inference intention involved judgment kind knowledge language latter less Logic logicians major material mathematical meaning merely method middle mind minor Morality nature negative nonsensical notions object observed obviously opinions original particular perceived political practical predicate premise present principle proposition question ratiocination reasoning reference regarded relation respectively result rules sense significates simply species substitution supposed syllogism taken term theory things thought tion true truth universal utility
Seite 216 - ... the horses that were each black and white. The legatee claimed that he was entitled to both classes ; and, hence, in the one or the other of his claims, was guilty of this fallacy. § 203 (5). THE FALLACY OF ACCENT OR PROSODY (F. ACCENTUS F. PROSODI&\ — This fallacy is also a species of equivocation, ie, either Homonymy or Amphiboly. It consists in varying the meaning of a term or proposition by change of accent, tone, or punctuation. The most extreme case of this is that of irony, by which...
Seite 170 - is the science of the operations of the understanding which are subservient to the estimation of evidence; both the process itself of proceeding from known truths to unknown, and all other intellectual operations in so far as auxiliary to this.
Seite 12 - By what steps we are to proceed in these, is to be learned in the schools of the mathematicians. who from very plain and easy beginnings, by gentle degrees, and a continued chain of reasonings, proceed to the discovery and demonstration of truths, that appear at first sight beyond human capacity.
Seite 236 - He was bred to the law, which is, in my opinion, one of the first and noblest of human sciences ; a science which does more to quicken and invigorate the understanding, than all the other kinds of learning put together ; but it is not apt, except in persons very happily born, to open and to liberalize the mind exactly in the same proportion.
Seite 16 - And the most part of men, though they have the use of reasoning a little way, as in numbering to some degree, yet it serves them to little use in common life, in which they govern themselves, some better, some worse according to their differences of experience, quickness of memory, and inclinations to several ends; but specially according to good or evil fortune, and the errors of one another. For as for 'science,' or certain rules of their actions, they are so far from it that they know not what...
Seite 131 - Him thus intent, Ithuriel with his spear Touched lightly ; for no falsehood can endure Touch of celestial temper, but returns Of force to its own likeness : up he starts, 'Discovered and surprised.
Seite 230 - A servant who was roasting a stork for his master, was prevailed upon by his sweetheart to cut off a leg for her to eat. When the bird came upon table, the master desired to know what was become of the other leg. The man answered, that storks had never more than one leg.
Seite 215 - Fallacy of division;" the term which is first taken collectively being afterwards divided; and vice versa. The ordinary examples are such as these ; all the angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles: ABC, is an angle of a triangle; therefore ABC, is equal to two right angles.
Seite 233 - For some part of the inestimable benefit of that book has, merely on account of its title, reached to many thousands more than, I fear, it would have done, had he called it (what it is merely) a grammatical Essay, or a Treatise on Words or on Language.
Seite 127 - The consideration then of ideas and words, as the great instruments of knowledge, makes no despicable part of their contemplation, who would take a view of human knowledge in the whole extent of it. And perhaps if they were distinctly weighed, and duly considered, they would afford us another sort of logic and critic, than what we have been hitherto acquainted with.