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he was appointed publisher of the journal. In 1831 it was still the habit of the majority of business people to live near their shops and offices; the hours were long, the doors being opened very early in the morning, and not closing till late in the evening. So Francis went to live in Catherine Street, where the Athenaum was then published, and a few years afterwards he removed with the journal to Wellington Street. In the arduous task of establishing the young paper on a sound footing he took his full share; he firmly grasped the principle asserted by Mr. Dilke, that the first virtue of a journal is independence, and he speedily obtained the respect and confidence both of publishers and the newspaper trade. Nor when the success of the Athcrueum was assured did his industry abate. He continued throughout a long and prosperous life as careful and active' a man of business as when he first went to Catherine Street. During his apprenticeship at Marlborough's Francis had been struck by the heaviness of the taxation laid on the newspaper press, and when the success of the Athenaum gave him leisure he turned his attention to the fiscal restrictions then in force, and became treasurer of the committee for obtaining the repeal of the advertisement duty. In securing the abolition of that tax, and subsequently ol the compulsory stamp and the paper duty, he took an active share, addressing meetings in various parts of the country, and organizing deputations to wait on successive Chancellors of the Exchequer. On the repeal of the paper duty the price of the Atlietueum was, largely at his instigation, reduced from fourpence to threepence. Mr. Francis enjoyed excellent health till some two years ago. Indeed, in 1872 he added to his work by undertaking the charge of the commercial affairs of Notes and Queries. When the ways of business changed he had gone to live in the suburbs, but, increasing weakness making the journey to and fro fatiguing to him, he returned to Wellington Street a few months since, and there he remained till his death. In October last he had the satisfaction of seeing the fiftieth anniversary of the day when he became publisher of this journal. Firm yet gentle, sincere and generous, he was the unfailing friend and best adviser of all who knew him. He will be most deeply regretted."

On the 18th of April he was buried in the Burial, family grave at Highgate Cemetery, close to the tomb of Michael Faraday.

At the annual meeting of the Newsvendors' Benevolent and Provident Institution following his death, it was resolved that a public fund should be raised in memory of him, such fund to be devoted to pensions to old and distressed members of the trade; and on the 1oth of "John February, 1885, two "John Francis Pensions" Pension's" were founded—one male pension of 20I. a year founded. and a female pension of 15/. a year, in perpetuity.



A'Beckett (A.) in 'Every Man in
his Humour,' 528

Abell (Mrs. Elizabeth) and Napo-
leon at St. Helena, 280

Abinger (James, 1st Lord), life by
his son, 483

Academy, its foundation, 434

Adams (Henry J.), senior partner
of Adams & Sons, death, 492

Adams (William James), publisher
of Bradshaw's Guides, death, 313

Adams (William R.), his miniature
aquarium, 27211.

Addison (Joseph) not the author of
"When all Thy mercies," 447

Advertisements, in London Gazelle,
239; in the Queen, 43011.; in
the Glasgow Herald, 498; John
Francis and the duty on, 548

Aeronautical Society founded, 190

Africa, Livingstone's discoveries,
34, 282, 315 ; fate ofits explorers,
167; Dr. Baikie, 175; Stanley's
discoveries, 386; death of Mrs.
Petherick, 389

Agassiz (Alexander), founder of
zoological laboratory at Rhode
Island, 274

Ainsworth (Harrison), death, 493

Aird (Thomas), editor of the Dum-
fries Herald, death, 369

Airy (Sir George Biddell), on
earthquake in England, 161; on
the Royal Society at Burlington
House, 312

Akerman (John Yonge), first rail-
way journalist, 313

Albert (Prince), opens Exhibition
of Art Treasures at Manchester,

19; obituary, 141; Albert the
Good and progress, 143, 209;
'Early Years,r 209; Sir T.
Martin's 'Life,' 335, 440;
political foresight, 414
Albert Edward, Prince of Wales,
his marriage, 151, 156; visit to
India, 352'; and co-operation,
412n.; chairman of Longfellow
committee, 505
Alden (John), Pilgrim Father,

ancestor of Longfellow. 503
Alexandra, Princess of Wales, 156
Alford (Henry), Dean of Canter-
bury, his life, 304
Alice (Princess), her death, 406
Alison (Sir Archibald), death, 207
Allgemeine Zeitung, its character,

All the Year Round, its foundation,
89; Walter Thornbury a con-
tributor, 363; death of W. H.
Wills, 455; its first number,
529; C. Dickens, jun., editor,

Almanack de Got ha for 1867, 202
America, and Westminster Abbey,

So6n. ; Dickens's visit, 524
American books in the British

Museum, 396n.
Analytical Society, its foundation,


Anderson (James U.), proprietor of
the Orcadian, obituary, 334

Anderson (John P.) compiles Ros-
setti bibliography, 510

Anglo-Saxon, Dr. Bosworth's de-
votion to, 361

Anstey (Thomas Chisholm), obi-
tuary, 309

Anthropological Society, death of
Sir G. Duncan Gibb, 368

Anti-Com-Law League, 363

Apocrypha. See Bible.

Appleton (Dr. C. E.), founder of
the Academy, death, 434

Aquaria, public and private, history
of, 271

Archer (Frederick Scot), inventor
of collodion process, 19; sub-
scription for his family, 20

Archers, Royal Company of, its
history, 348

Arithmetic, Dean Peacock's his-
tory of, 66

Army, flogging in, abolished, 107;
"Scientific Organization" of, 249,

Arnold (Dr. Thomas), Dr. Brock's
defence of, 398

Arrowsmith (John), geographer,
death, 313

Arsenic for preserving paper, 383

Arthur, son of Henry VII., mar-
riage with Katharine of Arragon,
153 ,

Artisls Rifle Corps formed, 74
Art Journal, Mr. M. Huish editor,

Art Treasures at Manchester, 19
Arya-Samaj, new Theistic church

in India, 416
Ashworth (Henry), death, 461
Asiatic Society of Japan founded,


Assyria, George Smith's discove-
"est 337; the Temple of Belus,
357; death of G. Smith, 358

Astrological Society, its last sur-
vivor, 360

Astronomical Society, Lord Wrot-
tesley president, 214

Athenceum, half-yearly volumes
issued, S3; price reduced to
threepence, 137; comparison
with 1833, 157; death of Charles
Wentworth Dilke, 171; on lite-
rature of Europe and America,
242 ; letters on 'Paris and the
War'—'Scientific Organization

of the Army'—enlarged—Hep-
worth Dixon resigns editorship—
on 'Literature of the People,'
249; posted for a halfpenny,
258; 'Scientific Organization of
the Army,' 263; Prof. De Mor-
gan's contributions, 267; death
of F. D. Maurice, 286; death of
Mr. Holmes, 307; its proprie-
tors, 307n.; on the Challenger
expedition, 318; articles by
Howard Staunton on corruptions
in Shakspeare, 324; on London
public libraries, 328; celebrated
contributors to, 331; death of
Dr. E. Lankester, 334; of George
Finlay, 341 ; on the Prince of
Wales in India, 352; death of
Walter Thornbury, 362; Index
Society suggested by, 38S; ju-
bilee of, 390 ; death of H. T.
Riley, 408 ; of Hepworth Dixon,
435 . John Francis s jubilee, 484;
H. F. Chorley musical critic,
537; death of John Francis, 547

Augusta (Princess), marriage with
the Duke of Brunswick, 49

Aunt Judy's Magazine, founded by
Mrs. Gatty, 310

Australia, Paramatta Observatory
founded by Sir T. M. Brisbane,
118; salmon in, 204; CoL War-
burton's explorations, 331

Aytoun (Prof. W. E.), death, 188


Babbage (Charles), death, 280
Babington (C.) on Macaulay's cha-
racter of the clergy, 518
Back (Sir George), Arctic explorer,

death, 408
Bacon (Francis), Lord Verulam,

life by Hepworth Dixon, 436;

death of J. Spedding, 491
Baddeley (Robert), Twelfth Night

bequest, 231
Bagehot (Walter), editor of the

Economist, obituary, 373
'Bagford Ballads,' edited by Ebs-

worth, 470

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