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enabled him and his younger brother to start in Starts in . business.

business at Cambridge. Commencing as booksellers, they in a few years began to venture on publishing, and they drew round them many of

the best Cambridge men of the day For a

long time his income was extremely small. Ten years after he had started at Cambridge he was obliged to ask his father-in-law to pay off 36/. of debt which had accumulated in his household expenses. The bitterness of the struggle was


enhanced by the fact that till within a few months of his decease he had only a life share in the business. This state of things he managed to remedy at the beginning of the last year of his life, and it is pleasant to record that his son has inherited the position that the father

won. He died, in fact, just when success had Final


been achieved. 'The balance sheet of 1856 was the best the firm had ever known, and the prospect brighter. Their business had taken root, and the steady demand for their books, and the growing popularity of the writers with whom they were connected, above all of Mr. Kingsley, inspired confidence in their future."'


The Athenaum, in reviewing the 'Lays of Ancient Rome,' by Thomas Babington Macaulay, on the 5th of November, 1842, says: "The

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present tranquillity, not to say stagnation, in the world of English poetry, of that domain, where, during so many years, contemplative philosophers and gentle-hearted dreamers have held undivided sway, is here stirred by the voice of a trumpet, more stout and manly in its breath than any which has been heard since Scott laid by his clarion. Mr. Macaulay's reappearance as a poet is none the less welcome to us, because it is not unexpected. We have not forgotten the songs of the League, nor the Roundhead ballads, thrown off in the days of his youth, — while almost every one of the critical articles which are understood to have proceeded from his pen, contains some passage so vivid, so graphic in description, and so dramatic in movement, as to have quieted our fears lest public life and political excitement might have worn out that best gift to a man, a bright and living spirit of poetry." The article closes with this suggestion: "We cannot leave these Roman lays without begging for a reissue of English"1 Mr . Macaulay's earlier French and English ballads. ballads. Wherefore, too, should he not add to the number of the latter ?—so well read as he is in history—so well skilled in the art of popular song—why should he not do something more for his own country and his own countrymen?"

Macaulay's critical and historical essays, 'Critical and

. . Historical

contributed to the Edinburgh Review, having Essays.'

been pirated in America, Messrs. Longman & Co., in order to protect their home market, caused the essays to be republished in three volumes. The A thenaum mentions this circumstance in its review on the 1st of April, 1843.

'"Avery pretty quarrel' about nothing," in which "A very "very small facts are swelled into undue import- quarrd." ance from the skill and reputation of the combatants," is dealt with by the A thenaum of the

1st of January, 1848, in its review of 'Boswell's Boswell's * 'Life of

Life of Johnson: including their Tour to the Johnson.'

Hebrides,' a new edition, by the Right Hon. J. Wilson Croker. The Alhenaum states: "In the present edition, we have, for the first time, Mr. Croker's replies on the subject of the errors of the edition of 1831 which Mr. Macaulay exposed

in the Edinburgh Review The edition of

1831, considering the multitude of minute facts which it contains, is really a well-edited book. So the public have thought it, for it is out of print—and whenever it occurs for sale, it sells for more than the publishing price. The article in the Edinburgh, since acknowledged by its writer and included in his 'Collection of Critical and Historical Essays,' is written with great asperity of manner and something like a personal feeling—as if an old grudge were about to be paid off. Mr. Croker's replies are much

in the same style The Index affords us

a ready clue to the points at issue. Under the head of ' Blundering Criticism ' we are referred to 'Macaulay, T. B.'—and under 'Indecency and Indelicacy,' to the same individual."

On November 1 1th it is stated that "Mr. Macaulay is busy with a history of the reign of William III." The same paragraph says that Sale of "one hundred and forty unpublished letters William III. addressed by King William III. to Henry de Lorraine, Prince of Vaudemont, were recently sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson, for something like 6s. 6d. apiece!" Forty-six pounds one shilling was all that the letters realized. Among the letters was one from Kensington in 1696, in which the king writes:— "' I see that you have the same intelligence that we have here from France, that they have formed a great design for a descent on this kingdom, and the Jacobites (as they call them here) speak quite publicly of it, and although the thing is not too easy, it is only prudent to take every possible precaution. This will prevent me from sending to the Low Countries so many troops as I had thought of doing at the beginning of the campaign, which is a sufficiently provoking contre-temps? The letters are entirely in the king's own handwriting: a characteristic hand—not unlike the Duke of Wellington's, but finer."

On the 18th of November it is stated that Macaulay Mr. Macaulay has been elected Lord Rector of ^g^" the University of Glasgow, "by a majority in University. all the nations."

Three articles are devoted to the first two 'Historyof volumes of 'The History of England from the' Accession of James II.' The first article and II. appears on the 9th of December. The A thenceum says: "Mr. Macaulay bids ' the dry bones live.' He renders us as familiar with the men of the Revolution as if they had been personal acquaintances. We estimate this quality highly, because the course and the consequences of the Revolution of 1688 were guided and moulded more by the character of the persons engaged in it, and less by the mere force of circumstances, than any event of equal magnitude recorded in history. In all probability that revolution would never have taken place if James II. had been either a better man or a worse :—had he been more scrupulous in his politics or less conscientious in his religion he need not have exchanged St. James's for St. Germain's. Still, the crisis would have only been adjourned. It had become necessary to fix with precision the place which the sovereign ought to hold in a constitutional kingdom.

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