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1870-71 ; Mr. Joseph Bonomi, for many years the Curator of the Soane Museum, and the first hieroglyphic draughtsman of his day; Mr. ). Hain Friswell, author of “The Gentle Life'; Mr. H. T. Riley, who edited the “Memorials of London in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Centuries, printed in 1868, and was for several years a contributor to the Atheneum ; Lord John Russell-_"the old familiar name, more likely to remain attached to his memory than the later 'ear?'”; Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy, Deputy Keeper of the Public Records ; Sir George Back, a link between the Arctic exploration of the past and present generation, who served with Franklin in the Trent in 1818, and on his return from an Arctic expedition in 1833-5 "received the exceptional honour (which the king, William the Fourth, and he alone enjoyed) of being promoted to the rank of Captain by a special order in Council”; Dr. Abraham Benisch, author of Judaism Surveyed,' who was for a number of years editor of the Jewish Chronicle; the Rev. George Gilfillan, author of ' A Gallery of Literary Portraits' and 'Bards of the Bible,' and under whose superintendence Mr. Nichol, of Edinburgh, published his wellknown octavo edition of the British poets ; Dr. R. Willis, who published lives both of

Spinoza and Servetus; Sir Richard John Griffith, Bart., the eminent geologist and engineer; Mr. Thomas Belt, the well-known traveller, naturalist, and geologist, who died at Denver, Colorado; Mr. David Laing, "who for a large portion of the century has been known for his extensive knowledge of historical and antiquarian matters connected with Scotland "; Canon Raines, the antiquary, who bequeathed fifty folio volumes of Lancashire MSS. to the Chetham Library; and Dr. Blakey.

CHAPTER X.

THE ATHENAEUM, 1879—1882.

1879. The six illustrated volumes of ' Old and New

•Oldand New Loncl0n' the first two volumes by Walter London. T~j J

Thornbury, and the remaining four by Edward

Walford, are reviewed on the 15th of February. "The antiquities of the City proper are exhaustively described Cheapside, with its cross and

its two conduits, forms a most interesting record, and Mr. Thornbury tells many a merry jest and some tragic tales connected with the history of departed Lord Mayors. In 1681 the Duke of York had sufficient influence to put a Lord Mayor (Sir Patience Ward) in the pillory, and to get at the same time, from a venal jury, the preposterous sum of 100,000/. as damages in an action of slander which he brought against Alderman and Sheriff Pilkington. We are reminded that the City did not forget those things when the Revolution came. The 'dagger' in the City arms docs not represent the historic weapon of Sir William Walworth, as popularly supposed, but the sword of St. Paul, the City's patron saint.

It would take columns to follow Mr.

Walford through the West End and the suburbs, but we have said enough to show that 'Old and New London' is a book of no ordinary interest, and that it is capable of being made almost all that an itinerary should be."

The second volume of Mr. George Jacob Holy- 'History of ,,.TT. .„ .,. ., Co-operation,

oakes History of Co-operation is noticed on by Mr. G. J.

the 22nd of February. In this Mr. Holyoake HolJoake

deals with "what he. calls the constructive

period, or that between 1845 and 1878

Mr. Holyoake's general attitude may be

gathered from the last pages of his book.

He there distinctly states his strong opposition

to state socialism, and his opinion that those

men are mere adventurers wjio have tried to

teach the working people distrust of the middle

class, who are nearest to them in sympathy

and industry, and who alone stand between

the people and sole rule. 'When this distrust

was well diffused, these skilful professors of

sympathy with the people, who had been their

enemies in all their contests for freedom, asked

for their confidence at the poll, which, as soon

as it was obtained,' was used as a means to

personal government. 'State socialism means

the promise of a dinner, and the bullet whenever you ask for it Co-operation is the

discovery of the means by which an industrious man can provide his own dinner (without depriving any one else of his), and the certainty of eating it with pride, security, and independence.' Mr. Holyoake is an able and industrious friend of co-operation, and those who sympathize with it or who desire to understand it cannot do better than consult his book."*

Charlesj. Mr. Charles J. Wells died at Marseilles on Wells.

the 17th of February in his seventy-eighth year, and an obituary notice, by Mr. Theodore Watts, appears on the 8th of March. On the 8th of April, 1876, Mr. Watts had given an account of 'A New "Curiosity of Litera1 Joseph and ture,"' being the story of the book 'Joseph us Brethren. an(_l Brethren,' by Charles J. Wells. The work was first published, " under the pseudonym of H. L. Howard, by Whittakers, of Ave Maria Lane, in 1824." Wells went to live on the Continent, and "everybody, the author

* This book is at the present time (1888) in increasing demand. A few months back Mr. Holyoake sent a copy to the Prince of Wales, who in acknowledging it expressed the highest satisfaction to learn that the movement continues to make such encouraging and satisfactory progress.

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