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On the 23rd of June the death of his
Miss sister, Miss M. Carpenter, is announced. The M. Carpenter.
AtlUTuzum says: "A singularly good memoir of her appeared in Monday's Times. The most remarkable, perhaps, of her writings was her 'Reformatory Schools for the Children of the Perishing and Dangerous Classes, and for Her measures juVenile Offenders,' published in 1850, in
the young. which were set forth the principles on which all subsequent measures for the reformation of the young have been based." 'Falstaff's "FalstafTs Letters. By James White. With
Ja^ White. Notices of the Author," is reviewed on the 23rd of June. "Lovers of Elia remember that here and there in the immortal Essays there occur references to a certain Jem White, never to be mentioned without some word of sympathy and praise. The name of this worthy has dropped out of literature, and even the special students of Lamb's writings need to be reminded who he was. A fellow-scholar with Lamb at Christ's Hospital, and holding some office there long enough for Leigh Hunt to remember him, James White seems to have been a youth of great brilliancy and parts, and to have vehemently attracted the Charles timid and morbid nature of Elia by his
frientkhipSfor superior physical energy. White and Lloyd White. Were Lamb's earliest literary friends; the first a fantastic creature, full of whim and spirit, the second a grave and melancholy lad, portentously solemn." It was in 1796 "that the little book which is here reprinted went
through the press He had just, at Lamb's
recommendation, read the comedies and histories of Shakspeare, and the result was this volume of letters, written, as the more eminent friend said in later days, 'from the fulness of a young soul, newly kindling at the Shakespearian flame, and bursting to be delivered of a rich exuberance of conceits.' The book had little or no success, and White was never again tempted into authorship." James White married the daughter of Faulder the bookseller, and died about 1820. "In his later years he was a modest agent for newspapers."
The progress of the telephone was at this origin of the time attracting much attention. The musical lelePnonetelephone of Mr. Cromwell Varley, then being exhibited at the Queen's Theatre, is described on the 24th of July. Prof. Graham Bell's prof. Bell. articulating telephone was exhibited by Mr. Preece at the meeting of the British Association at Plymouth, on Friday, the 24th of August, and by the inventor himself on the following Tuesday, and the Athenaum of the 1st of September gives an account of the proceedings.
Mr. Edward Viles, on the 15th of December,
draws attention to the early mention of the telephone. "Just two hundred and ten years
Robert Hooke. ago Robert Hooke, Fellow of the Royal Society, published a work entitled 'Micrographia; or, some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies made by Magnifying Glasses, with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon.' This, the first English treatise on the uses of the microscope, is still in high estimation. In the Preface (sig. b 4) occurs the following remarkable paragraph :—' 'Tis not impossible to hear a whisper at a furlong's distance, it having been already done; and perhaps the nature of the thing would not make it more impossible, though that furlong should be ten
times multiply'd I can assure the Reader,
that I have, by the help of a distended wire, propagated the sound to a very considerable distance in an instant, or with as seemingly quick a motion as that of light.'"
A sketch of 'The Origin of the Telephone' is given by Mr. William Chappell on the 5th of January, 1878, in which he gives the credit Tiof. of its discovery to Prof. Wheatstone, and says
\\ heaistone. "all Wheatstone's acoustical discoveries and musical inventions may be dated within ten years, from 1825—about which time I became well acquainted with him—to 1835. One of Wheatstone's earliest discoveries (one long before his electric telegraph) was that all the varying sounds of musical instruments might be conveyed to considerable distances by means of solid rods joined together. It was only necessary to bring the end of the topmost rod sufficiently near to the instrument to receive its vibrations, without touching it." On the 10th of May, 1855, the Queen and Prince Albert visited Experiment
JJ * before the
the Polytechnic Institution, when Prof. Wheat- Queen. stone "was engaged to bring the music of a band from a distant part of the building into the part of the room where Her Majesty was standing."
Mr. Chappell, on the 9th of March, 1878, states that Capt. C. H. A. Gower, of the Madras Staff Corps, writes: "The Burmans Telephone
. , 'n use in
are well acquainted with the practical use Burmah.
of the telephone. More than a year ago, I
found them using one in the town where I
was then living, Maoobin, near Rangoon.
The apparatus consisted of two short lengths
of bamboo; one end of each was closed with
strong paper, and the two were connected
by a piece of strong cotton passing through
the paper, retained in its place by a knot
at each end. I ascertained by experiment
that this simple apparatus answered perfectly
for a distance of 100 yards, sounds being con
veyed without any apparent loss. The lowest whisper was heard quite distinctly." 'The Materia "The Materia Medica of the Hindus, comthe Hindus.' piled from Sanskrit Medical Works. By Udoy Chand Dutt. With a Glossary of Indian Plants by George King, M.B., and the Author," is reviewed on the 28th of July, 1877. The Athenceum states: "It is the first book on the subject of Hindu medicine which we have had from a scientifically trained native physician; and the thoroughness with which Mr. Dutt has accomplished his work, and its great value and interest, prove what fruitful harvests we may hope to reap in the almost limitless fields of Sanskrit research when once a sufficient body of Hindu students have been educated for the labour. Mr. Dutt has followed the Sanskrit texts literally, and gives in foot-notes the original Sanskrit verses from which he quotes. In the selection of prescriptions he, as a rule, gives preference to such recipes as are commonly used by native physicians. The works from which he quotes extend in date from the third to the fifth century before Christ to the fifteenth century A.D." One-note, at p. 41, under the head of "Orpiment," is "of such special interest " that it is quoted at length: "The MSS. examined have mostly been written on country paper sized with yellow arsenic and an emulsion