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for nomination to a baronetcy, simultaneously with the elevation to the same dignity of Herschel, as the representative man of science. Afterwards, in recompense partly of his literary achievements, but partly this time of his parliamentary services to the Conservative party, he

was advanced, at the instance of the late Lord Raised to the Derby, to the Upper House, under the title of Peerage.

Baron Lytton of Knebworth.” The following inscription is emblazoned round the banqueting

hall of his old ancestral home of Knebworth :“ This Old

Read the Rede of this Old Roof Tree.
Roof Tree."

Here be trust fast. Opinion free.
Knightly Right Hand. Christian knee.
Worth in all Wit in some.
Laughter open. Slander dumb.
Hearth where rooted Friendships grow,
Safe as Altar even to Foe.
And the sparks that upwards go
When the hearth flame dies below,
If thy sap in them may be,

Fear no winter, Old Roof Tree.
On the 15th of December, 1883, ‘The Life,
Letters, and Literary Remains of Edward
Bulwer, Lord Lytton,' by his son, is reviewed ;
and on the 7th of May, 1887, the “Life of
Rosina, Lady Lytton,' by Louisa Devey, is

noticed. Charles Charles Knight died on Sunday afternoon, Knight

March 9th, 1873. Had he lived to the following Saturday he would have been eighty-two. The Athenæum in its notice of that day states: “His London life began in 1824, when he was ‘settled His London as a publisher in a newly-built house in Pall Mall East, the next house to the College of Physicians,' hard by Trafalgar Square, where there was as yet no Nelson's Column, no fountains in the centre, to be ridiculed as dumb-waiters.' And from that date till 1864, when he closed his literary labours with the ‘Passages of a Working Life,' he worked zealously as publisher, editor, journalist, and historian. Of the achievements of those forty years there is no need to speak in detail; information respecting them can be gained from his Autobiography......Charles Knight was too much of a social reformer to be a safe and prosperous man of business. In his eagerness to make ordinary people wiser, he let slip the opportunities of making himself rich. His blood was too warm, his heart too generous, for trade. Dangerously sanguine, he underrated the obstacles and overestimated the favourable influences affecting his commercial projects. Had this not been the case, he would never have entered on what is his greatest achievement and strongest title to gratitude, the publication of the Penny Cyclo- , Penny pædia, on which he spent, for literature and Cyclopædia. engravings, the large sum of 42,0col., and in


producing which he had to pay to the Excise no less a sum than 16,500l.” In his transactions he was conscientious and honourable. He was a man of many friends. “As Charles Knight was one night retiring from the table of 'Our Club, Douglas Jerrold described the man in two words,

when, with a twinkling eye and tender voice, he “Good Knight.” said ‘Good Knight.'”

The Life, Journals, and Letters of Henry Dean Alford, Alford, D.D., late Dean of Canterbury,' edited by

his widow, is reviewed on the 26th of April. “Dean Alford's biography may fitly and well be called Memorials of a Good Man's Life. He was thoroughly good......He was a man who toiled unceasingly, and his great laboriousness probably stood in the way of brilliancy. There is enough of genuine poetry in his early poems, 'The School of the Heart,' and others, to show that, if he could have devoted himself to poetry, and concentrated his powers on that art, he might have risen to a considerable reputation." In December, 1834, he became Vicar of Wymes. wold, the value of the living being uiol.; and in March, 1835, he married his cousin. In 1853 the Rev. Hampden Gurney, Rector of St. Mary's, Marylebone, presented him to Quebec Chapel, of the same parish; and in March, 1859, Lord Palmerston unexpectedly offered him the deanery of Canterbury. At the end



of 1865 he became editor of the Contemporary Editor of the

Contemporary Review. “He continued editor until his death." Care for the future of his family led him to undertake this quantity of work; but the mental labour was too much for him." He died on the 12th of January, 1871. Dr. Merivale, the Dean of Ely, his early and lifelong friend, in his contribution to these memoirs speaks of his “brave spirit anchored in domestic love and religious faith.”

John Stuart Mill died very suddenly on May John Stuart 8th, 1873. The Athenæum of the 17th states that his grandfather “was a cottar, near the North Water Bridge, in the parish of Logie, in Forfarshire. Dr. Peters, the minister of the parish, observed the genius of the cottar's son (James Parentage. Mill), assisted him in his education, and gave him an introduction to his relative, Mr. Stuart, of Inchbreck (then Professor of Greek in the University of Aberdeen). By Mr. Stuart, James Mill was introduced, as a tutor, to Mr. Stuart's relative, Mr. Burnett, of Elrick ; and afterwards, in the same capacity, to Sir John Stuart Forbes. Sir John was a helpful and constant friend, and after him John Stuart Mill was named.......His His economi

cal opinions. economical opinions Mr. Mill never altered. For instance, the ‘Reciprocity' views which he gave to the world in 1870 were thought to be new; but as long ago as 1829 he had written


the following passage in his ' Essays on some Unsettled Questions in Political Economy' (which were published in 1844) :-In regard to those duties on foreign commodities which ... are maintained solely for revenue ... it is his (the author's) opinion that any relaxation of such duties, beyond what may be required by the interest of the revenue itself, should, in general, be made contingent upon the adoption of some corresponding degree of freedom of trade with this country, by the nation from which the commodities were imported.' The

articles from the Edinburgh and Westminster, • Dissertations to be found in his ‘Dissertations and DiscusDiscussions.' sions,' contained his last views on corporation

property, and also on the question of woman's rights. On the other hand, in politics he passed

from Whiggism in youth to extreme Radicalism llis politics. in his later years. His Radicalism was, indeed,

of comparatively recent date. Even his ‘Representative Government,' published in 1861, is Whiggish in tone.”

John Stuart Mill's 'Autobiography'is reviewed on the 25th of October, and the following reference is made to "the wonderful impartiality and accuracy of Mr. Mill's estimate of himself,

His judgment concerning his own writings and estimate of himself. speeches appears to us to be always sound :

a startling contradiction of the well-known and



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