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of the Camden Society and Calendars of State Papers of the time of Charles I.; Alexander Ramsay, for five-and-thirty years the "friend and fellow labourer" of Charles Knight; and the Rev. William Harness, the friend and associate of Byron, Moore, Southey, and Wordsworth, whose society was courted abroad and at home, but who was content to remain the incumbent of a small proprietary chapel in the East-end of London, where he was earnest, liberal, and patient among the poor without regard to creed or politics. His last work was the preface to the letters of his lifelong friend Miss Mitford.

CHAPTER VII.

THE ATHENAEUM, 1870-1872.

1870. NEVER did a year open with a fairer prospect of peace than that of 1870. At home the great question was the education of the people, and on the 17th of February Mr. W. E. Forster introduced his Elementary Education Bill, while abroad there appeared to be no more exciting topic than the meetings of the CEcumenical Council summoned to Rome by the Pope to discuss the dogma of Papal Infallibility. The Times in its leader of Saturday, the 1st of January, stated:— Peaceful "At no time since that memorable date when a virtual prospect. announcement of hostilities was implied in the 'compliments of the season' has the New Year broken upon a world more free from all immediate apprehension of international misunderstandings than it does this day. This may partly be owing to the fact that some of the most arduous questions left open by the treaties of 1815 —such as those of Italy, Hungary, and Germany—have been more or less permanently set at rest; but it is far more certainly due to the circumstance that all the European Powers are too intensely absorbed by the cares \ •

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THE ATHEN-iEUM, 1870—1872. 247

of their home policy to have leisure or inclination to meddle with their neighbours' business."

This was followed on the Monday by the French Emperor's congratulations to the diplomatic body on "the new proofs of the good relations which exist between my Government and foreign Powers. The year 1870, I am sure, cannot but consolidate this general agreement, and lead to the increase of concord and civilization."

The first intimation of danger was on the

6th of July, when news reached London that

great sensation had been caused in Paris by the

announcement that General Prim had induced Germany and

Spain.

the Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen to become a candidate for the vacant throne of Spain. The Times on the 9th says :—

"The French people are in a state of violent excite- jealousy on ment; the demon of national jealousy, which has never the part of been really laid since it was called up in 1866, possesses the minds of the democracy and the army. The Emperor by moving a finger could hurl all the forces of the country upon the Spanish frontier."

Prince Leopold, with the consent of his sovereign, declined the proffered crown, and a telegram to the Times from Paris, dated the 13th, states:—

"The Constitutionnel of to-day, referring to the declarations of the French Ministers, made to the Chambers, says, 'Their words have been listened to, and their just demands have been satisfied. The Prince of Hohenzollern will not reign ,in Spain, and we ask for nothing further. We receive with pride this pacific solution and this great victory, which has been obtained without one drop of blood having been shed.'"

The hope that peace would be preserved was, however, soon to be dispelled, and on the 15 th the following telegram from Berlin, dated July 13th, appears in the Times:

"This afternoon King William was walking with Count Lehndorff, his adjutant, in the Kurgarten at Ems, when M. Benedetti accosted him and preferred his last extravagant demand. The King turned round and ordered Count Lehndorff to tell M. Benedetti that there was no reply, and that he would not receive him again. Berlin is excited by this intelligence, and crowds are in front of the Palace crying ' To the Rhine !'"

War declared The French Legislature assembled on the by France. when it was announced that war had been

declared against Prussia.

On the 23rd of July the Athenceum states: Excitement "The excitement caused by the war has led to Aewar7 an increase of between 50 and 75 per cent. in the sale of the London daily papers. The Times has, we learn, despatched to Prussia two special correspondents, provided with proper credentials; and we shall be surprised if the leading journal remains satisfied with the present exclusion of its correspondents from the French lines. Nearly a dozen 'maps of the seat of war' have already been advertised by English publishers and map-makers."

On July 30th it is mentioned that the German universities are closing, that in Paris the de- Some effects mand for art workmanship has almost ceased, of the war' and that in Turkey the reserves were being called out, and much of the proposed expenditure on education abandoned.

On the 13th of August 'Paris and the War'' Paris and the is the first of a series of letters continued to the end of the year. The one which appeared on October 15th commences "Imprisoned in Paris!" and bears the heading "Par Ballon MonteV' The letters continued to be received at varying intervals.

The Atlienceum on the loth of December commenced a series of articles on ' The Scientific Organization of the Army.'

With the year 1870 many improvements were Enlargement made in the Athenceum, the paper being printed Athenaum. in larger type and in a larger form, the size of the journal at the price of $d. being exactly double what it was in 1829 at the price of 2>d. At the end of 1869 Mr. Dixon retired from the editorship.

The first number of 1870, published on New Year's Day, opened with an essay on the ^oh"nIJ{igncis 'Literature of the People.' This essay is full of Literature statistics specially prepared by John Francis. People.

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