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been even imagined : and it may be justly said that no more remarkable triumph of theoretical prediction had then occurred in the history of science. If we must add to it, as a match, the prediction of Neptune by Leverrier and Adams, each of these brilliant feats does honour to the

other He was beloved for the kindness of

his heart, and respected for the integrity of his character. No more need be said at this time: he was a man of whom full account will be given to the world."

The death of Sir William Hooker was soon to be followed by another heavy loss to science. Dr. John Lindley, " one of the most hardworking Dr. Tohn

and celebrated botanists England has ever produced," died of apoplexy on Wednesday, the 1st of November, at his residence on Acton Green. He had worked too hard, and overstrained his brain. Dr. Lindley was born at Catton, Norfolk, in 1799, and at an early age turned his attention to the study of the vegetable kingdom. The Athenaum of November 4th says: "When he first entered scientific life, botany was just emancipating itself from the deadening influence of the artificial system, in this country upheld by a narrow-minded party. Whoever ventured to write or say anything against these sages was at once a marked man. The treatment which Dr. J. E. Gray

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received for daring to publish the first British Flora, arranged according to the Natural system, is no isolated case. Dr. Lindley's history, and that of several other men of genius, furnish

additional examples The opposition he met

with put him on his mettle, made him one of the most powerful and ready writers of the day, and secured to him a niche of fame which his early opponents never attained." He was assistant The Royal secretary to the Royal Horticultural Society Society. from 1822 to 1858, when he was appointed secretary, which post he retained until 1862, and was Professor of Botany at University College, London, from 1829 to 1861. He had long felt the want of a good weekly gardening paper, such as Fred. Otto had established in The Berlin, and the Gardeners' Chronicle was estab

GChf^u. lished in l84x- Dn Lindley became the editor, and held that office until a short time The before his death. "The Botanical Register

Botanical ......

Register. offered another opportunity of advancing his favourite science, by figuring and describing the most remarkable new plants that came to this country. Many of our garden pets, the names of which have now become household words, such as Verbenas and Calceolarias, were first made known in the pages of that periodical. Dr. Lindley's particular favourites, however, were none of the plants just mentioned, but those most singular of all forms of vegetation the Orchids; and it may Orchids. be said that he brought them into fashion. For many years he laboured incessantly to describe their numerous representatives, and interpret their singular structure. It took him ten years to work out 'The Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants,' and another ten years to complete various memoirs on these plants, which he published under the name of 'Folia Orchidacea.' The writings of Dr. Lindley form quite a library by themselves. There are amongst them both elementary books and works intended merely for leading men of science. His 'Fossil Flora of Great Britain' has endeared him to geologists, and his various works on gardening to horticulturists. Perhaps the most widely known of all his works is 'The Vegetable Kingdom,' 'The which appeared in 1846." Kngdomf'

Sir Robert Peel consulted Dr. Lindley previous to including in his celebrated Budget of 1845 the repeal of the duty upon glass. Sir Robert Repeal of the

the arguments used by Dr. Lindley in favour of glass were so conclusive that glass got the benefit and paper had to wait.

Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell died very suddenly Mrs. Gaskell. at Alton, near Manchester, on Sunday, the 12th of November. The Athenceum on the 18 th states

hesitated whether

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'that her maiden name was Stevenson, that she was brought up under singularly solitary circumstances in a small Cheshire town reproduced in her 'Cranford' (the most perfect of her works), and that she married an accomplished and lettered minister of the Unitarian persuasion." In her first book, 'Mary Barton,' "the Lancashire dialect, which had been till then a sort of uncouth curiosity, made known to a few philologists in 'Tim Bobbin,' was almost raised to the level of the 'broad Doric' used by Scott in his northern novels. That story at once made

a place for her. It was followed by ' Ruth'

by sundry minor stories (among which 'Morton Hall' is expressly to be commemorated as powerful, pathetic and individual),—by 'Cranford,' which may be set by the side of Miss Austen's minute pictures, — by 'North and South,'" and by the 'Life of Charlotte Bronte,' 'Sylvia's Lovers,' and 'Cousin Phillis.' Obituary of The obituary of the year also included John the year, fjgssel^ wh0 died on the 2nd of April, at the age of forty-eight; Richard Cobden; Samuel Lucas, managing proprietor of the Morning Star; Prof. Aytoun; Mr. Haliburton ("Sam Slick"); Admiral W. H. Smyth; Mrs. Moore, the widow of the poet; Dr. Richardson, the laborious compiler of the dictionary which bears his name; and Lord Palmerston.

CHAPTER VI.

THE ATHENAEUM, 1866—1869.

The year 1866 opens with plans for the benefit 1866. of the working classes. On the 6th of January it was announced that the Corporation of the City of London had voted the use of the Guildhall for the purposes of an Industrial Exhibi- Industrial tion. This the Lord Mayor inaugurated on the the Guildhall. 6th of March, and it was proposed to devote the surplus funds towards the establishment of a Free Public Library for the City. It was also stated that land had been secured for the purpose of a park for the people to be called Southwark Park, Bermondsey. The purchase Southwark money amounted to about 911/. per acre. Park' The extension of the Metropolitan Railway system was still going on: "London is again in a state of siege, engineers surround her on every side, and in a dozen places threaten to make a breach." The Athenceum on the 17th of March sounds a note of alarm in reference to the large investments being made by the general public in limited liability companies.

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