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his future life, he was content to take what he could get on his own terms as to study. Throughout his life he applied himself to the lunar theory and subjects connected with it. Out of the higher departments of astronomy he was known by the excellent work on ProHis work on bability which he contributed to the 'Library Probability. o^ uxfu\ Knowledge,' in conjunction with his friend Drinkwater (afterwards DrinkwaterBethune). This work was anonymous: a binder chose to letter it as 'De Morgan on Probability,' and Mr. De Morgan, in a letter to the Times, reports that he could not in fifteen years, though using every opportunity, succeed

in restoring the book to its true authors

He has left behind him a son who is well known to the scientific world, and will add new honour to the name." Isaac Taylor. On the 8th of July the death of Isaac Taylor, "writer and inventor," is noted. He was in his seventy-eighth year. He began his literary career with 'Elements of Thought,' followed by a ' History of Another Life'.' "Mr. Taylor's mind presented a rare union of artistic, mechanical, and literary genius. The originality and power exhibited in some of his early designs, engraved for Boydell's Bible, have been noticed in Gilchrist's 'Life of Blake.' One of the most complicated and beautiful pieces of mechanism now at work in Manchester is Mr. Taylor's machine for engraving patterns on rollers for calico-printing. The plates which illustrate Trail's Josephus were engraved by this process."

Dr. Samuel P. Woodward's death on the nth of July is recorded on the 22nd. He was born on the 17th of September, 1821, and was the son of S. W. Woodward, of Norwich, author of several geological works. In 1838 he was employed in the library of the British Museum, and in 1839 became curator of the Geological Society of London. In 1845 he was appointed Professor of Botany and Geology in the Royal Agricultural College, and in 1848 first-class assistant in the Department of Geology and Mineralogy in the British Museum. He published only one separate work, 'A Manual of Recent and Fossil Shells,' u acknowledged to be one of the best text-books in that department of science." The small geological map of England published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge was prepared by him, and " Prof. Owen derived considerable assistance from him when he prepared the invertebrate part of his 'Palaeontology,'

which that author gratefully acknowledged

His true love for science never shone more brightly than in his dealings with younger men. He was ever ready to hold out a helping hand to those who were struggling from darkness into light."

Sir William Sir William Hooker, Director of the Royal Hooker. „ , , . .

Gardens at Kew, died on the 12th of August.

The Athenceum of the 26th states that he was born in 1785, "his father, who was in business at Norwich, being a man who devoted all his leisure to reading, especially travels and German literature, and to the cultivation of curious plants; by which, doubtless, was laid the foundation of that love of Natural History for which his son was so distinguished." At an early age he formed the design of devoting his life to travelling and natural history. "Ornithology and entomology first attracted his attention; but, being happily the discoverer of a rare moss, which he took to Sir J. E. Smith, he received from that eminent botanist the bias which determined his future career."

Regius in £820 he was appointed to the Regius Professor of rr &

Botany at Professorship of Botany in Glasgow, where he

Glasgow. remained for twenty years. In 1836 he received the honour of knighthood from William IV.;* and in 1841 a new era of his life began with his

* The king once asked him abruptly, "Sir William, which is the greater botanist, you or Dr. Lindley?" "Dr. Lindley, your Majesty." "That is said like a gentleman, at any rate," retorted the king ; "and we'll leave the question for the botanists to settle-"

appointment to Kew. "The history of his career as Director of the Royal Gardens is so well and Appointed so widely known that it need not detain us long. Gardens. From a garden of eleven acres, without herbarium, library, or museum, and characterized by the stinginess of its administration, under his sole management it has risen to an establishment comprising 270 acres, laid out with wonderful skill and judgment;—including an arboretum of all such trees and shrubs as will stand the open air in this country, magnificent ranges of hot-houses and conservatories, such as no three establishments on the Continent put together can rival;—three museums, each an original conception of itself, containing many thousand square feet of glass, and filled with objects of interest in the vegetable kingdom from all parts of the globe, a herbarium unrivalled for extent, arrangement, accuracy of nomenclature, and beauty of keep, and excellent botanical libraries, including small ones for the use of the gardeners

and museums In person Sir William Hooker

was tall and good-looking, with a peculiarly erect and agile gait, which he retained to the end of his life. His address and bearing were singularly genial and urbane," and those who enjoyed his friendship bear testimony that in parting from him the final impression "was not that the time had been spent in the society of a great botanist, but that it had been passed in

charmingly friendly intercourse with a good and

true, a simple-minded and noble-hearted man."

Sir William Sir William Rowan Hamilton, Astronomer Rowan

Hamilton. Royal for Ireland, died on the 2nd of September at the age of sixty. The Athenaum of the 9th states that "he became known as a mathematician of extraordinary genius when he was

about twenty years old There is no need to

tell the mathematical world that it has lost one of its greatest members; we cannot enumerate for the world at large—most of the items are knowledge too high for them. His papers on systems of rays, on the methods of dynamics, on algebra looked at as the science of pure time, on discontinuous functions, on equations of the fifth degree, and his new algebra, the Quaternions, cannot be popularized. But there is one little result of which an idea can be given, one of the earliest of Hamilton's discoveries, and one which alone would carry down his name to posterity. Hamilton found, from optical theory alone, by reasoning on the properties of light, that under certain circumstances a ray, instead of being refracted as a ray, should, if the theory were Discovers true, split into a cone of rays. This conical refraction, refraction, on being looked for under the proper circumstances by Prof. Lloyd, was actually found to exist. No such phenomenon had ever

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