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ment with numerous important practical applications. It has, however, attained the latter position by the assistance of another art. As long as the subjects to be looked at through the stereoscope had to be painted or drawn by the hand, so long it remained only an interesting toy. But, when photography was found capable of multiplying its doubled pictures to any extent, and carrying its range of application to almost every department of Nature, it became an important means of obtaining information with regard to the appearances of objects that had not hitherto been known. The theory of the use of this instrument has occupied the attention of the most eminent natural philosophers; and Sir David Brewster has, in this little volume, brought all his great knowledge of the science of optics to explain its structure and laws. He has, also, added chapters on its uses in painting, architecture, sculpture, engineering, and natural history. To those who would perfect themselves in the use of the stereoscope, Sir David Brewster's treatise will be found essential."

The second and concluding volume of the T})e Peel 'Memoirs of Sir Robert Peel' calls forth these 'Memoirs.' remarks: "The Trustees of the Peel Papers have now published three Memoirs: — on Catholic Emancipation, — on the Government

of 1834-5,—on the Repeal of the Corn Laws. They propose to print a selection from the statesman's correspondence. The paper on the Government of 1834-5 has been printed without suppressions of any kind except in the case of

one name, which is represented by a not

very difficult to decipher. The is obviously

Lord Brougham, who, the King said, 'had threatened that he would not put the great seal to a Commission to prorogue the Parliament.' In the Corn Law Memoir the omissions are more frequent and perplexing. It is amusing to notice that Peel does not seem to have considered Mr. Disraeli worth even a passing observation, for he never once names him!"

On the 3rd of January the progress made by

Salford the Salford Free Library is referred to with :e Library. ,

'pleasure:—

"'The issues of books from the library have largely increased in number, and for the twelve months ending the 31st of October they amount to 142,484 vols., of which 79.934 have been given out in the reading-room, and 62,550 borrowed from the lending library. The issues for the year 1855 were 115,843 volumes, and for the year 1854, 109,827, while the aggregate issues, from 1850 to 1853, amounted only to 108,671 volumes; showing that there has been an augmentation in the issues, during the last year, of 26,641 volumes over those of 1855,—of 32fiS7 over those of 1854,—and of 33,813 over those of the four previous years.'

"These returns are cheering to the best friends of the working men. On the old question of the worthiness or unworthiness of the class of reading most sought for by free readers, the Report contains some valuable observations:—

"' It appears that the total increase in the issues of works on science, history and jurisprudence has been 5,220, or more than five times the increase in the issues of novels, and that the total increase in the four classes has been 6,243, accompanied by a sacrifice of 1,716 issues of books on theology and general subjects.'"*

The death of Dr. Ure, the chemist, is re- Dr. Ure. corded on January 10th. "Andrew Ure was born in Glasgow on the 18th of May, 1778. He studied at the Universities of Glasgow and Kdinburgh. His principal works are, — the 'Dictionary of Chemistry,' a paper 'On the Ultimate Analysis of Vegetable Substances' in the Philosophical Transactions,—the 'System

* The Salford Library and Museum were established in 1849, and according to the Annual Report for 1884-85 the books in the libraries for free use of the inhabitants then amounted to 79,282 volumes; while during the thirty-six years that the libraries have been in existence the issues to readers have been 7,019,248 volumes, and more than 5,000,000 volumes have been taken to the homes of the borrowers. The issues from the libraries in 1885 amounted to 319,701 volumes, and the number of readers counted in the reading-rooms during the year was more than half a million. The Report states that the record is far from perfect; if it were perfect, the number would be greatly increased.

VOL. II. C

of Geology,'-the Philosophy of Manufactures,'

-the ‘Cotton Manufactures of Great Britain'and the 'Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and

Mines.'” John Britton. The death of John Britton, the antiquary, is

mentioned on the same date. “Mr. Britton began life at the lowest levels, and by energy and talent raised himself to an eminent place among contemporary antiquaries. His principal works are:—the ‘Beauties of Wiltshire,'— the 'Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain,'and the Cathedral Antiquities of England.' Mr. Britton has left behind him an unfinished autobiography.”

It is announced on the 4th of April that the National first portrait has been given to the National Portrait Gallery,

Portrait Gallery—the Chandos portrait of Shakspeare-and the first picture purchased—the Downton portrait of Raleigh.

The "Gossip” for April with states that the Removal of offices of the Royal Society were removed on Society. the previous Monday from Somerset House to

Burlington House,

On the same date the death of the Viscountess Johnson's Keith, in her ninety-fifth year, is noticed. "She "Queeny."

was the last remaining link between the present generation and that brilliant literary circle which congregated around Johnson at ‘The Club,' and which thronged the hospitable mansion of Mrs.

the Royal

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THE ATHENÆUM, 1857.

18

of Geology,'-the Philosophy of Manufactures --the Cotton Manufactures of Great Britain,and the 'Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and

Mines.'
John Britton. The death of John Britton, the antiquary, is

mentioned on the same date. “Mr. Briton
began life at the lowest levels, and by energy
and talent raised himself to an eminent place
among contemporary antiquaries. His principal
works are:--the 'Beauties of Wiltshire,'—the
'Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain,-
and the Cathedral Antiquities of England?
Mr. Britton has left behind him an unfinished
autobiography."

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It is announced on the 4th of April that the National first portrait has been given to the National Gallery.

"Portrait Gallery--the Chandos portrait of Shak

speare--and the first picture purchased--the
Downton portrait of Raleigh.

The "Gossip" for April 11th states that the
'moval of offices of the Royal Society were removed on
e Royal

ociety. the previous Monday from Somerset House to

Burlington House.

On the same date the death of the Viscountess inson's Keith, in her ninety-fifth year, is noticed. She ueeny."

was the last remaining link between the present generation and that brilliant literary circle which congregated around Johnson at The Club,' and which thronged the hospitable mansion of Mrs.

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