Abbildungen der Seite


comes under the effects of two sets of influences-the gastric juice and the movements of the muscular walls of that organ. By the latter the food is kept in constant motion, in a kind of double current, so that it is reduced before it leaves the stomach to a condition much nearer that of fluid than it had when it entered it, and every atom is brought into immediate contact with the gastric juice, the nature of which we must now consider. As usually obtained, the gastric juice is a pale yellowish transparent fluid, of a saltish acid taste, without smell. It readily mixes with wine, water, or spirit, has a very strong power of coagulating albumen, and is remarkably antiseptic, retarding for a considerable time the putrefaction of meat to which it is applied. It contains from two to three per cent. of solid matter, one-half of which is a nitrogenous body called pepsine. It also contains some free acids, the nature of which is still undecided, but most probably they are hydrochloric and lactic acids: at least these are the ones most constantly present when the juice is examined. When the stomach is empty, no gastric juice is secreted, and the surfaces are kept moist by a small quantity of ordinary mucus; but directly food is introduced, the peptic glands commence secreting the acid juice, which trickles down over the walls of the stomach and mingles with its contents. The quantity produced during the twentyfour hours has been very variously estimated, but it is generally assumed that it ranges from ten to twenty pints. The nature of the gastric juice, and the conditions under which it was secreted, were very imperfectly understood until a comparatively recent date, when owing to the circumstance of a man receiving a shot-wound through the walls of the stomach, which in healing left a fistulous communication with the exterior, Dr. Beaumont was enabled to withdraw some of the gastric juice as soon as it was secreted, and also to perform a series of experiments, showing what circumstances were favourable to and what hindered and retarded the secretion. The results of these investigations may be shortly stated. It was found that though any mechanical irritation produced a flow of gastric juice, it was not nearly so effectual an excitant as the presence of food. Pepper, salt, and other soluble stimulants, as well as alkalies, increased the secretion, whilst acids had a contrary effect. Cold water or ice, in small quantities, at first checked but eventually increased it, whilst the continued presence of cold very much diminished or quite prevented it. Some interesting information was also obtained as to the relative time various substances took to digest. This was ascertained in this manner :-After the man had taken a meal, a certain time was allowed to elapse, and then the contents of his stomach were examined, and the speed and perfectness of digestion estimated. From the results of these observations, a table was formed, which, amongst others, showed the following facts :-At the head of the list of quickly. digested substances were rice and tripe; these were completely chymified in an hour. Eggs, salmon, trout, apples, and venison took an hour and a half; tapioca, barley, milk, liver, and fish, required two hours. Turkey, lamb, potatoes, pig, two hours and a half; beef and mutton, three hours; and veal required a still longer period. Animal substances, as a general rule, required less time than vegetable.

ORGANS AND PROCESS OF DIGESTION (continued). THE first step in the passage of the food through the alimentary canal is, of course, its reception into the mouth. The grasping of food by the mouth is, undoubtedly, in the adult a voluntary act; but it takes place in many instances quite independently of the will. Thus the lower animals by instinct seize their food with the lips and convey it into the mouth, and the infant, even in some cases where the brain has been absent, led by the same guide, firmly grasps the nipple with its lips when it is placed between them. The food then, having entered the mouth, is first subjected to the process of triturating or grinding by the teeth, which is called mastication. As will be at once evident, the extent to which this process needs to be carried depends entirely on the kind of food on which the animal lives. In the herbivora, feeding on the tough fibres of grass and roots and hard grain, mastication requires to be very perfectly performed; indeed, in the ruminants one ordeal is not sufficient, so the food, after being swallowed, is brought back to undergo further reduction by the teeth. The carnivora go to the other extreme; their animal food being just of that kind which is most easily acted upon by the gastric juice, is simply torn or cut through by their sharply-pointed teeth, and then, after being slightly lubricated by the saliva, is bolted whole. Man, feeding on both animal and vegetable food, needs to steer a middle course. He does not require a second stomach like the ruminant, nor can he with impunity simply bolt his food like the carnivora. To ensure perfect and speedy digestion, a considerable amount of mastication is necessary, and if this, whether from habit or imperfection of the teeth, is not obtained, indigestion and dyspepsia, with all their attendant horrors, are sure, sooner or later, to supervene. By mastication the food is reduced to a pulp, and intimately mixed with the saliva and the mucus of the mouth. By this means it is brought into that condition in which it can be most easily and perfectly acted upon by the various secretions with which it afterwards comes in contact. The saliva is a transparent, viscid, watery fluid, of an alkaline reaction, containing about one per cent. of solid matter, the bulk of which is a peculiar nitrogenous substance called ptyaline -a close analogue in the animal kingdom of the vegetable body diastase. When the parts are at rest, the secretion of saliva is small, but is very largely increased by the introduction of food into the mouth, or even into the stomach, by the mental impressions produced by the sight or smell, or by the description or thought of food; the latter class of causes give rise to the common expression of "making one's mouth water." When such incitements are provided, the quantity secreted during the twenty-four hours has been very variously estimated, some authorities placing it as high as two to three pounds. The duties it performs are of two kinds-the first mechanical, in which it is assisted by the ordinary mucus of the mouth, to moisten the passages of the mouth and throat, and to lubricate the food; the second, and more important, chemical. It effects no change in the albuminous or fatty elements, but confines its action entirely to the starchy constituents of the food; these it changes into dextrine or glucose, and by so doing renders them soluble. As another result of these observations, it may be laid down The bolus of food, mixed with and lubricated by the saliva, is that the quantity of food taken into the stomach should be conveyed by the tongue to the back of the mouth, there to sufficient to fill, but not unduly to distend it. For as the quantity undergo the second stage the act of swallowing. This func- of gastric juice poured out is not in proportion entirely to the tion, when analysed, is found to be rather complex, and may amount of food taken, but varies according to the necessities of be more easily understood if it is considered in three parts. the system, those persons who are in the habit of overloading Is the first, the morsel of food is carried by the tongue to the the stomach do not get the food digested as soon as the more back part of the mouth; this is an entirely voluntary act per- moderate eater; the gastric juice secreted being only sufficient formed by the museles of the tongue and cheeks. The second to digest a certain portion of the mass, the remainder becomes part is when the food passes through the arches of the an obstruction, preventing the walls of the stomach from perpalate into the pharynx; in order to effect this, which is forming their duty of reducing the food to pulp, and thus the most complicated part of the act of swallowing, it is ne- hindering digestion, lays the foundation of permanent derangecessary that the food should avoid the posterior orifices of ment of that function. The time that elapses between meals the nose and the larynx or windpipe. This is provided for should be sufficient to allow the stomach fairly to perform in the following manner :-As soon as the food passes into the its duties, and for the chyme to escape into the intestines; pharynx, the curtain of the soft palate is raised so as to shut off this, of course, varies with the character of the food, but may the posterior nares, the larynx is drawn up, and its cover, the be generally taken to be from four to five hours. Exercise epiglottis, is pressed tightly down over it. The third and last taken either before or after a meal powerfully modifies the part is when the food, leaving the pharynx, enters the so- rapidity of digestion; if moderate and gentle, it is found to be phagus, and is grasped by its muscular walls and pressed down beneficial; but violent or excessive exertion is hurtful, and into the stomach. This is, of course, an involuntary act, and retards the process very considerably. The mind should be quite beyond control. When the food reaches the stomach, it tranquil, neither much excited nor depressed; the latter con



[ocr errors]

dition especially has a very unfavourable influence upon the proper performance of this function.

The effect produced upon the food by the gastric juice is confined almost entirely to the nitrogenous elements; these, whether derived from the animal or vegetable kingdoms, are all reduced to a low form of albumen, which has the power of transuding, or passing through, an animal membrane, and thus being absorbed-a power in which ordinary albumen is deficient. The gastric juice would appear not to have any action on the starchy elements, though the change of these into sugar continues after they have entered the stomach, probably owing to the saliva that is mixed and swallowed with them. Nor are the fatty constituents altered, save in being reduced to a finer state of division by the cell-walls being dissolved and the fatglobules set free.

It has been already stated that the walls of the stomach reduce the food into a semi-fluid state before it leaves that organ; at this stage it is known as the chyme, which is then propelled against the pyloric opening, which relaxing, allows it to escape into the intestine. It will be remembered that it was into the duodenum, the commencement of the small intestine, that the common duct of the liver and pancreas poured their secretions, and it is here therefore that the food, or rather chyme, comes under the influence of these fluids. The pancreatic juice is in composition almost identical with saliva. When pure, it is transparent, colourless, slightly viscid, and contains an active principle called pancreatine. Like saliva, it has the power of converting the starchy principles into glucose, or grape sugar, only that it is a much more powerful agent for that purpose; but, in addition to this, the pancreatic juice acts strongly upon the fatty elements, breaking them up into extremely minute particles, so that when mixed with the other fluids they form a kind of emulsion, and in this form are easily absorbed. These are the main actions of the pancreatic juice; but there seems to be a growing opinion that they are not the only ones, and that it is a much more influential agent in promoting digestion than has been hitherto held.

The next change produced in the chyme is that caused by the presence of bile-the secretion of the liver. The bile is a very complex liquid, as to the composition and uses of which there have been more investigation and discussion than concerning any other secretion of the body, and with less definite results. It is a somewhat viscid fluid of a greenishyellow colour, strongly bitter taste, and a peculiar nauseous smell. Its specific gravity is from 1026 to 1030. When secreted it is neutral, but after decomposition becomes eventually alkaline. It contains about 14 per cent. of solid matter, the bulk of which is composed of compounds of what are known as biliary acids, with a soda base; it also contains a considerable portion of a crystalline fat, cholesterine, which forms the bulk of the concretions called gall-stones. The process of secreting bile, unlike the gastric juice, etc., is continuous, though it is probably somewhat accelerated on taking food. The quantity secreted during the twenty-four hours is variously estimated, some authorities placing it as high as three or four pounds; others consider six to eight ounces the probable amount. The part it performs in the function of digestion is very uncertain, and, from the most recent investigations, is thought to be of much less importance than was formerly believed. It is said that it has some influence in emulsifying fat, and thus rendering it capable of being absorbed; and also that, by its alkalinity, it helps to neutralise the acidity the chyme derives from the gastric juice; and it may, perhaps, have some influence on the starchy elements of foods. It is undoubtedly of much greater importance as an excretion of the body, serving to carry out of the system some of the effete material. Its absolute necessity in this capacity is made manifest by the great derangement of health that is produced even by a temporary obstruction to its secretion. Like the gastric juice, bilo is strongly antiseptic, and thus helps to prevent the decomposition of food during its sojourn in the intestines; it has also been considered, by promoting the secretion of the intestinal glands, to act as a natural purgative. This is pretty well all that can be surely said as to the purpose of the bile, and it must be confessed that our knowledge concerning it is still in a very imperfect and unsatisfactory state. As the food passes down the intestines, mixed with the bile and pancreatic juice-thenceforward taking the name of the

chyle-it comes in contact with the secretions of the numerous smaller glands that thickly stud this part of the alimentary canal. This intestinal mucus, especially that of the small intestines, seems to combine the properties of the gastric and pancreatic fluids, and acts powerfully on the starch, fat, and albuminous substances.

We have now traced the food into the large intestine, and must try back and see how the digested part of it is conveyed into the general system, and it will be needful first to describe the organs specially provided to carry these nutritive elements into the circulation. When describing the mucous membrane of the small intestines, attention was called to the multitude of little projecting points with which it was covered, and it was said that each of these processes, or villi, consisted of a fold of mucous membrane enclosing a loop of blood-vessels, and of another series of vessels called lacteals. These latter are the ones we have now to consider. They derive their name from the milky appearance of the fluid which they contain. In structure they are exceedingly delicate, having walls so transparent that the fluid they convey is readily seen through them. smaller branches run together, and join to form two or three large trunks, which eventually empty themselves into a common reservoir-the thoracic duct. Vessels of a very similar kind, called lymphatics, are scattered almost universally throughout the body, and also empty themselves into the same reservoir. They all in their course, lacteals as well as lymphatics, pass through a number of glandular structures, by which their contents are elaborated and in some measure prepared for their ultimate purpose.


The thoracic duct, which conveys the great mass of the lymph and chyle into the blood, is about the size of a goose quill, and about eighteen or twenty inches in length. It lies deeply in the abdomen at its commencement, starting from the front of the second lumbar vertebra, and passing up along the front of the spine to the root of the neck, empties itself into one of the large veins a little distance from where it joins the heart.

The process of absorption commences in the stomach. Here those elements which are liquid, or are perfectly dissolved, as the saline or saccharine, pass at once through the walls of the blood-vessels of the mucous membrane of the stomach, and thus enter the circulation; and not only these, but the starchy elements, having been changed by the saliva, and the albuminous by the gastric juice, are also partially directly absorbed; but though absorption takes place considerably in the stomach, it is immensely increased when the chyme reaches the small intestine; for here, in addition to the blood-vessels, which, as in the stomach, take up such of the saccharine and albuminous elements as have escaped from that organ, it comes in contact with the lacteals or absorbents proper. These, though they do absorb the albuminous and other elements, appear specially to act upon the fatty constituents. As the food passes on through the alimentary canal, more and more of it becomes absorbed, so that by the time it reaches the lower part of the large intestine, only about one-sixth, made up of insoluble and innutritious matter, together with the waste products of the body, remains to be rejected by the system.

The blood, which receives from the stomach and intestines the products of digestion, does not pass directly into the general circulation, but, as has been already indicated, is conveyed by the portal vein to the liver, there to be acted upon by that gland, and have eliminated from it certain principles which would be noxious to the system, and also probably to have some of its elements so changed that they shall more nearly approximate to the composition of the blood. The chyle also which the lacteals convey undergoes several changes by its passage through a series of gland-structures. If examined soon after its absorption, it is found to contain albumen having no power of spontaneous coagulation; and it also holds in suspension a large quantity of fatty matter in an extremely fine state of division. If it be examined at a later date, after it has passed through some of the glands which have been mentioned, it will be found that the albumen has diminished, and that in its place is another substance called fibrine. The presence of this, when the chyle is exposed to the air, causes it soon to coagulate in a semi-solid mass. The oil-globules will also be found to have diminished, and number of peculiar floating cells, or chyle-corpuscles, have made their appearance. The fluid called lymph, which the lymphatics absorb from all parts of the body, and pour into the thoracic

duct, has many analogies to chyle, only that it is more transparent, owing partly to the absence of the fat-globules. It also has corpuscles floating in it, which, as is the case with the chyle-corpuscles, bear a strong resemblance to the white corpuscles of the blood. By the mixture of these two fluids, a foundation is laid for the manufacture of the blood, the composition of which, and the apparatus necessary for its circulation, we shall consider in our next paper.

[blocks in formation]



[blocks in formation]

Sing. Ich hätte, I might have.

Du seiest.
Er sei.

Plur. Wir seien.

Du hättest.

Er hätte.

Plur. Wir hätten.

Ihr hättet.

Sie hätten.


Ihr seiet.

Sie seien.



Sing. Ich wäre, I might be..

Du wärest.

Er wäre.

Plur. Wir wären.

Jhr wäret.

Sie wären.


Sing. Ich habe gehabt, I may have Sing. Ich hätte gehabt, I might Sing. Ich sei gewesen, I may have Sing. Ich wäre gewesen, I might


Du habeft gehabt.

Er habe gehabt.

Plur. Wir haben gehabt.
Ihr habet gehabt.

Sie haben gehabt.


have had.
Du hättest gehabt.

Er hätte gehabt.

Plur. Wir hatten gehabt.

Ihr hättet gehabt.
Sie hätten gehabt.



Du seiest gewesen.
Er sei gewesen.

Plur. Wir seien gewesen.

Ihr seiet gewesen.
Sie seien gewesen.


have been.
Du wärest gewesen.
Er wäre gewesen.
Plur. Wir wären gewesen.

Ihr wäret gewesen.
Sie wären gewesen.


Sing. Ich werte haben, (if) I shall Sing. Ich werde gehabt haben, fif) I Sing. Ich werte sein, (if) I shall Sing. Ich werte gewesen sein, (if) 1

[blocks in formation]

Sing. Ich würte haben, I should Sing. Ich würde gehabt haben, I Sing. Ich würte sein, I should be. Sing. Ich würte gewesen sein, I

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Sing. Ich werte, I become.

Du wirst.

Er wird.

Plur. Wir werden.

Jhr wertet.

Sie werden.



Sing. Ich wurte, I became.

Du wurtest.

Er wurde.

Plur. Wir wurden.

Ihr würdet.

Sie wurden.


Sing. Ich bin gewerten, I have be- Sing. Ich war geworten, I had be


Du bist geworden.

Er ist geworten.

Plur. Wir sind geworten.
Ihr seid geworten.

Sie sind gewerten.



Du warst geworten.
Er war geworden.

Plur. Wir waren geworden.

Ihr waret geworden.
Sie waren geworten.


[blocks in formation]


Wertent, becoming.



Geworden, become.

EXERCISE 162 (Vol. III., page 227).

1. It is a pity that you did not come an hour earlier. 2. Do it as you please; anything suits me. 3. Everything that the assembly has decided upon pleases me. 4. He was obliged to submit silently to this offence. 5. He was obliged to put up with many things that he would not have submitted to under other circumstances. 6. She was obliged to submit to have been calumniated. 7. On the right hand we had the chain of mountains, and on the left the river. 8. Right and left hostile troops were drawn up. 9. You must not turn from this road, neither to the right hand nor to the left. 10. Who is the cause of this accident? 11. Our neighbour is the cause. 12. It is the scholar's fault that he is punished. 13. We ourselves have been in fault. 14. To-morrow week a steamboat arrives from New York. 15. To-morrow fortnight it will be a year since I saw him. 16. Yesterday week his father died. 17. The young girl accompanied her song with a guitar. 18. The friend accompanied the Italian's violin music with the pianoforte. 19. The accompaniment of these songs is by Mozart. 20. Many things would appear to us natural, if we would subject them to a proper examination. 21. We thought it very natural that he did not come yesterday. 22. A natural occurrence causes no surprise. 23. Have you heard the fire-bells this morning? 24. Of course, for I was at the fire myself, 25. It is natural for us to be doomed to die. 26. I accompany my young friends home. EXERCISE 163 (Vol. III., page 228).

1. Es ist Schade, daß Ihr Freund nicht eine halbe Stunde früher ange kommen ist. 2. Ich muß mir gefallen lassen, was mein Vater auch beschließt. 3. Johann's neues Buch gefällt mir sehr. 4. Man muß sich Vieles in Sing. Ich würte, I might become. diesem Leben gefallen lassen. 5. Ich würde es mir nicht gefallen lassen, Du würdest.


Er würte.

Plur. Wir würten.

Ihr würret.

Sie würten.


Sing. Ich sei geworten, I may Sing. Ich wäre geworden, I might

have become. Du seiest geworden. Er sei geworden.

Plur. Wir feien geworten.

Ihr seiet geworten.

Sie seien geworten.


have become. Du wärest geworden. Er wäre geworden.

Plur. Wir wären geworden.

Ihr wäret geworden.

Sie wären geworden.



wenn ich an Ihrer Stelle wäre. 6. Zur Rechten hatten wir den Fluß, und zur Linken das Waltgebirge. 7. Rechts und links sahen wir nichts als feindliche Truppen. 8. Heute über acht Tage gehen wir nach Berlin. Morgen über vierzehn Tage wird mein Bruder hier ankommen. 10. Ein Schiff segelte gestern vor acht Tagen nach Australien. 11. Vor trei Tagen hatten wir unerwartet ein großes Vergnügen. 12. Es ist Schade, daß die Talente dieses jungen Künstlers nicht besser ausgebildet find. 13. Ihre Schwester begleitete mich auf der Harfe, und sang zur Klavierbegleitung meines Freundes. 14. Es ist ganz natürlich, daß jeder Mensch sterben muß. 15. Die Begleitung dieses Stückes ist von Händel.

EXERCISE 164 (Vol. III., page 228).

1. To many people it seems to afford a pleasure to offend others. 2. I perceived that he felt himself offended. 3. He offended not only me, but also my uncle. 4. This affair has already caused me great trouble. 5. The profligate son causes the father great trouble. 6.

Sing. Ich werde werten, (if) I shall Sing. Ich werde geworten sein, (if) I It grieves the teacher to have stubborn scholars. 7. This speech

[blocks in formation]

vexed many persons present. 8. The angry boy left his work. 9. The
friend was vexed because I did not answer his letters.
10. I owe my
deliverance to him. 11. Consequently I owe him everything, next to
God. 12. If it does not alter soon, I shall run away. 13. On such
occurrences one might run away. 14. The boy's little dog has run
away. 15. It becomes the judge to inquire into the cause of this dis-
turbance. 16. It behoves me to be silent about this matter. 17. The
inquisitive man is wont to look about for every trifle. 18. In order to
look about a little, I went to the town. 19. My friend intends to look
out for another lodging. 20. I praise the olden times. 21. I praise

Sing. Ich würde werten, I should Sing. Ich würte geworten sein, I the beautiful rooms and the friendly hospitality. 22. The horses took


Du würdest werden.

Er würte werden.

Plur. Wir würden werken.
Jhr würdet werden.
Sie würden werden.

should have become. Du würdest geworden sein.

Er würte geworden sein.

Plur. Wir würten geworten sein.

Ihr würdet geworden sein.
Sie würden geworden seix.

*Or wart, Sect. XXXIV. (2).

fright and ran away with us.

EXERCISE 165 (Vol. III., page 228).

1. Gs geziemt einem Kinde nicht, seinen Eltern zu widersprechen. 2. Ich ging in die Stadt, um mich umzusehen. 3. Ich bewundere diese schönen Zimmer und deren freundliche Lage. 4. Der Dieb ging mit dem Gele turch, ehe es möglich war, ihn einzuholen. 5. Aus Furcht, daß man ihn auf der That ergreifen möchte, lief er davon. 6. Es ist eine vertrießliche Sache, daß er mein Geld verloren hat. 7. Sch merke, daß dieses kleine

Geschenk Ihnen gefällt. 8. Ich merke es ihm an, daß er nicht die Wahrheit gesagt hat. 9. Sehen Sie sich nach Ihrem Vater um? 10. Nein, ich sehe mich nach meinen Freunden um. 11. 3h lobe mir diese fleißigen Schüler. 12. Falle mir nicht, Kintchen. 13. Mein Bruder schießt einen Vogel auf achtzig Schritt vom Baum.

EXERCISE 166 (Vol. III., page 277).



HITHERTO we have treated only of the pure Categorical Syllo gism, which consists of three categorical propositions, called by some logicians propositions de inesse, from their asserting that the predicate is (or is not) contained in the subject. We have seen, however, that there are also Hypothetical Propositions, composed of several (i.e., two or more) categoricals united to one another by a conjunction, called a copula, and named Conditional, Disjunctive, Causal, etc, according to the names given by grammarians to the respective conjunctions which unite them.

1. The accident has happened, and it cannot be altered. 2. When did he meet with this accident? 3. It happened an hour ago. 4. What can be done shall be done, to procure a better situation for these people. 5. It has frequently been the case that confidence has been abused. 6. In former times more wonders and signs took place than in the present time. 7. It served him right to have once received a chastisement. 8. Without the knowledge and will of God nothing comes to pass. 9. The idler does not know what to do. 10. The diligent boy did not know what else to do. 11. The gaoler asked what he Now a Hypothetical Syllogism is one in which one, two, or must do to be saved. 12. How do you like the vegetables? 13. I all three of the propositions are hypotheticals: e.g., (1) "If this like them very much. 14. Do you not like this cake? 15. Oh, yes; man is wise, he is happy; he is wise; therefore, he is happy." I like it very much. 16. Do you like the dinner? 17. No, doctor; everything tastes bitter. 18. It is I who speak and have spoken this.(2) "He who is wise, is happy; if he is a philosopher, he is he is wise, he is happy; if he is a philosopher, he is wise: wise; therefore, if he is a philosopher, he is happy." (3) If Of these such therefore, if he is a philosopher, he is happy.' syllogisms as in the first example are far more common than those resembling the other two.

21. Yes,

19. It is he who ventured to speak these words. 20. It is you, is it not, who have said that they should liberate the prisoners? and it is you who have opposed me. 22. These words have deeply mortified our young friend. 23. She seems to have been mortified. 24. One should not feel oneself hurt about trifles. 25. One should not long harbour the thought of having been offended. 26. Have you already tasted this fruit? 27. Yes, I have just now tasted it.

EXERCISE 167 (Vol. III., page 277). 1. Wann ist Ihrem Freunde das Unglück begegnet? 2. Es geschah gestern; er weiß nicht, wie er dasselbe überwinden soll. 3. Wir wollen Alles versuchen, seine Stellung zu verbessern. 4. Wenn die Umstände dieser Leute zu ändern wären, so würde Alles mit denselben gut gehen. 5. Es ist schon oft ver Fall gewesen, daß seine Güte mißbraucht worden ist. 6. Die Strafe, welche diese faulen Knaben empfingen, geschah ihnen recht. 7. Geschehe was da will, ich werde auf Gott vertrauen. 8. Was geschehen ist, ist nicht zu ändern, und was gesagt worden ist, kann nicht ungefagt gemacht werten. 9. Schmeckt Ihnen Ihr Essen? 10. Nein, Herr Doctor, mir schmeckt nichts; Alles schmeckt mir bitter. 11. Es war mein Freund, der diese Worte sprach, man möchte diesen armen Auswanderern beistehen. 12. Was hat Ihnen Ihr neuer Wagen gekostet? 13. Er hat mir fünfzig Guineen gekostet. 14. Haben Sie schon diesen Kuchen versucht? 15. Ja, aber er schmeckt mir nicht; haben Sie andern?

EXERCISE 168 (Vol. III., page 277).

1. He gave him a blow in the face. 2. My sister playfully gave me a blow with the palm of her hand. 3. It does not become boys to strike one another. 4. Father is gone on a pedestrian tour, and will not return before evening. 5. My brother was in the field this morning in order to look at the corn, and this afternoon he is going into town to see his sick cousin. 6. How did you come by this gold piece? 7. I found it as I was going to the field. 8. It is not known how this man came by his riches. 9. Rich people live in town in winter, and in the country in summer. 10. When rich and proud citizens come into the country, they are fond of ridiculing the homely and simple manners of its inhabitants. 11. Louis XVI. was captured just on the frontiers of France, through the treachery of a postmaster. 12. The thief was taken by the night-watch, as he was going to run out of the house. 13. It was not known for a long time who the strangers were, until it was discovered that they were political refugees. 14. At last, what had been covered by the veil of secrecy for many years has come to light. 15. Before he got in the carriage with me, he made it a condition that I should drive slowly. 16. When he was asked why he had committed this degrading deed, he replied that distress had driven him to it. 17. Hereupon I answered him, that want was no reason for theft, and distress was no reason for crime. 18. Fortune transferred him from affluence to the greatest poverty, as it often transferred me from one position to the other, from one country to the other, and from one part of the globe to the other; but the severest blow it gave me was, that it allowed my brother to die on the day of my arrival in America.

EXERCISE 169 (Vol. III., page 278).

1. Mein Bruder geht Morgen früh mit seinem Freunde über Land, und wird am Abend zurückkommen. 2. Wie kamen Sie zu diesem Buche? 3. Ich fand es, als ich über Land ging. 4. Der Vater versezte dem Knaben einen Schlag mit der Hand. 5. Auf die Fragen, welche der Richter an ten Verbrecher that, werfeßte er, daß er das Verbrechen nicht vorsäßlich begangen habe. 6. Ich bin seit langer Zeit nicht in Deutschland gewesen. 7. Ich bin nicht lange in Deutschland gewesen. 8. Es ist lange her, daß ich meine Eltern und Brüter gesehen habe. 9. Lange nachdem sich sein Bleistift gefunden hatte, wußte er nicht, wer es genommen hatte. 10. Laß uns über Held gehen, da wir heute schönes Wetter haben. 11. Wie lange ist es her, bas Sie etwas von Ihren Freunden gehört haben? 12. Ich weiß es nicht, aber ich glaube, es ist länger als ein Monat, seittem ich etwas von ihnen gehört habe.

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Hypothetical syllogisms are divided into Conditionals and Disjunctives, the other kinds of hypothetical propositions not giving rise to particular classes of syllogisms bearing their names. A conditional proposition is said to have in it an illative force i.e., one of the two categorical propositions of which it is composed results or follows from the other. The name of antecedent is given to that from which the other results; and that which results from it is called the consequent; the connection subsisting between the two being termed the consequence. It should be remarked that it is entirely upon this consequence that the truth or falsehood of the conditional depends, and not at all upon the truth or falsehood of either the antecedent or consequent, or both of them. Either or both of these may be false or absurd, and yet the conditional be true, i.e., the consequent may follow from the antecedent notwithstanding. For example, in this proposition, "If the atheists are right, there is no God," both the antecedent and consequent are false, and yet the conditional proposition composed of the two together is true, i.e., the truth of the consequent follows from the truth of the antecedent.

The meaning of every conditional proposition, then, is-that the antecedent being granted the consequent is granted also. This may obviously be considered from a twofold point of view:-1. If the antecedent is granted, the consequent must be granted. 2. If the antecedent were granted, the consequent would have to be granted. Hence are derived these two rules:-Firstly, the antecedent being granted, the consequent may be inferred (which does not require explanation). Secondly, the consequent being denied, the antecedent may be denied: because, if the antecedent could not be denied, i.e., if it were true, the consequent (which is granted to be false) would be true also. These rules may be made clearer by an example. "If a state is well governed, the rights of the weaker are secured." Here, if we grant the truth of the antecedent, the truth of the consequent may, by the first rule, be inferred, and we may reason thus: But this state is well governed, therefore the rights of the weaker are secured." These three propoEvery sitions taken together give us a Conditional Syllogism. conditional syllogism of this kind, in which, by the application of the first rule, we, as it were, build up an argument, is called constructive, and is reducible to the form-" If A is B, C is D; but A is B, therefore C is D."

If, however, we apply to the same example the second of the above rules, we get what is called a Destructive Conditional Syllogism. Thus, "If a state is well governed, the rights of the weaker are secured; but the rights of the weaker are not secured in this state; therefore it is not well governed." A is B, C is D; but C is not D; therefore A is not B."


It must be carefully borne in mind that we cannot in either case reverse the process. We cannot infer anything at all, if we deny the antecedent, or affirm (i.e., grant the truth of) the consequent. It is readily conceivable (to recur to the above example) that a state might be very badly governed in cther respects where the rights of the weaker were secure, and consequently it does not necessarily follow from the fact that the rights of the weaker in a state are secure that it is well

« ZurückWeiter »