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ordered his men to fire over the Indians' canoe, till he could get round in the boat, but not to kill any one.

The natives made such a noise that the order was not heard distinctly, and a shot was fired at the thief, who was killed.

The poor frightened Indians fled with precipitation; but Captain Cook followed them in his boat, and prevailed with some of them to come beside him, and gave them presents, and allayed their fears.

After this the natives frequently stole from the ship. The Captain, like a wise man, took every possible care to guard against them; overlooked trivial thefts, and sought to restrain them from larger by every humane means adapted to their comprehension; and when he found that their childish covetousness could not be gratified but at too serious an expense, he left the place.

Captain Cook was unfortunately killed in a sudden and unpremeditated quarrel with the natives of the island of Owhyhee, in the Pacific Ocean.

COSTIGAN EXPLORING THE DEAD SEA.

SINCE the commencement of the present century the love of enterprise has by no means lain dormant. A visit to the Holy Land, in the year 1847, by Miss Martineau, has introduced us to an unfortunate adventurer in that region, who has scarcely been heard of before in this country.

"Costigan was a young Irishman, whose mind was possessed with the idea of exploring the Dead Sea, and giving the world the benefit of his discoveries. It would have been a useful service; and he had zeal and devotedness enough for it. But he wanted either knowledge or prudence; and he lost his life in the adventure, without having left us any additional information whatever. He had had a small boat carried overland by camels; and in this he set forth (in an open boat in the month of July!) with only one attendant, a Maltese servant. They reached the southern end of the lake-not without hardship and difficulty; but the fatal struggle was in getting

back again. The wind did not favour them, and once blew such a squall that they had to lighten the boat, when the servant stupidly threw overboard the only cask of fresh water that they had. They were now compelled to row for their lives, to reach the Jordan before they perished with thirst; but the sun scorched them from a cloudless sky, and the air was like a furnace. When Costigan could row no longer, his servant made some coffee from the water of the lake, and then they lay down in the boat to die. But the man once more roused himself, and by many efforts brought the boat to the head of the lake. They lay helpless for a whole day on the burning shore, unable to do more than throw the salt water over each other from time to time. The next morning, the servant crawled away, in hopes of reaching Ribbah, which he did with extreme difficulty. He sent Costigan's horse down to the shore, with a supply of water. He was alive, and was carried to Jerusalem in the coolness of the night. He was taken care of in the Latin convent there; but he died in two days. Not

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130 ENGLISH VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY.

a note relating to his enterprise was ever found; and during his illness he never spoke on the subject. Any knowledge that he might have gained has perished with him; and no reliable information could be obtained from his servant. Costigan's grave is in the American burying ground; and there I saw the stone which tells his melancholy story. He died in 1835."

TRIUMPHS OF PEACE AND WAR.

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