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tinue so long as this has already been burning, nor did it throw up such a quantity of lava."

From one of the gazettes was taken another account, which was stated to have been drawn up by a gentleman just then arrived from St. Michaels.


In the first part of June last, the inhabitants of the island of St. Michaels were much alarmed and astonished by the appearance of smoke, which apparently issued from the earth, spread over the western part of the island, and continued for the space of two days. This smoke was so strongly impregnated with a sulphureous quality, that the residents of that part of the island were nearly suffocated. At the expiration of the above-mentioned time, an immense eruption was discovered to proceed from the bosom of the ocean, whose depth at that place was fifty fathoms, at about six leagues distance from the principal town or village of St. Michaels, called Posa Delgada, and one mile from the shore. This eruption continued for two days morc, emitting nothing but fire and smoke, which appeared to spread as much as three miles round its vicinity, and then disappearing entirely for the space of only a few hours, when it again commenced its volcanic vomitings one league further to the westward, in the same direction from the shore.

Now was to be seen one of the most awful and magnificent sights that the eye of man ever beheld. Let the reader picture to his glowing imagination a tremendous marine volcano in its most violent operations; casting forth continually immense bodies of sparkling fire, beautifully variegated with colours of the rainbow, intermixed with rising volumes of smoke; at the same time very large rocks are seen ascending to an astonishing perpendicular height, till their force being spent, they return with increasing velocity, to regain, as it were, their former watery station; then let him add the terrific thunderings of the greatest

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naval battle that was ever fought; and he will have a complete description of this awfully sublime' spectacle.


This last eruption lasted about six days. When it subsided, and the smoke disappeared, a small island was discovered in that place, composed of rocks cemented together by the lava, similar to that which comes from burning mountains. This island is supposed to be about one mile in circumference, and nearly round; having a large basin of water in the centre, apparently half a mile in circumference.


During the continuance of this monstrous effort of nature, numerous shocks of earthquakes were felt over the whole island. The only damage done, that we know of, was the overthrow of seven small stone houses on the western part of the island, which were entirely demolished. The occupants were obliged to decamp very suddenly, in order to avoid being buried in the ruins of their habitations. A visit to the new island was contemplated to be made immediately. The result of this visit will, no doubt, prove highly interesting to the philosopher, as well as important to the navigator.

The impatient curiosity of three gentlemen was very near being paid with the loss of their lives. In attempting a visit previous to the termination of the eruption, they were, notwithstanding their greatest efforts, drawn by an overpowering suction of air about half a mile, as they supposed, into the immense body of surrounding smoke. They remained one hour and a half, much frightened by their perilous situation. When, at length, the glorious light of heaven again shone upon them, they were much surprised to find their faces, hands, clothes, and sails, quite blackened, and the deck of their vessel entirely covered more than an inch with a coarse black cinder like those found in a blacksmith's shop. This new island is in latitude thirty-seven degrees, forty-six minutes, longitude twenty-five degrees, fifty-eight minutes."

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And it was stated shortly after, that on the discontinuance of the eruptions, Captain Tillard, commanding a British sloop of war on that station, landed upon the new ground, and took possession of it in the name of his sovereign, calling it, after the name of the vessel he navigated, Sabrina island. He found it very steep. Its elevation between two hundred and three hundred feet. The chief material, a sulphureous dross of iron. Its circumference was estimated to be between two and three miles, and was judged to be but a crater. The depth of the sea in that place, before the island rose, was two hundred and forty feet.

The narratives of Captain Farwell, Captain Thomas, and Mr. Neill, all of whom were spectators of the eructations of flames and smoke, and the elevation of columns of water, may be seen in the 13th volume of the Medical Repository, p. 98, 99.

The History of that Extensive Commotion of the Atmosphere along the Coast of North America, which commenced off Cape Hatteras, on the 23d of December, 1811, and progressed to Massachusetts Bay on the 24th, in the form of a northerly snow storm, causing an unusual number of shipwrecks in Long-Island Sound.

ON several former occasions I have availed myself of my situation to delineate the phenomena of the extensive tempests which afflict occasionally the Atlantic coast. I refer to the account I gave of the tremendous storm from the northeast, in February, 1802, (see Medical Repository, vol. 5. p. 465-472.) and of the violent hurricane from the

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southeast, in September, 1804, (ibid. vol. 8. p. 354-365.) as examples of my attempts in this branch of meteorology. The present tempest was the more impressive at the time, as having almost immediately followed the terrifying earthquakes of the 17th of the same month, which shook the greater part of North America. With an intention to trace the great currents of our atmosphere, and thereby to furnish additional materials for a correct theory of the winds, I now methodize the facts that have come to my knowledge, concerning a dreadful commotion of the air which happened on the 23d and 24th of December, 1811.

At the city of Washington, the weather of Monday the 23d was mild; the sky was clear in the morning. At noon, or a little after, it was overcast, and the wind sprung up at northeast. There was a little rain, which continued until evening, when it ceased. The wind afterward shifted to the northwest, and by ten o'clock at night, blew a furious gale, which continued until morning, and with some abatement, through the whole of the 24th, and the night following.

The day at Leesburgh, up the Potomac, as at Washington, was perfectly clear; but violently windy. The blasts came from the north, and veered occasionally a few points toward the west.

According to correct observations made at Norfolk, the weather, which had been for some days variable, terminated, on Monday the 23d, in a steady rain. On the night of that day, it fell in torrents, until near the break of day, when it was succeeded by a fall of snow and sleet, accompanied by an overwhelming gust of wind from the north and northwest. The air became so intensely cold that the quicksilver fell in the course of the night from fifty to twenty degrees.

Captain Mills, of the brig Eclipse, experienced the gale on the 23d and 24th. He took it in latitude thirty-six degrees north. It came on very suddenly, and blew with such violence, that he could not lay to. He scudded for sixteen hours, under the goosewings of his foresail, and

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was obliged to throw overboard his guns and deck materials. He was on a homeward voyage from Smyrna, and arrived at Baltimore after having beat about, twenty-four days upon the coast.

The ship Marmion, from New-Orleans, came into Chesapeake Bay, on the 23d, before the gale began. But she dragged her anchors, and the crew were obliged to cut away her masts to save her from going ashore.

The schooner Commerce experienced a most severe snow storm in Delaware Bay, on the 23d December; and on the 24th cut both her cables, and went ashore at Nantuxet, covered with ice.

The ship George Dyer, Captain Glavery, arrived at Baltimore from Lisbon, on the 19th of February, having took the gale on the 23d of December, when within twenty leagues of Cape Henry. She was driven off, lost two foreyards, sustained considerable damage in sails and rigging, and lost a man.

I insert the narrative of Captain Jocelin, of the Savannah packet, in his own words. He was bound from New-York to Savannah, and sixteen days after his departure, put into Charleston in distress: Having on the 23d December met with a most tremendous gale, being about thirty miles to the northward of Cape Hatteras, in about twenty-five fathoms water, the wind the most part of the day being from the eastward, with rain, but a moderate breeze, and carrying single reefed topsails, at 8 P. M., wishing to be under snug sail for the night, we proceeded to double reef the topsails, and while in the act of clewing them down to reef, the wind suddenly chopped round to north northeast, in a most tremendous white squall, which at first ran the brig entirely under water forward. We immediately clewed up the topsails, lowered down the trysail, and haled up the mainsail, and fortunately made out to get the foresail and foretopsail handed, but the mainsail and maintopsail split to pieces, nor was it safe, or any way possible, to send the hands aloft; we totally lost our mainsail and maintopsail, and received much

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