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der-in-Chief-I hope you will remember it and give it to your soldiers. This expedition does not spare either sex or age. Kill all of them. After this the officers delivered this command to their several detachments. The detachment of the Caucasus army had not then arrived, but came that evening. Golovatchef called together the officers of the Caucasus and said: 'I hope you will fulfil all these commands strictly in the Circassian style, without a question. You are not to spare either sex

or age. Kill all of


And this is the way (according to the report of an eye-witness, taken down by Mr. Schuyler “from his own lips”) that the order was carried out:

“Nearly every one whom we met was killed. The Cossacks seemed to get quite furious, and rushed on them with their sabres, cutting everybody down, whether a small child or an old man. I saw several such cases. I remember one case in particular, which I could not look at for more than a moment, and rode hastily by. A mother, who had been riding on horseback with three children, was lying dead. The eldest child was dead also. The youngest had a sabre cut through its arm, and while crying was wiping off the blood. The other child, a little older, who was trying to wake

up the dead mother, said to me Tiura'-stop. The Turkomans were much enraged at these things, and cut one Cossack into pieces before our


Anotber independent witness, Captain Burnaby, in his very able and interesting work, 'A Ride to

to Khiva,' says, referring to General Kaufmann's dealings with the Yomuds, “Men, women, and children at the breast were slain with ruthless barbarity; houses with bedridden inmates were given to the fiery element; women—ay, and prattling babes—were burned alive amidst the flames. Hell was let Joose in Turkistan." Mr. Gladstone, in his well-known article in the Contemporary Review on the Russians in Turkistan, endeavours to palliate these atrocities by urging that they constitute an isolated case.

"The Russian troops," he says,

'were kept under the severest discipline by their commanders,

between the

and their conduct in general was most exemplary.” But surely the very fact that the Russian troops only committed cruelties when they were ordered to do so makes the policy which directed such cruelties only the more atrocious. The orders of the Russian commanders were regulated not by humanitarian principles, but by what they supposed to be the interests of Russian policy ; the natives were conciliated or butchered as it was deemed expedient.

The difference between the conduct of the Difference organised troops of Russia in Turkistan and that conduct of

Russia in of the Bashi-bazouks and Circassians in Bulgaria Turkistan is simply that between a deliberate crime com- Turkey in

Bulgaria. mitted in cold blood and the ferocious acts of an undisciplined horde of fanatical savages. We will not ask here which is the anti-human species of humanity ? We know that the Russians, as a nation, do not yield to any in humane and philanthropic feelings, and such acts as that above recorded were whispered about with horror and reprobation at St. Petersburg long before they became known to the rest of Europe. The question is, not whether the Russians

and that of



humane as a nation, but whether their system of government is not such as to render it impossible to trust them as allies in any undertaking for the purpose of preventing inhumanity in others.

Next, it would be a great mistake to view the cruelties committed in Turkistan as solitary instance of Russian

Russian oppression. In Poland, in the Baltic provinces, in Circassiaeverywhere, in fact, where Russia is ruling over

alien races-we find the same system pursued Russian rule with relentless pertinacity. The Poles are not in Poland.

at this moment in revolution, and there is, therefore, no occasion for the perpetration of such horrible deeds as those committed in Turkistan

But the following extracts will show how the Poles were treated at the time of their last insurrection. If we substitute Bulgarians for Poles, and Bashi-bazouks for regular Russian troops, we shall find in the acts of Russia in 1863 a striking prototype of those of Turkey in 1876. The quotations are taken from the Times of 1863, where numerous other details of Russian " atrocities” will be found by those who care to look for them :

last year.

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Times, February 21, 1863.— They put unarmed men, women, and children to the sword. ... They put the peaceful inhabitants of the town to the sword after they had routed the insurgents.

The Russians do not allow the Poles to bury their slain, as the Grand Duke Constantine has declared that they shall be food for ravens.'

April 23.-'A magistrate named Swiderski thus described what he himself witnessed : 6 The Imperial troops attacked the house with a hailstorm of shots ; I, a quiet inhabitant, being in the house at the time. At length the soldiers entered, killed my daughter with two bayonet stabs, wounded with two shots my son-in-law ... and began to plunder.

The Imperial troops, after killing four insurgents, whom we buried, murdering my daughter, and wounding my son-in-law, killed six servants of the household [their names are given). The above were first castrated and then twice stabbed with bayonets."' [Other outrages are mentioned at the same time.]

“ June 24.–After the battle of Lubar, the

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