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result, so far as it would only affect “the antihuman species of humanity," is not to be deprecated; but even granting that philanthropy is not to be extended to Turks, it would surely be not only most unreasonable and impolitic, but inhuman, to expose the Turkish Christians to a fate far worse than the present one, leaving out of the question the contingency of

massacre of our own countrymen in India, arising, like the mutiny of 1857, from a religious motive.

Since the publication of his pamphlet on “The Bulgarian Horrors,” in which the above proposal, as it was understood at the time by the principal London newspapers which commented upon it, was made, Mr. Gladstone has attempted to explain that what he meant was, not that the whole Turkish population should be expelled, but only the Turkish officials, civil and military. But this proposal really involves the other; for if the Turks were left at the mercy of a hostile race which for the first time was allowed to taste the intoxication of power, their position would become so intolerable that they would be obliged


to leave the country. On this point it will be instructive to quote the testimony of a well-informed correspondent in the Times, of Nov. 9, who says : “I can hardly conceive anything more ridiculous than the attempt to inflict representative institutions on the masses of the Christian provinces. To do so will be simply to throw the whole administration of the different States into the hands of unprincipled adventurers who will, in the pursuit of their exclusive and personal interests, alternately, and as it suits their purpose, truckle to the Porte and to the ecclesiastical authorities, and use the unfortunate natives simply as tools and steps by which to rise to wealth and power

It is individual responsibility which requires development in Turkey, not fantastical theories of so-called 'self-government. Once give to this responsibility a practical reality, and the faith or race of the individuals to whom is intrusted the task of government is immaterial. For my own part, I would rather see a Turk as a Governor than a Perote Christian. I think he could be better

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trusted, and that his instincts, as well as his capabilities, are of a higher class.”

So much for the plan of ameliorating the condition of the Christians by improving the Turks off the face of the earth. But there is another aspect of the policy of the philanthropists which

has been urged by Messrs. Freeman, Gladstone, Proposal of and Bright. These gentlemen plead for an an English alliance with English alliance with Russia, on the ground

that she alone of all the Great Powers, actuated solely by humanitarian principles, has espoused the cause of the Turkish Christians. What was her real object in doing this is a point which will be considered later. But it is strange indeed that politicians who profess to be solely guided by principles of humanity should select Russia as their ally in promoting such a policy,-Russia, whose whole history is replete with proofs of her utter disregard for such precepts. There is no intention here of holding up the Russians,

Mr. Gladstone has the Turks, to public reprobation as “anti-human specimens of humanity;” there are few, if any, nations whose history has not been stained by acts which are


shocking to philanthropic sentiment. But it is of essential importance, in considering whether we should invoke the assistance of a foreign Power for a philanthropic object, that we should know whether its past and present

conduct is of a nature to promote or to defeat that object. In the ordinary affairs of life we should scarcely entrust the property of the widow and orphan to any one whose antecedents would not bear the strictest investigation. Now, what are the antecedents of Russia ? The first point to be investigated before we Russian hu

manity can safely call upon Russia to aid us in a humane undertaking is, whether Russia is herself humane power.

On this point the evidence is overwhelming. The story of the massacre of the Yomud Turkomans, as told by Mr. Schuyler, the historian of the Bulgarian massacres, has horrified all Europe, but as its significance in proof of the inhumanity of the Russian Government has been disputed, we will here briefly repeat it.

General Kaufmann, after the taking of Khiva, ordered the tribe of the Yomuds to pay a contribution within a period of fifteen days. This,


says Mr. Schuyler, was mere pretext; the general's object was not to get money, but to exterminate the tribe. By a written order to General Golovatchef, he directed the Russian forces to march and attack the Turkomans without even waiting for the fifteen days to expire. The order was:

“If your Excellency sees that the Yomuds are not occupying themselves with getting together money, but are assembling for the purpose of opposing our troops, or perhaps even of leaving the country, I order you immediately to move upon the settlements of the Yomuds which are placed along the Hazavat canal and its branches, and to give over the settlements of the Yomuds and their families to complete destruction, and their herds and property to confiscation.(The italics are Mr. Schuyler's.)

In consequence of this order General Golovatchef, as reported by Mr. Schuyler, addressed his officers as follows:

666 I have received an order from the Comman

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