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exerts all his powers, and opens all his human improvement; now they are imcapabilities of enjoyment, the other re- potent. Popes, cardinals, and emperors mains idle, and permits all his energies cannot prevent the spread of enlightento sleep undeveloped. Which of these ment. They may try; but they will try men really lives the most during the in vain. Men will inquire; and they twenty-four hours ? Most certainly the cannot inquire without ascertaining active man. Consequently life is not to be they cannot ascertain without giving to measured and estimated by the number the world the fruits of their labours. of meals a man eats, or the number of Consequently hunian progress is inemotions his heart makes, but by the vitable. number of thoughts, feelings, and en- Wonderful as has been discoverism ; joyments, thought, felt, and realized. startling as have been the events, and Some men exist sixty or seventy years, rapid as has been the progress during and then pass into their graves without the last half a century, it is quite likely scarcely having tasted real life. The that the coming half a century will be birth-day, or the first day of a new year, more distinguished than the past. The to a man who values time by turning it present has all the past to stand upon. to the best account, is looked upon with The' accumulated treasures of ages are more concern than by another who at our feet. We possess in our librapasses through life with comparative ries, in our ships, docks, railways, cities, indifference to his nature and his fate. electric telegraphs, in our civil institu

The first day of the second half of a tions and social advantages, the products century, even if it were during the of the thought, ingenuity, and gain of monotonous middle ages, would be hailed our forefathers ; but what is gained is with inordinate feeling and delight. but little compared to what hereafter Well then, may the first day of the will be won. There are more inven. second half of the nineteenth century tions to be made; the lamp of discovery inspire unusual emotions and awake un- has to illuminate many a chamber of usual reflections.

nature that now remains dark. The Eighteen hundred and fifty-one is daring genius of man has to push its ushered into being under the most way over many an untrodden portion of favourable auspices. Well may the the universe ; nature is still a mystery. hopes of humanity at the present mo- The wisest know but little of her hidden ment be buoyant. The principal peo- secrets. But what an immeasurable ples of the world are just now on fair stride has been made during the last vantage ground. They are reaping the fifty years. Never were any other fifty rewards of the labours and struggles of years characterised by so many brilliant scores of centuries. Every age and exploits in the realms of science. Never nation that has existed pours its trea- did the Goddess of Progress put so many sures of thought and experience into the garlands of triumph on her brow in so lap of the present. How admirably short a period of time. Even the most arranged for the happiness of man is the hopeful and enthusiastic, fifty years ago, constitution of the universe ! one of its would have smiled with incredulity if laws is that man shall progress. Truths one half that has taken place had been once given to the world never depart then prophesied to him. “And what will from it. Human progression is as ne- be revealed during the coming fifty years cessary as the motion of the earth even the poet dare not imagine. Humaaround the sun. I cannot forget that nity at the present moment is like a man which I committed to my memory yes-on a stream who cannot stand still. It is terday. I cannot open my eyes in a carried irresistibly onward by the might beautiful world without being instructed of its own impulses, efforts, and aspiraand charmed. I cannot prevent new tions. The stream had its origin in thoughts being given to the world; I God; it flows on, increasing in strength cannot destroy them when once given. and majesty over an improving earth; Neither can any other man, or any com- and it can only lose itself in that unibination of men. Kings and priests versal sea, whose centre is the bosom of were at one time potent in resisting God, from which it sprang.

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The desire to learn as much as we can The first is the conclusion of the
of the details of the personal history of letter which he addressed to Messrs. de
great men is universal, and is by no Tocqueville and de Falloux, ministers of
means always to be stigmatised as vul- France, in August, 1849, in reply to the
gar curiosity. In proportion as men falsehoods of the French Government
who stand prominently forward on the regarding the disgraceful expedition to
platform of the world are great— Rome. It is as follows:
not only by power of intellect, cor- “ You are ministers of France, gen-
rectness of judgment, practical tact, and tlemen ; I am only an exile. You have
force of will

, but also by elevation of power, gold, armies, and multitudes of sentiment, largeness of heart, and beauty men dependent on your nod. I have only of character-so do they gain more and consolation in a few affections, and in more power and authority, as teachers this breath of heaven which speaks to me and as examples, by being more com- from the Alps of my country, and of pletely and more intimately known; and which you, inexorable in persecution, as if we turn to the stories of those who are all those who fear, may yet deprive have most powerfully moved the world, we Yet I would not exchange my fate shall, perhaps, find that their present with yours. I bear with me in exile the hold over us depends even more upon calm inspired by a pure conscience. I such personal and individual traits of can fearlessly raise my eyes to those of character as we are acquainted with, other men without the dread of meeting than upon anything they have done in a any one who can say to me, ' You have public or representative manner. It is deliberately lied. I have combated, and for reasons such as these that we have will combat again—without pause as undertaken to say something to the read- without fear, wherever I may be, the ers of the Public Good of the man wicked oppressors of my country-falseJoseph Mazzini, and to add something hood, in whatever shape she may clothe to, and probably also somewhat to cor- herself, and the powers which, like yours, rect the idea they may have already rely upon maintaining or reinstating formed of the indefatigable conspirator, the reign of privilege upon corruption, the political philosopher, the literary upon blind force, and upon the negation critic, the Triumvir, and the orator. On of the progress of the peoples. But I any other ground we should feel that we have fought with loyal arms; never have had no right to make public that which I sullied myself by calumny, or degraded is in its nature private, and which the myself by using the word assassin against person most nearly concerned in it one unknown to me, and who was, would always leave so. It is a very rare perhaps, better than myself. thing for Mazzini either to write or to “God save you, gentlemen, from speak of himself: he never does so dying in exile, because you have no except for a high public purpose, or in such consciousness with which to console the restricted circle of his most intimate yourselves." friends; and nothing could be more Let us mingle pity with our detestaabsolutely opposed to his whole nature tion for the men whose un principled than that minutely developed self-display conduct has called down upon them words by which some other illustrious men like these: we cannot believe but that, have made confidants of the whole read. case-hardened diplomatists as they are, ing public, becoming avowedly the he- their hearts must have sunk within them roes of their own tale. We remember when they first read this noble condemonly two passages in the whole of Maz-nation, and they must have felt that their zini's writings in which he refers to his vanquished enemy was, in fact, their own personal history, and they are both judge, and, in comparison with theirs, 80 beautiful that our readers will thank was occupying an enviable position. us for quoting them in illustration of The other passage to which we alluded, our meaning.

is an Article "On the Encyclica of Pope

he says,


5 Pius IX. Thoughts addressed to the simple; in one word, so human as he Priests of Italy.” In the course of which so calculated to confirm the faith that

“He who addresses you in the man is indeed the son of God, and created name of his brothers can say to you: in His image. Examine my life; you will not be able to To understand the nature of his writfind therein a single act which contradicts ings, and their teachings, and to apprethe faith I inculcate : examine all that I ciate their value, an outline of his life is have written during the last twenty years ; necessary; and, in so far as it is necesyou will not be able to find therein a single sary,

it is as follows: line breathing irreligion or materialism. He was born at Genoa in the year As the interpreter of many of my bre- 1809. His father, who died in 1848, thren, I declared, from the time that my previous to the breaking out of the revomind opened to the Italian thought, that Iution at Milan, was a physician of some a separation had long existed between eminence and a medical professor in the the religious and the political idea, be- University of Genoa. He was the only tween the Church and humanity; that son, but he had two sisters, one of whom this separation was fatal ; that without is still living with his mother at Genoa. a faith no good thing was possible, His father intended him to follow the neither a society of brethren, nor a true profession of the law, and he studied for and peaceful liberty, nor a country, nor that purpose at the University. He was any efficacious transformation of the not long, however, before he conceived a corrupt element in which we live; that strong aversion to that subject, and every it was necessary, at every cost, to re- hour of study that was at his

own command unite earth to heaven, our earthly life to he devoted to more genial pursuits, and the conception of eternal life, man to thus early acquired an extensive and acGod, his father and teacher. And now curate acquaintance with the philosophy, I add, that the hour is at hand; that the history, and literature, not only of his time is ripe; that materialism is con- own country, but also of France, Gerquered ; that the want of religious life is many, and England. Before he was universally felt; and that, through you one-and-twenty he had published, in alone, through your obstinacy in up- several periodicals, articles professedly holding a falling edifice, in supporting of a literary and critical nature, which the Church, though adverse to the inevi- were so remarkable for vigour, and oritable progress of hnmanity, men are ginality of thought, and eloquence of living in doubt, religion is exiled from language, and which also breathed so their souls, and, in spite of all we can much the spirit of liberty and independdo, times of discord and works of blood ence, that they attracted a very general are being prepared, for which you will notoriety, and one that was full of danger be responsible before God and men.” to their author in a country where loyalty

Happy would it be for other countries and truth were incompatible virtues. besides Italy, and for other religious At that time the old Italian Carbonasystems besides that of Rome, if such zium was in full force; and Mazzini, in thoughts as these could find their way common with almost every young Italian deep into the hearts of their priestly sup- who possessed any patriotic feelings, porters.

joined its ranks. This very remarkable It is, then, in the hope of adding some- conspiracy has been described and judged thing to his influence over our country- by Mazzini, in a paper which he conmen and countrywomen, and thus per- tributed to the “People's Journal.” in haps contributing towards the sound 1847, to which we shall have occasion cause of human emancipation and edu- hereafter to refer ; at present it is only cation, to which his life is devoted, that necessary to state, that he quickly perwe are anxious to say what we know of ceived that it was, and ever must remain, Mazzini, and to endeavour to justify our powerless to regenerate Italy ; inasmuch estimation of him as the greatest and best as its only common bond was hatred of living men. For such we deem him. of the systems of tyranny in actual We have known no other man so pure, power from one end of the Peninsula so powerful, so good, and withal so to the other; and its only practical rule


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was one of blind obedience to whatever the present time increasing in power commands were issued by its invisible and in glory, Mazzini remaining its and unknown leaders. It was powerful, representative, its expounder, and its so long as it was only a conspiracy; it was leader. Its motto was visible in 1848 well-calculated to produce a violent and on the banners of the Lombard volunsuccessful insurrection ; but, from the teers, whose bravery and constancy moment of its success, it must become amidst the most tremendous trials, and powerless. It could not consolidate a under the cruelest neglect and even revolution ; it was utterly unfitted to treachery, has alone rescued the Lombard educate or to organize a people, and for name from the contempt and condemthe simple reason, that it possessed no nation to which the weakness, folly, and common bond of principles ; it had no bad faith of her nobles, nk i found the creed, no faith, no banner, no watchword: provisional government of Milan, and Mazzini therefore speedily ceased to the incapacity and want of determination have any active connexion with it. of Charles Albert and his courtly ge

Before he left College, however, he nerals who led the brave Piedmontese took part in a popular emeute, which wa; army, would otherwise have doomed it. speedily suppressed, and, so far as he The same faith upheld, and the same was concerned, resulted only in an im- banner fioated over the brave Venetians, prisonment of a few days. It is, how during the trials of their long siege, ever, interesting as having been the first which proved that they could steadily open declaration of that war to the foreign support, as well as daringly confront, oppressors of his country, which he has the horrors of war, and which showed to never since ceased to urge, and which Europe that if in general the people of he has, by his teachings, turned into a Venice are now one of the most demeans of moral and spiritual regenera- graded of populations, it is not because tion, as well as of political emancipation they are in themselves incapable of being for his countrymen.

anything better. But even beyond their Perceiving the defects of Carbonarism, exemplifications of what the Italians Mazzini determined to found a new are capable of when treated as free men, National Association,-secret in its na- and called upon to show themselves ture, of course, for its object was free worthy of their own faith, was the dedom in an enslaved country,—the mem- fence of Rome, by a people who had bers of which should be united by a been demoralised by centuries of priestly common devotion to a religious and po- misrule, with their fortifications in a litical creed, which should assert truth, state of dilapidation, yet extending over as well as deny falsehood; which should a space that required a force of 50,000 be destructive only in order to become at least, properly to garrison it, having constructive, and whose laws should derive only 10,000, and those inadequately their sanction, not from the mere will of supplied with the materials of war, yet its own executive, but from the sphere for three months keeping at bay an army of principles, raising those whom they of 30,000 picked French troops, who had controlled into the character of soldiers on their side all the chances of men of of order, at the same time that they were bad faith dealing with men of good faith, conspirators for liberty, looking for

but who after their first repulse never

support and consolation, not in dreams of dared again to meet their victims in close vengeance and material well-being, but fight, but confined themselves to enin their devotion to duty, as children of gineering and artillery operations; difGod working out His will.

ferent portions of the Roman territory He named this new association « La also being at the same time occupied by Giovine Italia ;'* “ Young Italy.” Its three other foreign armies. faith was that of democracy : its motto It is only the events of 1848-9 that « Dio e Popolo," ~ God and the People.” have established beyond dispute the It met the wants of the country, and soundness of judgment displayed by Mazquickly gathered around itself all that zini in his organization of Young Italy ; was best, bravest, and noblest of the but those who knew him, and something Italian people, and it has gone on up to I also of the materials he had to deal


7 with, did not need this brilliant though | ders wiil be much interested in the melancholy vindication; it is, however, following extract from a letter, written an a very striking proof of his extraordinary few weeks ago, by a friend who has genius, that the scheme which then re- been lately visiting Madame Mazzini. sulted in these European events, was “ I went to her the day of my arrival, conceived and realised in its foundation my impatience would not keep cool. He by him thirty years ago, when he was a had so often described to me the place, youth at college.

that, though you know it is a little diffiIt is not alvays that the genius and cult to find, I went straight to it as if I zeal which can win the admiration of a had known it all my life. I need not people are supported by the fortitude tell you what a beautiful old woman she that is required to justify their lasting is, nor how like her son; but, as you confidence. It was not long before did not, I believe, see very much of hier, Mazzini was put to the test. In 1830 he I fancy you can hardly know how supewas arrested on suspicion of being con- rior she is intellectually, and how strong, nected with the Carbonari, by the orders and noble, as well as tender in character. of Charles Albert, who as crown prince After I have sat with her, as I somehad himself been the leader of the Car- times do for long hours, listening to her bonari, He was examined by the au- description of her most unhappy life, and thorities at Genoa, who were however all her trials so nobly and quietly borne, unable to prove anything against him; when I see how she has been sustained they therefore applied for orders to Turin, through sorrows that most women must and by the king's command, instead of have sunk under, by her love and adbeing set at liberty, Mazzini was trans- miration for him, her perfect belief in his ferred to the fortress of Savona, where mission, and her strong religious faith in he was confined for six months, without the future, of her country, I feel for her being brought to trial, or having any a veneration equalling what I feel for further accusation brought against him. him, of whom she is indeed the worthy At the end of that time, and still without mother. It is beautiful to watch the even the form of a trial, he was con- changes in her very expressive face, as demned to perpetual banishment, but she talks of his duties and his country, previous to his leaving his country, he and looks, at one with an earnestness was allowed as a favour to have an in- almost amounting to sternness, or terview of three hours with his mother. changes to talk with such tenderness of

From that day he has lived an exile his boyhood, of his playfu.ness, and and a wanderer on the face of the earth ; affection, and attachment to home, and he has never dwelt in the same house to her; of how he was adored by all who with any member of his family; he pos- knew him, and of his gentleness and sessed no country, until the Romans tenderness of disposition; of how she taking advantage of their brief period of never heard a word of unkindness from freedom, made him a Roman citizen, him to any human being. 'He seemed,' honouring themselves in honouring him. she said yesterday, 'so entirely made for That sentence of banishment stamped love and honour, that sometimes, even him as a patriot; and while it con- now, I cannot believe he has gone from demned him to a life of labours and me, and become the hero I know him sufferings, that have left upon him their to be; and I can almost expect to see ineffaceable impressions, yet, we may be him come in, as he used in the morning, sure it tended to raise and confirm his to bring me flowers, or to sing to me of devotedness and his faith, and did some- an evening alone, when all the other thing to mature those powers and that young men of his age were running about character which now, while they com- the town, playing billiards, going to mand our admiring homage, win at the cafés or theatres.' His sister has been same time our reverence and our love. to me to-day, and has been talking in,

At this point of his career, and before the same strain ; she says she first saw we follow him into his exile, and see the his love of justice and equality manifest effect of the proceedings which were in- itself when quite a boy, by the manner tended to render him powerless, our rea- in which he used to endeavour always

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