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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY-SPRINGS.

23 water is considerable, and proceeds from tube or sand, it will rise no higher, bea great depth, the temperature of the cause it is only by the attraction of the spring corresponds with the mean an- parts above that the fluid rises. Therenual temperature of the place of ob- fore, though the waters of the sea may servation. But from this uniformity of be drawn into the substance of the earth temperature many springs exhibit very by attraction, yet it can never be raised great deviations, and some even reach by this means into a cistern or cavity, so the temperature of boiling water. The as to become the source of springs. The hot springs of La Tinchera, situated third hypothesis is that of the great three leagues from Valencia, form a naturalist, Dr. Halley, who supposes the rivulet, which, in seasons of the greatest true sources of springs to be melted drought, is two feet deep, and eighteen snow, rain-water, dew, and vapours confeet wide. Eggs placed in the Trinchera densed. The Doctor found that every springs are boiled in four minutes ; ten square inches of the surface of the while at a distance of forty feet only ocean yield a cubic inch of water in from them there are other springs en- vapour per day; every square mile, tirely cold. Rocks are frequently formed 6,914 tons; and every square degree, or by depositions from the waters of hot 69 English miles, 33 millions of tons. springs. The well-known hot springs of Now, if we suppose the Mediterranean Don Philippo, in Tuscany, have formed to be 40 degrees long, and 4 broad, its a hill of calcareous rifa, in many places surface will be 160 square degrees, from as compact and hard as limestone. The whence there will evaporate 5,280 milancient temples, and the gorgeous palaces | lions of tons per day in the summer and churches of Rome, and indeed the season. The Mediterranean receives whole of the streets and squares of the water from nine great rivers, viz., the once Mistress of the World, are built of Ebro, the Rhine, the Po, the Danube, conchonary masses, which, according to the Dniester, the Dnieper, the Don, Professor Jamieson, have been deposited and the Nile; all the rest being small by hot springs. There are cold springs and in considerable. Suppose now, that also, which throw out great quantities each of these rivers conveys ten times as of calcareous matter, -one in particular much water to the sea as the Thames, may be found at Starlyburn, in Fifeshire. which yields daily 76,032,000 cubic feet,

There are a variety of opinions held in or 203 millions of tons; all the nine reference to the origin of springs; but rivers will produce 18,270 millions of we will give a few which we deem the tons, which is little more than one-third most deserving notice, and which, we of the quantity evaporated each day from think, cannot fail to please any one who the sea. The enormous quantity remainis interested in the matter. Some say ing the Doctor allows to rains which fall that the sea-water is conveyed through again into the seas, and for the uses of subterraneous ducts or canals, to the vegetation. Now, the manner in which places where the springs flow out of the these waters are collected, so as to form earth; but, as it is impossible that the reservoirs for the multitudes of springs water should be thus conveyed to the tops which exist, seem to be this.—The tops of mountains, the law of gravitation pre- of most mountains abound with cavities venting it rising higher than the bulk and subterraneous caverns, formed by of the water itself, some have supposed nature to serve as reservoirs, and their it is caused by subtarranean heats, by pointed summits rising into the clouds, which being rarefied, it ascends in va- attract the vapours of the atmosphere, pours through the cavities of mountains, which are in consequence precipitated from which it again flows in its original in water, and by their gravity easily peneform. Others advance the capillary hy- trate through beds of sand and lighter pothesis, or suppose the water to rise earth, till they are stopped in their from the depths of the sea, through descent by more dense strata, as beds of porous parts of the earth ; but they too clay, stone, &c., where they form a basin seem to lose sight of one principal pro- or cavern, and, working a passage horiperty of this kind of attraction, for, zontally, issue out of the sides of the though the water rises to the top of the mountains.

THE THREE GREAT SHAMS OF EUROPE-THE POPE-RUSSIA

AND THE TIMES NEWSPAPER.

At a noisy discussion-class in the City, a religion, what was before laid to the short time since, a rough orator, well charge of Eve and the original deknown for his extreme news, said that pravity of the heart. This, to say the the world was full of shams, that every best of it, is unmanly; neither is there body was a sham, and to be consistent any necessity for it. In saying this with himself he was forced to confess much we have no desire to shelter that he himself was a sham. Now had popery. What we say now we could he said so because he was a sham, have said before the hurricane swept everybody else was one also in his over the nation, and we shall in all likeway of thinking; he most likely would lihood hold the same opinions, when it have stated the truth. No doubt shall have subsided. It certainly is not he measured other people by himself, to be wondered at that such a religion and consequently: came to the sorry con- as Roman Catholicism should be guilty clusion he did. Though the appellation of enormous crimes in uneducated ages is not a very polished or sublime one, we and nations, if such enlightened reliare afraid it may be used towards a great gionists as our own could ripen into a many persons and things in the world ; paroxysm of rage, because an Italian and it is our intention to treat of two or priest divided our country into ecclethree of the master shams now in Europe. siastical dioceses, and placed over them And at the present moment, first and titular dignitaries. England boasts of foremost stands the Pope of Rome. Now being an exceedingly intelligent and we do not say this with any feeling of practical nation : its people do not take prejudice, as we cannot but think that a step forward and wish to recede; it this personage has been most unjustly took a step forward in emancipating the used of late. Bad as he is, or rather Catholics, and it has ever since been bad as is the system which he represents, the glory and boast of its statesmen and neither he nor it deserves all the blame writers, and well it should be.

But now and opprobrium which has been heaped when the Catholics have taken advan.

We think nothing is got by tage of the rights yielded to them, and trying to prove too much, or by exagge- taken a step to enjoy those rights, a rated statements. We have no dispo- large proportion of the people boil over sition to be apologists for the pope, but with anger, and keep up, as the Spectator let him, say we, be treated fairly; do not calls it, “one steady blast of indig. attribute to him that which belongs to nation.” The agitation against the imhuman nature. Humanity was fallen prudent assumption of the pope, has and sinful before popes came, and we hitherto been objectless and chaotic. are afraid it will be so after popes are But though it has lacked the elements gone. Many errors of Roman Catho- of consistency and practicability, it has licism are traceable to other causes than been surcharged with bigotry and unthe inherent imperfections, follies and charitableness. This is a great pity, as absurdities of its doctrines. Religious it goes to shew that men with purer systems whatever they may be, or faith, and in an advanced position, can wherever they may exist, are sure to be make mistakes; and men who are camodified, shaped, and coloured by the pable of making such mistakes themprevailing opinions, social habits, and selves should have a little compassion political institutions of society. Men for those that have gone before them, who have hitherto been in the habit of and for others who now live in less attributing all the errors, crimes, and privileged conditions than they do. vices of men to the inherent corruption But one of the great mistakes comof their own hearts, have really in their mitted by this wild agitation is the strong hatred of Roman Catholicism, lifting popery to a higher position than forgotten their own opinions and doc- it really deserves, and investing the pope trines, and, put to the account of that with a power and an authority which he

upon him.

one.

THE THREE GREAT SHAMS OF EUROPE.

25 does not possess.

This wrong esti- left behind. It is nothing at the premation of the institution has really in sent moment but a magnificent wreck on creased its influence and fortified its the margin of the stream of Time. It is position. Talk about earthquakes, and grown tottering and imbecile with age ; earthquakes of some sort will come. it has seen the day of its glory and Children sometimes see ghosts and hob- strength, and it is now overtaken with goblins, because they fancy they see years; it is only the shadow of what it them. They picture the unearthly figure once was; and it cannot be substantially in the dark, and start and scream as if strong again, unless humanity gets into it were a reality. They fear the evil, its dotage; but humanity is like nature, and they see it, and run away from it: it never gets old; but the garments and so it is sometimes with men. In the which it wears do get old, and when they present instance, inillions have shaken get old and useless they are thrown into with fear at Roman Catholicism, because the limbo of the past. Roman Cathothe pope has put forth certain preten- licism was the religious garment of the sions; they have spoken and acted as middle ages, and from the commenceif they lived in the middle ages, or as if ment of the sixteenth century it has that which was strong in its manhood gradually been getting more threadbare would be equally strong in its old age. and more rotten. Because the papal power reigned trium

Roman Catholicism is strong nophant in past ages, when ignorance where but in history; it is weak in its prevailed in the world it must also be own native dominions. Look at the triumphant again, when knowledge is present condition of the papal provinces spreading everywhere. This is a mis- in Italy, where the pope reigns supreme. take, and will prove a very injurious No man who watches the signs of the

The pope and the cardinals must times would give ten years purchase for know that their day of domination and the kingship of the pope in Italy; and power is past; they know that their let his temporal power be taken from empire is diminishing daily, and that it him there, and he will lose character and is necessary to assume a power, and strength throughout the world. If the pursue an aggressive policy in England, papal power were strong at home, if or somewhere else, to make a noise in that nation where it has been fostered, the world. If they do not know it, men developed, and strengthened, were in a with their eyes open may see it. Ro- united, consolidated, and prosperous man Catholicism must either alter or state; if its inhabitants were ready to perish. It cannot alter they say, be- die in defence of the holy father, the cause it is founded on the rock of ages. brotherhood of cardinals and priests, and If it altered it would show its fallibility, the entire temporal and ecclesiastical and consequently give the lie to its constitution of the papacy, . if past pretensions and its whole history. great patriotic and religious idea moved If it does not alter it must suffer the the nation, and if that idea was the same fate. All human institutions are subjugation of humanity to the Roperpetually changing ; external organi- man Catholic faith, then fears might zations are modified or thrown off in be entertained; but it is not so; the obedience to the internal force of things. pope does not sway in his

own doWhat is an elaborate system of doctrines, minions; he has but little native power forms, and ceremonies, but the product in Rome itself; he is not sustained by of the ages that called it into being ? and any national feeling; he could not rally the when those ages are departed, and when young, the ardent, the generous of his new thoughts, higher truths, and loftier own people around his throne; but conceptions of duty, faith, worship, with these very people he is suspected, and God take possession of the minds of feared, and hated; and if the suffrages men, then creeds, formularies, prac- of the Romans could be taken to-morrow, tices, and elaborated systems change the pope and his party would be in the also. Roman Catholicism, as it is said, minority. The pope on the other hand being unchangeable, must be left be- fears and suspects the mass of citizens hind in a world of change; and it is whoinhabit the Eternal City, or why did

one

he fly from them in disguise, and depend finds that he has passed from a lower to on foreign bayonets for his re-establish- a higher grade of civilization. On the ment in position. The Roman popu- other side of the Atlantic the same law lace who enthusiastically welcomed a prevails. The Protestants of the United republic, and almost unanimously rallied States have left far behind them the around Mazzini, and the triumvirate, and Roman Catholics of Mexico, Peru, and who only were conquered by the treachery Brazil. The Roman Catholics of Lower and the superior military power of the Canada remain inert, while the whole French, would rejoice again in the stealthy continent round them is in a ferment departurc of the pope and the establish- with Protestant activity and enterprize ment of the republic. Yes, the pope is The French have doubtless shown an weak at home, and so far need not be energy and an intelligence which, even feared by England; and he is also weak when misdirected, have justly entitled in Spain, in Austria, in Ireland, and in them to be called a great people. But Mexico. Listen to the words of Macau- this apparent exception, when examined, lay in his history of England.

will be found to confirm the rule; for “ From the time when the barbarians in no country that is called Roman overran the Western Empire to the re- Catholic has the Roman Catholic Church, vival of letters, the influence of the during several generations, possessed so Church of Rome has been generally fa- little authority as in France.” vourable to science, to civilization, and So we see that Roman Catholicism is to good government. But during the last not only falling, but it is pulling na. three centuries, to stunt the growth of tions after it. But if, in those nations the human mind has been her chief ob- where its faith predominates, prosperity ject. Throughout Christendom, what- abounded, it would as certainly fall, as ever advance has been made in know- the oak-tree which had lived its thousand ledge, in freedom, in wealth, and in the years—its years of pride and strength arts of life, has been made in spite of -must decay. Because tbe oak-tree her, and has everywhere been in inverse lived; because it put forth its verdure in proportion to her power. The loveliest spring-time, and its glory in autumn ; and most fertile provinces of Europe because the birds and beasts took shelter have, under her rule, be n sunk in po- under its branches ; and because it reverty, in political servitude, and in in- sisted the winter-blast for several centutellectual torpor, while Protestant coun: ries, is no reason that it must do so tries, once proverbial for sterility and

through all coming time, or several centuries barbarism, have been turned by skill and

But because it lived in strength industry into gardens, and can boast of a and glory it must also die. It is the long list of heroes and statesmen, phi

same with Roman Catholicism. Because losophers and poets. Whoever, knowing what Italy and Scotland naturally are, ages since it awed nations into submisand what, four hundred years ago, they to its feet; because it kicked about crowns

sion, and brought haughty kings humiliated actually were, shall now compare the

like foot-halls, and held empires by the country round Rome with the country round Edinburgh, will be able to form reins, is no reason that it must do so some judgment as to the tendency of again. If the middle ages possessed the Papal domination. The descent of Spain, spirit and enlightenment of the present, once the first among monarchies, to the the Pope would be as much a thing of hislowest depths of degradation, the ele- tory then as he is at the present moment. vation of Holland, in spite of many na- And shall England fear a power that has tural disadvantages, to a condition such been ?-a power that can no more rule as no commonwealth so small has ever and reign again in Europe than Jupiter reached, teach the same lesson. Who- in Olympus. In saying these strong ever passes in Germany from a Roman things of the decay and approaching deC'atholic to a Protestant principality, in mise of the Popedom, we are influenced Switzerland from a Roman Catholic to aby no bigoted or prejudiced motive. We Protestant canton, in Ireland from a are only recording the teachings of hisa Roman Catholic to a Protestant country, tory, listening to the voice of the present,

more.

THE BOY-HERO OF HAARLEM.

27 and pointing to the tendencies of the ru- what burdens and clouds they have made ture. And, after an impartial survey of their way, and we must remember, that what the Papacy has been and is, and is by every new development, they are likely or certain to be, we unhesitatingly brought more into the life-giving, omnisay, that so far as its real power of put- potent truth and character of Jesus Christ. ting its pretensions into real and busy It makes me smile to hear immortality practice, and re-obtaining the empire it claimed for Catholicism or Protestantism, has lost over the bodies and souls of men or for any past interpretations of Chris. and nations is concerned, that it is a tianity; as if the human soul had exfarce—that Roman Catholicism, in its hausted itself in its infant efforts, or as desire and power of re-acquiring universal if the men of one, or a few generations, dominion over humanity, and conquering could bind the energy of human thought the future, is a great sham.

and affection for ever. A theology at "The great foe of the Romish Church," war with the laws of physical nature says Dr. Channing, “is not the theolo) would be a battle of no doubtful issue. gian. He might be imprisoned, chained, The laws of our spiritual nature give still burned. It is human nature waking up less chance of success to the system to a consciousness of its powers, catching which would thwart or stay them. The a glimpse of the perfection for which it progress of the individual and of society, was made, beginning to respect itself, which has taken the throne of Rome, is thirsting for free action and development, not an accident, not an irregular spaslearning, through a deep consciousness, modic effort, but the natural movement that there is something diviner than of the soul. Catholicism must fall be. forms, or churches, or creeds, recognising fore it. In truth, it is very much fallen in Jesus Christ its own celestial model, already. It exists, and will long exist, aud claiming kindred with all who have as an outward institution. But compare caught any portion of his spiritual life the Catholicism of an intelligent man of and disinterested love ; here, here is the the nineteenth century with what it was in great enemy of Catholicism.

I look con

the tenth. The name, the letter remains fidently to the ineradicable, ever-unfold- -how changed the spirit! The silent ing principles of human nature for the reform spreading in the very bosom of victory over all superstitions. Reason Catholicism is as important as the Reand conscience, the powers by which we formation of the sixteenth century, and discern the true and the right, are im- in truth more effectual." mortal as their author. Oppressed for The other great shams of Europe, ages, they yet live. Like the central fires Russia and the Times, will be considered of the earth, they can heave up moun- in our next Number. tains. It is encouraging to see under

EDITOR.

THE BOY-HERO OF HAARLEM.

At an early period in the history of Hol- | under water rather than above it. When land, a boy was born in Haarlem, a water is wanted the sluicer raises the town remarkable for its variety of fortune sluices, more or less as required, as a in war, but happily still more so for its cook turns the cock of a fountain, and manufactures and inventions in peace. closes them again carefully at night; His father was a sluicer—that is, one otherwise the water would flow into the whose employment it was to open and canals, then overflow them, and inundate shut the sluices, or large oak gates the whole country ; so that even the which, placed at certain regular dis- little children in Holland are fully aware tances, close the entrance of the canals, of the importance of a punctual discharge and secure Holland from the danger to of the sluicer's duties. The boy was which it seems exposed, of finding itself | about eight years old, when one day he

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