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Deen arranged on the score of errors said his father, “ yon chiel was a great and defects :

feelosopher, nae dout, but he could nå “Weel” said the Baillie, “ye may solve one problem that auld Baillie just tak off the discount and I'll settle | Angus has speered thro' lang ago--he wi' ye at once.”

said he could move the world gin he The discount was subtracted and the could find a fulcrum for his lever ; but receipt written. when, instead of hand-, he couldna find it Geordie, he couldna ing over the cash, the Baillie very find it-Hoot lad, he never thought o' cooliy told the exasperated traveller, | the siller-gie a man money, and he'll that he might draw a bill upon him | move the world in the blink o' an ee." at twa months."

To do the Baillie justice, however, But, said the latter, I have allowed though he pursued business with such you discount for cash and not for a bill eager and absorbing interest, and held and you must excuse my taking such a ! every other acquirement cheap com. mode of payment.

pared with the art of making a good bar"Oh! weil” said the imperturbable gain, yet he was neither miserly nor unBaillie, “if ye dinna like to settle the charitable. He could higgle stoutly over account, ye can just let it stand over a halfpenny, when he made his weekly till next journey, or may be ye'll draw purchases at the market, but when the bill at sax months instead of twa, winter came, and work was scarce, many and we'll say nothing about the dis- a poor body found her meal chest recount.”

plenished from the Baillie's bounty, and Finding that remonstrance was of no none could speak a word of kindlier avail, the traveller reluctantly drew the sympathy to the lone mourner in the Tequired bill at two months which the hour of her bereavement and deep sorBaillie signed, and handed back, and row. As his son grew up the same the traveller took his leave; but just qualities were largely developed in his as he was quitting the shop the Baillie character ; with intense and unwearied called him back, and assuming a tone devotion to business he combined a of confidential sympathy, observed, that frank, hearty, and good nature, that "he wadna trouble his gude friend to preserved to him the respect and goodcarry the bit paper to the bank, maybe will even of those who complained most he wadna object to gie him (the Baillie) of his tight dealing. the trifle of commission he wad hae had Such was the man who through many to pay at the bank for cashing it, an gradations, had at length worked himhe'd een gie him the siller himsel.” self to the head of one of the largest

The traveller could not help laugh- outfitting and ready made clothing esing at this shrewd trick for obtaining tablishments in the city of London. the extra discount, and he therefore The extent of business transacted by allowed Baillie Angus to cash his own the firm, and the profitable nature of bill for a trifling consideration as he the trade were mainly owing to the modestly expressed it.

energy and close calculations of Mr. Trained under such influences, it was Angus. “To buy in the cheapest not surprising that George Angus should market and sell in the dearest” had early have learned to regard the acqui- been his ruling maxim, nor had any sition of money as the object of para misgivings ever crossed his mind as to mount interest and importance. His the right he possessed to use the power father's comment on his studies and afforded by his rapidly accumulating amusements at school, generally com- | capital for his own advantage, in whatprising some practical reference to the ever channel it might be employed. main chance. Thus when little George He bought the stock of a broken-down came home one day full of excitement bankrupt, and the labour of a broken about the story he had been reading of spirited family on the same principle; Archemides rushing from his bath to they were offered cheap, and he had announce the discovery of the king's never thought it necessary to look beproblem, for the detection of the gold-yond the amount of discount involved smith's fraud, “Aye, aye, Geordie,” in the transaction. Thus he had scores of workpeople, whose necessities drove perhaps heard the subject mentioned them to his warehouse, and he seemed | in their own circles, to find that Life to think that the certainty of his work | Assurance is comparatively still in its and of his pay justified him in adopting | early infancy; that out of 16,000,000 of a scale of prices, governed solely by the persons, little more than a quarter of a alternative, which he knew to exist of million have, up to the present time, employment on his own terms, or the availed themselves of its benefits; and humiliating and precarious resource of of these more than one-third are policies the parish. . This he called availing effected for business purposes, and not himself of the state of the labour market, from provident motives. But, as we nor had he ever thought it necessary said before, a new impetus seems to to enquire whether the wages which he have been given to the practice of Assupaid procured either comforts or neces rance, now the middle and industrious sities for those who toiled for him. classes begin to comprehend the calcuThey came to him for work and knew | lations and to appreciate the advanhis prices—they were free either to tages, whilst hitherto few but the higher accept or reject it; and as long as he was classes understood the system, and erowded with applicants on his own adapted it to suit their views and terms, he had been too pleasantly occu

wants. pied in counting his own profits, to cal Independently of the great and priculate for a moment on their possible mary motive of Assurance, arising as it privation and suffering.

does from the best, the purest, and the holiest of human affections, independently of the habits of forethought and

prudence which it is sought by the LIFE ASSURANCE.

principle to inculcate the practice of

Life Assurance is becoming one of great THERE is no subject which occupies the commercial moment. There are few public mind to a greater extent than mercantile transactions of an extensive Life Assurance, and certainly no subject character that do not require and call to promises so fairly to become one of their aid the practice of Assurance. great and permanent interest to com Partnership, marriage-settlements, bankmunities growing hourly in enlighten ruptcies, loans extended, credits, mortmentand comprehensive policy. Science gages, reversions, renewal of leases dehas been brought to calculate its chances. terminable on lives, and various others Experience, with its gray sobriety, tests too numerous to mention, are daily the truth of all its principles; and the effected by such means : and we are wisdom of a maturer age fosters and confidently of opinion that but little encourages its praetice and extension. | time will elapse before Life Assurance, Indeed, he must be but a tyro in the whether regarded with a view to comgreat school of Political Economy who mercial or prudent objects, will be far failed to recognize the power of Life more extensively adopted to the various Assurance as an auxiliary in the con- wants of every-day life than it has ever sideration of order, and as one of the yet been; and that all those lesser comstoutest bulwarks against attacks upon binations, such as benefit clubs and the constitutional fabric. No journal others, slips as they are of the parent or periodical can pretend to advocate stock, which now call so loudly for rethe “ Commonwealth” who fails to vision, will emerge into and become perceive, or is slow to appreciate, the | part of the more solid, respectable, and manifold advantages incidental to a better regulated Life Assurance Instiproper comprehension and extensive tutions. Our first care will be, however, practice of the principles of Life Assu to glance at the beneficial effects of rance. Impressed with these views, it is Life Assurance, properly so called, as it our intention to exhibit from time to l affects the masses of mankind, and matime the most prominent and attractive terially enhances the prospect of hapfeatures of the system. It may seem piness to the human family. strange to persons who have for years



and if told it was “hight” (like the THE SPELLING REFORM. adjective “high"), would wonder, with

regard to weight, whether it was " wait,” BY ONE OF THE PITMANS.

or - wight !" Thousands upon thousands (Concluded from page 54.)

of these anomalies are to be found in the Is it not a fact, that an immense number English language ; and it is solely owing of children who attend our public schools, to the existence of such contradictions even for several years, go away unable to and perplexities that the infantine mind read with any degree of freedom? And is so puzzled and bewildered. The first is it not equally true that to acquire the step which a child takes in learning should arts of reading and writing (which, after be smooth and easy, so that it may be all, are no part of education, properly so gradually prepared for the more difficult called, but only instruments wherewith studies to be subsequently encountered ; to obtain it) is a labour of many years ? | whereas it is rugged and difficult-in The reason of this is that our time-ho many cases disheartening. We have noured alphabet of twenty-six letters is heard of instances of adults who have miserably defective (though it seems spent hour upon hour, week upon week, almost sacrilege to meddle with it), and month upon month, in endeavouring to words are spelt in a manner almost to master the art of reading, and were comdefy the skill of youth in discovering pelled at last to give it up in despair, their proper pronunciation. Nothing is although they brought the most willing clearer than the fact that the sound of a minds to the task ; and we have heard of word ought to be gathered from its spel- such, too, who, on betaking themselves ling; the avowed object of alphabetic to the new system, have been as delighted writing, when it superseded the hiero- as they were before disgusted, and have glyphic method, was to represent the found reading as easy as they before sounds of words by written characters. found it perplexing. But did you ever, reader, hear a child. The plan of the new method, or phonospell the word l-0-v-e, and then ask why typy, is to spell every word according to move should not be pronounced in the its sound. This is done by providing a same way, and not moove; and afterwards, symbol for every sound in the language, perhaps, inquire, in a state of innocent each symbol representing but one sound, perplexity, whether r-o-v-e should be each sound being represented by but one sounded ruv or roove? The various symbol. Thus, learning to read is only sounds of the o in these words love, move, learning the letters; and as each letter rore, (and these are not half the sounds has its distinct sound wherever it occurs, represented by this letter, witness, word, there can be no difficulty in pronouncing woman, women, on,) furnish a tolerable the longest combination, or the most illustration of the difficulty of learning to awkwardly sounding word. The phonoread. Each of the vowels in our alpha- typic letters are about forty in number ; bet represent several different sounds. I nearly all the ordinary Roman letters varying from five to eight or nine in have been used for the sounds they most number ; and wherever any vowel occurs frequently represent in the “old system” the child has to remember its particular (as the spelling reformers sometimes prossound in that particular place-not being pectively call it), and new letters have allowed to reason by analogy, and pro- been introduced for the additional sounds. nounce it as sounded in other cases. A person acquainted with the present or There is not a single letter in the alpha- Romanic system might learn to read by bet, vowel or consonant, invariably used the new method in five or ten minutes ; to represent the same sound wherever it and a few weeks’ study by a person occurs, and the pronunciation, therefore, totally unacquainted with reading, would, of almost every word must, as we have in most cases, be sufficient to enable him said, be studied and remembered indivi- to read as well as by a twelvemonth's dually. A person who had learned to study on the present plan. call eight « ait,” would naturally call. It is gratifying to know that the spellheight“ hait” (as is the case with many ing reform has its advocates in all parts persons in Yorkshire and other counties); of the kingdom. In some places phono

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typhy has been introduced into public

Catechism of Common Chings. schools (we may instance the Swinton Schools, near Manchester, and the Q. What is rice? Lower Mosely-street Schools a well

. A grain which in the East Indies is re

garded and used as wheat is in Europe. It known establishment in that city); and

flourishes best in moist ground. The grains the experiments that have been made to

grow in clusters, with a rough yellow covering. test its practicability have been, in every Q. What is sago? instance, highly successful. In some

A. The pith of the landan tree, a stately

palm-like tree, which grows in the Molucca islocalities, Phonetic Sunday.schools have

lands. been formed, and the means of learning Q. How is it procured? to read have thus been placed within the

A. When the tree is cut down, the pith is

| taken out and reduced to a powder resembling means of the dullest and poorest. Very I meal, it is then made up into a paste, and after many books have been printed in phono being dried in a furnace, is fit for use. typy, and many more are in the course! Q. What is arrow-root ?

A. The root of a tree which grows in the of publication ; so that the phonetic lite- !

TVC South Sea Islands. It is dried and then ground. rature will 'be sufficient to meet all de- 1 Q. What is manna. mands, and no fear need be entertained X. A sweet gum, which oozes from ash trees that there will not be books enough for in Sicily. The most pleasant is that which is

obtained from Arabia ; it is a kind of condenthe disciples of the new system to read. sed honey, and is used as a medicine.

But there is a feature connected with Q. What are tamarinds? the Spelling Reform which we cannot

A. The preserved fruit of a tree which grows

in the East and West Indies. Its leaves are overlook-we allude to Mr. Pitman's

like fern, and its flowers grow in large bunches,

and resemble orar:ge blossoms. sound; based on the principles above

Q. Where do oranges chiefly grow? alluded to, and adapted as a system of

A. In Portugal and fertile Spain

Abound the orange groves; short-hand. The value of short-hand is

In France the juicy grapes they train too great for us to expatiate on at the

Around the trim alcoves. close of our article ; and the immense

Q. What is treacle?

A. That part of the juice of the sugar cane, superiority of phonography over every | which boiling fails to make more solid than a other system, both in point of brevity

syrup. and legibility, is now too generally ac Q. What is chocolate produced from? knowledged to need any argument in its

A. The fruit or nuts of the cocoa tree, which

are enclosed in a rind resembling a cucumber favour from our pen. We can safely re

in shape, commend our readers to become acquaint Q. How are they made fit for use? ed with it, and thus possess themselves A. The nuts or kernals, which are the size of

almonds, are beaten into a paste, with sugar of one of the greatest facilities and incen

and cinnamon, or other spices, then made intives to study that can be placed within to little cakes, called chocolate. their reach,

Q. What is cocoa?

A. The finest nuts of the same tree, which

are ground and prepared in a more simple ABOLITION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.

ON OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. - | manner than chocolate. I demand the abolition of capital punish Q. What are currants ? ment in the name of that Spirit of Mercy A. Small grapes, preserved by being dried.

They are chiefly brought from the islands of who alone filled the glorious seat in the

the Mediterranean Sea. Holy of Holies, above which the angel of

Q. What are raisins? the covenant spread his holy-inspiring A. Very ripe grapes dried. Large quantities wings; I demand it in the name of our are brought from Spain and Turkey. common Christianity, disgraced, outraged Q. From what countries are figs brought? by the crimes committed professedly under A. From Turkey and Greece. The finest her sanction ; I demand it for the welfare I come from Turkey.

Q. What are dates ? and security of society, endangered by

X. The dried fruit of a kind of palm these exhibitions of bloodshed and barbar- which grows chiefly in Egypt.

tree, ism ; I ask it for the sake of the criminal |

Q. What are prunes ? himself, who is our brother still ; and, if A. Dried plumbs. They are brought from it be without presumption, I ask it for the France and other countries. honour of that God whose favourite attri.

Q. What is candied lemon? bute is mercy. The gibbet is doomed ; it

A. The rind or peeling of lemons, boiled in is tottering to its fall; the handwriting is


Q. What is candid citron ? on the wall against it, and it must as Ă. The preserved rind of the citron, which suredly come down.-C. Gilpin.

is a large kind of lemon.



into those abysses of space, where the torch THE LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS.

of science serves but to make the darkness How eloquent are the flowers! As the visible, a sensation of fearful and heartpsalmist said of the stars on high, so may

crushing awe, a sense of weakness, and we say of these stars of earth: “There is littleness, and insignificance, like that in them no speech nor language, yet their | which actuated the Poet-king of Israel to voice is not unheard.” Since the dew of exclaim, “Lord what is man, that thou art the first morning rested upon them amid | mindful of him, or the son of man that thou the groves of Paradise, they have been whis-/ visitest him?" It is in such moments as pering their sweet counsels of love and these, that the breath of the lowly flowers beauty in the ears of man—and yet they floats over the soul, like a waft from the are not silent. Year by year, as they come

other world ;- it is then that we listen most forth to adorn the everchanging links of the willingly to the sound of their holy Evangel; rolling seasons, they bring with them fresh -and, as our sinking eyes turn from the messages from that spirit-land, whose glories crushing grandeurs of starry Heavens to seem at times well-nigh bursting through

the turf beneath our feet, these heaven-sent their bright etherial forms. Gentle poets

messengers are there, to assure us, by the and prophets are they ; poets, by virtue of hoards of loveliness lavished upon their their mission to interpret the beautiful to fairy forms, and the delicate perfection of the eye of man; and prophets, inasmuch as their organization, that our poor notions of they prefigure, as they come forth one by great and small bear no relation to Infini. one, from their dark winter sleep in the bo- |

tude, that they exist not in the workings of som of earth, to light and life and joy, that the Eternal Order, that they are among the great mystery of our nature, that we, too many shadows that will flee away at the "shall not sleep but be changed.”

dawning of Everlasting Day; and that, if Surely, if there is, in the "glorious ap- |

the testimony of our Father's might is parelling” of this outward world, one thing

written in burning cyphers on the firmament more than another, which speaks of the of Heaven, the message of His boundless love of God, it is the flowers; it is a perfect and all embracing love, is as clearly told hymn of love and praise that is written on and as gladly accepted from the gleaming the furrowed page of earth with these lovely | pages of the grassy earth. hieroglyphics at first pale and trembling and And many a blessed lesson, besides these delicate, as the first unfolding of a tale of great ones, do the flowers teach to the willaffection; then deepening, month by month, ing and lowly mind that can stoop with in fervency and luxuriance; and again sink: child-like simplicity to learn of these gentle ing away, like the vanishing hues of the teachers.-To some submitted souls, they rainbow, or the last melting touching strains

hare breathed forth great secrets of the of an Æolian melody

Spirit World: they have become transparThe Flowers have a high and holy mis

ent with the radiance of their hidden and sion to fulfil ; humble, but appointed servi. spiritual essence, and have stood before tors are they in the vast Cathedral of them, transfigured into the shining glory of Nature, consecrated and ordained by none those thoughts of God of which they are the other than the Great High Priest Himself. symbols, and the visible language, and emin that hour wherein He looked upon them

bodiments. These have gazed upon them arrayed in a glory greater than that of “ with thoughts too deep for tears,'' because Solomon, and gave them a gospel to preach, their delicate forms have been too thin a to all generations of men, a gospel of love veil to hide from them the radiance of that and trusting faith, and the assured belief to in-dwelling in-forming spirit of the Uniman, that

verse which is the life and soul of nature. “ Whoso caretli for the flowers,

Thus every separate flower has its own Will much more care for him."

truth to tell, besides forming an harmonious The lonely traveller in the far off wilds part of the great whole; and though the of Africa is but a type of the myriads of more ærial notes of the music they breathe human spirits that have drunk refreshment may be heard alone by deeply spiritualized and consolation from these way-side foun. 1 natures, yet they have tones of solemn tains, that have listened to the ministry of sweetness loud enough for all but the dulthese lowly preachers, and have gone on lest ear to hear. Who can look on the their way rejoicing.

snowdrop and the violet without thinking Who has not felt, in contemplating the of spotless purity and modest virtue ; on the vastness of creation, in standing upon the daisy, without remembering the numberless very portals of the Infinite, and following the mercies that gladden our path of life, unmighty hosts of Heaven in their unimagina- acknowledged and almost unseen, which ble multitudes and wanderings--in gazing ( would yet be sorely missed were they to de

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