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MUTUAL DEPENDENCE.

fidence-one from whose lips I had present and dread the future. O that I was caught many an inspiration, and one

never born! GIN has been my chief enemy. who had in no small degree fashioned mercy on himself.

May God have mercy on one who has now no my mind and coloured my destiny.

Farewell, Here was I in afiluent circumstances,

S. Hall, Esq.

JAMES BAYNARD. and with bright prospects. But what The reading of this letter made me was he? A fallen man, an outcast, a shudder with sorrow and dread. What victim to strong drink. What advan- could I do? I knew not where to go to tage to him was the classic page : what find the one I wanted, so that I might was all his learning, his ardent hopes, relieve him. Perhaps he would die of his warm aspirations now? What were want; perhaps he would commit some Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Homer, Vir- | crime, and get imprisoned, transported, gil, Tacitus, Thucydides, Cicero, and or executed. These and similar thoughts Horace now? He could not be worse rushed through my mind. I resolved off if Greece and Rome never existed. to do my best to find him, and, if posWhat was the greatness and glory of his sible, reclaim him. I have from that own country to him? Art, science, time to the present searched and enphilosophy, history, poetry, truth, man, 'quired after him in vain. May ProviGod, and eternity were forgotten. The Idence put him once more in my way, stars might shine on in their deep mys- so that I may be his benefactor. terious beauty; the earth, the heavens, and millions of human souls might await to contribute to his happiness,

MUTUAL DEPENDENCE. and impress him with the loftiness of THERE are gradations in the scale of his nature, and the vastness of his society: there are expanding circles, as destiny. But no, there he was, a the successive links of that chain crushed mutilated being. After a few which hold mankind together; and, acminutes' reflection, I resolved to write to cording as each step is fitted for its him that very night, and tell him that place and kept in order, or as each I would call and see him the next day. circle is proportioned and tempered to I wrote the letter and posted it. The sustain the weight and occupy the following day, at the appointed time, I position assigned to it, so will be the called at the place where I was directed, strength and durability; so will be the and made enquiries for a person named symmetry, the compactness, and the James Baynard. “O, Sir," was the reply adaptation of the whole mechanism for “he left this morning not to return the purposes for which it has been again; and he left a letter for a gentle- destined. But, although each circle be man, a Mr. Hall, whom he said would complete in itself, though each member call for it.” I asked for the letter, and have his special obligations, detailed it was delivered to me. It was as fol- and encompassed within the private lows :

sphere of his connections-each separate During the last few years I have suffered

community involving and revolving, as many pangs. My life, almost from the time i the wheel within a wheel, its own parts you and I parted at Oxford, has been a chequer- ' -all are only parts of a whole. And ed, unenviable, and ignoble one. I will not tear your heart by relating it; I can only

| as a part cannot be equal to the whole, say I am an irrecoverably lost man. I am

nor the whole be complete without its careless, hopeless, and reckless. I have for parts, so the full measure of social hapsaken my friends, and they have forsaken me. But all my misfortunes and sins have not anni

piness cannot be enjoyed by those who hilated every particle of humanity and pride!

abstract themselves from the comin my bosom. I have just sufficient left to imunity; nor can the community possess dread the meeting of your glance, and encoun

its aggregate prosperity, unless when tering your conversation. I can now only hope that we may never meet again on earth.

every several member makes cheerfully I go I know not whither, and I care not whi his proportionate contribution. “The ther. Meeting you has caused a momentary body is one, and hath many members, resurrection of my earlier joys, loves, hopes, and dreamings; but such remembrances only

and all the members of that one body, revive to harrow my soul. The more I think being many, are one body;" and neither of what I have been, the more do I eurse the the feeblest nor the most honourable can say, the one to the other “I have ence to woman's influence. I think she no need of thee.” The belts and satelli- is more degraded than elevated thereby. tes of Jupiter,—the satellites and ring I look upon man as one, and I look upon of Saturn, the Georgium Sidus, Nep woipan as one. They are both grand tune, and other obscure planets, are as units, equally intrinsically valuable as much parts of our planetary system as human beings, equally important to the is the glorious and magnificent sun. existence and well-being of society, and The regularity of their revolutions, equally responsible to their fellows, and and the completion of their orbits, are to God. An orator, a short time since, as necessary for the harmony of the while speaking at a public meeting on spheres, and the accuracy of the hea- a London platform, lifted up his eyes, and venly movements, as is the time of the said, “Thank God that thou hast given moon, the altitude of the sun, or his us woman.” Every woman in the asecliptic. They come not forth from sembly or the world might, with equal their far-distant dwelling-place in the propriety, have stated, “ Thank God heavens, as do the eccentric comets; that thou has given us man." Woman nor is their light so appalling and at- no more exists for man, than man exists tractive to the vulgar and superstitious for woman. They both exist for themmultitude as those erratic strangers. selves, and for each other. I have freThey shine not so fair as the silver quently heard intelligent women say, moon, nor do they send to our earth “What can the men do without us? or such genial warmth and cheering light “ Just imagine men cooking their own as the sun of our firmament, neither are victuals, making their own beds, or they so beauteous as the splendid gem mending their own stockings!” Such in the diadem of heaven, which burns expressions, if sincere, are virtual acas the evening and morning star; yet knowledgments of the superiority of have they their place in the wide ex man. They presuppose that woman panse, and they know their rising and only exists for the comfort of man. their going down. The path, though This I will not for a moment subscribe far distant from us, which they gladden to. Woman possesses all the essential in their course, would be chill and cheer- characteristics of a human being. less in their absence; and the circuit She is as capable of feeling, thinking, in which they move would be a blank doubting, associating, loving, believing, in the sapphire and tesselated pave and rejoicing as man. She is as ment which is under the glorious feet much interested in all the high concerns of Him, who has stretched out the hea of the world, of time, of the future, as vens as the groundwork of his pavilion, man. She possesses a distinct indiviwhere he goes forth in the beamy walks duality, which no one else can possessof his brightness and his majesty:-Dr. she is a distinct and independent moral Massie.

and mental force in the universe-she is a centre, around which every thing

else revolves, and for which institu“ THEY WHO ROCK THE CRADLE

tions, society, churches, and religions RULE THE WORLD.”

exist. Man and woman are of the same NO. I.

importance and worth as individuals; EVERY human being has a duty to per they only vary in their positions, misform, and a destiny to fulfil peculiar to sions, relationships, and influences. himself. This applies equally to the Let me show one phase of woman's woman and the man. It will not be character, which peculiarly distinguishes my province, on this occasion, to ana her as an influential being. lyze the respective characters of man Look at that unassuming woman who and woman. Man is more influential gently walks on the other side of the in some positions, woman is more influ- street; she is not known to the great ential in others. I have no sympathy world-her name was never seen in the with a great deal of the sentimentalism | newspapers- the muses have never and refined flattery which is frequently | been invoked to sing her praises—she spoken at public meetings with refer- passes silently and unostentatiously

THEY WHO ROCK THE CRADLE RULE THE WORLD."

through life; and, though she produces in performning her will--he catches inno sensation or stir in the body politic, spiration from her benignant looks, and she is doing a work which will be as consolation from her perpetual anxiouslasting as her country's greatness. You ness and inexhaustible love. Though may see her walk, and the earth does they are two distinct beings, it may be not shake under her feet; you may lis- said, that one will governs both; that ten to her conversation, and find that the same motive stirs and warms them she does not speak syllogisms or utter mutually and reciprocally. Other years epics. Her voice is never heard through pass away, and boyhood ripens into her country's literature, in the senate- manhood. Even now the mother is Louse, in the camp, or on the bloody considered and consulted in every imbattle-field. She is not applauded by portant act of life. The noble, courathe multitude, neither does she wish geous, independent minded man, does to be; the pen of history is not used not forget the lessons of wisdom he reto throw a glory around her name; no ceived when young; he cannot, and he marble is chiselled to commemorate would not if he could, erase from his her deeds. But she is nevertheless a memory and his being the impressions, world shaker; she has a field of action sentiments, and instructions given him peculiarly her own; she has means and by his mother. At one time he obeyed appliances at her command, which none her will, and acted according to her but she can wield; she is doing a work wishes, because she desired it; now he which none but she can do. She has walks in the same pathway, strives after a home, and she is a mother! Home the same objects, and aspires to dignity and mother! What significant things of character, and usefulness of life, do these words express. They have because it is right. Now he stands not hitherto been appreciated, but they among millions of his fellow-men, will be esteemed of mighty importance with a noble and incorruptible heart, in the future.

with a cultivated intellect, with an Cast your eyes again on that gentle enterprising spirit, with an energelooking woman. She is by her own tic will, with heroism of soul, and with fireside ; she has her child on her knee, measureless sympathies. His heart to whom she sweetly talks, tenderly beats in unison with the generous imkisses, and warmly presses to her bo- ! pulses and magnanimous actions of the som. Her sunny smiles, her gentle up-| great and good of all ages. He looks braidings, her songs, her pretty stories, around upon a rich and luxuriant uniher warm embraces, soon become as verse, and sees that it is fitted to nourish similated with the moral being of her and foster the human soul; he looks at child. She transfuses her own beauti- his fellow-men, and finds that every one ful spirit into the spirit of the child of them is capable of a lofty and enBy the magical influence of kindness during destiny. But, alas ! evil meets she moulds the little one to her will. his eye almost wherever he looks. But Every soft word, every gentle chiding, he is not to be dismayed by difficulties, every explanation given, every melting and discouraging appearances. He sees glance does its work in unfolding, shap | that wrong can be vanquished and he ing, and beautifying the mind and buckles on his armour to do battle with character of the little loved one. By it. He sometimes falls back into the anxious watching, by patience and per retirements of solitude and the silence suasion, the child becomes a counter. of the soul, and comes forth again to part of his mother; step by step he give utterance, in musical numbers, to grows into virtue and knowledge ; his his deep feelings, sorrowings, joys, and physical frame gets stronger, and his aspirations. His great yearning heart mind grows correspondingly. Years overflows with sympathy. He sings-his pass away, and the child expands into countrymen hear the music of songs, boyhood; and his feet are still planted and get intoxicated with delight. He, in the ways of knowledge and good who a few short years since, was a lispness. He is still obedient to his mo- | ing prattler on his mother's knee, is ther's teachings—he still feels a pleasure | now a poet, a prophet, and the favourite

of his country. He not only writes essays, but histories—he throws a fresh

ANTI-JACK-KETCHISM. colouring over the stirring and solemn MANNING and his wife are executed, events of the past, and traces to unex- and what has the world gained ? The plored causes his country's progress grave has gained two victims. About -he speaks, and moves society to its 50,000 depraved persons, some with very foundation-he rises in the senate-opera-glasses and others without, have house, and with contemplation sitting enjoyed the sight of seeing two human on his brow, and with genius flashing beings killed. A few public-houses and from his eye, he pours forth a stream | beer-shops have got gain by selling of eloquence which electrifies and en- extra quantities of intoxicating drinks. raptures-he vindicates liberty and puts A large number of newspapers, daily to shame its enemies. Worthy man of and weekly, have gained for the time an a worthy mother!

additional number of readers, by panDespotism defeated in the Tribune, dering to an abnormal curiosity and still defiantly maintains its sway. A vitiated tastes. Professor Calcraft has rumble is heard amidst the crowd ; the gained two additional fees for perpeburden of its disaffection rides on the trating two legal murders. The spirit passing breeze; the people demand an of vindictiveness and revenge has had instalment of freedom, which is denied fresh occasion for growth and developthem. Discontent increases; it gets ment. England and the age have impatient, and roars with a voice of gained additional odium by sanctioning thunder. A revolutionary storm sweeps such scenes of cold-blooded brutality. over the country; a dynasty is over And let me add, Anti-Capital Punishthrown ; a republic is born. Impetu ment Reformers have gained an addious passions break over all bounda tional argument, strong as their case ries ; the foundations of society are was before, in favour of the total abolitrembling; institutions are rocking with tion of the gallows. But is the world the surging billows of liberated indig. | better for these public neck-breakings? nation and enthusiasm. Amid this Are the thousands who saw Calcraft stir and strife a musical voice is heard; exercise his public and state-sanctioned it stills the tempest; it calms and me- functions in killing and sealing the doom thodises the chaotic elements; it awakes of two human beings higher in morals echoes from a million hearts, and claims than they were before ? Has the Christallegiance from a million wills. That ian lesson which has been practically magical voice sings a requiem over taught them, purified their hearts and the past, and inaugurates a new social ennobled their lives? Have they a and political era. He, who speaks at higher estimate of human life now than such a crisis and makes the world his they had before they saw their fellow audience, is the very one who drank beings struggling in death-agonies ? beauty and holiness from his mother's “The majesty of the law is vindicated" smile, who was directed in the right say some. But are you sure that it is path by his mother's guidance, who not the law of his Satanic majesty which was awoke to the perception of the true has been vindicated? If any law has and the godlike by his mother's voice, been vindicated, is it not the law which and was impelled onward to greatness worketh by fear, and which gains its and renown, by his mother's enthu- | power from revenge? By vindicating siasm. Yes, go ask him at the moment

es, go ask him at the moment such a law, we certainly are not honour of his proudest triumph, when his | ing that merciful and benignant spirit countrymen have engarlanded his brow which shone so resplendently in the with an imperishable chaplet -ask him actions of Christ, or the love of that the secret of his strength and incorrupti Omnipotent Being who sustains the tibility, and he will answer, “God and universe with all its ills. Is it possible my mother.” Verily, they who rock to magnify a good law by calling up in · Cradle rule the world ! EDITOR. hostility to it the sympathy of the

man heart holds more within its cell | people, and thereby making pity for the rsal nature holds without...

I criminal swallow up detestation for his

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crimes? “ But the Mannings deserve away should have his taken away.” But death,” says another. How do you do you make life more sacred and valuknow, my fallible fellow-mortal, when a able by showing multitudes that you man deserves death? Who made you have the right to take it? Do you bring the judge of your brother's deserts ? back the life of the murdered man by Are you omniscient? Can you penetrate taking away the life of the murderer? into and analyze motives, and do you Will two blacks make one white ? Can hold in your puny hand the scales of you rectify wrong by doing wrong? Can eternal justice ? And what, if you had you show the essential sinfulness of criwhat you deserved, would be your fate, minal violence by perpetuating criminal fellow-sinner? Did you never err? Did violence ? you never transgress the laws of God, “But murderers are not fit to live," and were you punished as you deserved? says another. How do you know when If you are pure, sinless, and infallible, a man has filled up the measure of his you would, I think, be in a much bet- | iniquities? If he is not fit to live, is he ter condition to speak of deserts; and fit to die? If he is not fit to meet the if you were so, I think that you would gaze of man, who is capable of erring see that there was such an attribute as like himself, how can he be in a fit state mercy as well as justice. “Let him to be plunged into the presence of a that is without sin first cast a stone at Holy God and a dread eternity? If a her.” I think I see you quailing before man is not prepared for the requirethis passage, my good brother. Don't ments of time, how can he be prepared speak so glibly in future about justice for the more awful solemnities of imdemanding the life of the murderer. mortality? It is well, O fellow-mortal, Justice demands that you, a member of that thy Maker is more merciful towards society, partaking of the benefits of thee, than thou art towards thy erring society, should contribute all you could brother. It is fortunate for thee that to the advancement and happiness of the Deity does not possess the attri. society. Have you done so ? Have you butes of hatred and revenge like unto done every thing you could to educate those which rankle in thy breast. and elevate society? You are a very “But the Scriptures sanction deathfavoured one if you can say “Yes” to punishment,” says another. What Scripsuch a question. Then, if you have not tures? The Old Testament or New done all that you might have done, and Testament Scriptures? If the Old, let all that you ought to have done, for the me ask whether thou would have all its world, how do you know that, by your enactments, rites, sacrifices, ceremonies, leaving your duty undone, mankind is and wars reinstituted? No man in his not worse on that account? And if senses would dream of such a thing. worse, how do you know that capital But what says the New Testament crimes are not the result of your re Scriptures? Does Christ tell us to kill missness? Talk of deserts; why per- our enemies, to hang up those who haps you are the one that deserves the despitefully use us, or to throttle those punishment, after all, or at all events who break the laws of the State ? Shall some of it. “Those who live in glass we, who profess Christianity, obey Noah, houses ought not to throw stones.” Moses, or Christ? The Times has had some articles-bap- Let all those who defend death-putized in vengeance-which have tried nishment, and who gloated with so to vindicate the justice of the Man- much gusto over the premeditated nings' execution. How many deaths is strangulation of the Mannings, ponder that paper responsible for? Did it not on the following questions :-Can a encourage the barbarians of Austria man be made better by killing him ? Is and Russia to kill the Hungarians, who the legitimate end of all punishment were boldly struggling for liberty? Let answered by placing the criminal benot the T'imes talk of avenged justice yond the pale of reformation? Is it while it has so many sins unavenged. right or in accordance with the ven“But human life is a valuable thing," geance-doctrine of an eye for an eye, says another, “and he who taketh it I and a tooth for a tooth, to sacrifice two

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