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Aids to progress.

outer side of that boundary. It may

keep the Queen's peace if it can ; it is We are all here in this life subject, not amongst its functions to keep “the in a certain degree, to the power of cir- peace of God, which passeth all undercumstances. But above these there standing." It may prevent invasion of stands unshaken an eternal order; to the rights of property and liberty-it go into this, and to find our place in it, may secure the persons and possessions is the problem given to us all, and it is

of one against another-but it has no possible to all to solve it.

business to interfere with the advance The world of mind is ever growing. Of opinions, though it may hold those Men of thought are ever giving fresh opinions to be essentially dangerous. contributions to the imperishable trea- Let us, between man and man, uphold sures of science, history, and experience; the claims of justice, and leave each to moral heroes are ever multiplying ex

settle for himself, uninfluenced by inamples of magnanimity of soul, and terference or bribery on the part of his stamping ineffaceable impressions, as the fellow creatures, whatever belongs to result of loftiness of conception and his integrity or his penitence, his congrandeur of deed, on the memory of the

science and his God.--W. J. Fox, M.P. world. Poetry is ever tuning her lyre, and singing of that beautiful state to

I HAVE had some intercourse for several which the human race is capable of years with a large number of physiorising. Hope is ever pointing her te- logical reformers, who subsist upon velescope to that better time which is getable food, and find that they are coming. Religion is ever fostering the much more healthy and vigorous than latent capabilities of sympathy and love, those who make use of meat. Some of which are firmly laid in the foundations those reformers are labouring men, who of human nature, and opening up before

are compelled to work from the rising them scenes of brightness and beauty to the setting sun, and they assure me which stretch beyond the tomb.

that they possess a greater amount of For eighteen hundred years man has physical strength than when in the been satisfied with reading the Gospel : habit of flesh-eating. Moreover, they that is not enough.

It is henceforth always have a relish fortheir meals, withnecessary that he should write it him out being troubled with a loss of appeself upon the surface of the earth, upon

tite at one time, or the cravings of hunthe brow of nations, upon the sand, upon ger at another. They are comparatively brass, on laws, institutions and new

exempt, also, from attacks of disease, charters. When the Book shall be such as colds, diarrhea, dysentery, everywhere, not upon a perishable leaf, and the prevailing maladies of the sea but in living things, people will no longer son; and among the whole of these reawake every morning inquiring of one

formers, I rarely or ever met with a case another, whether some man has not, of constipation or sick head-ache, comperadventure, destroyed in a night, a

plaints which are so general at the preverse or a chapter; humanity will feel

sent day.-James Simpson.
easy about the Sacred Volume when
she has engraven and printed it, in No individual is so insignificant as to
permanent characters, on the surface of be perfectly useless--no combination
the world : and when neither the winds of individuals so important as to be ab-
nor criticism will any longer carry away fare. There are two errors seemingly

solutely necessary to the world's wel-
of an opposite kind which the soil of

human nature absolutely produces-ABSTAIN from all intermeddling in the two shoots from the same root-difeducation and elevation of man, and, ferent buddings forth of the same selfmost of all, with that which concerns complacency--a tendency to underrate man's belief in things unseen, and the every movement which we neither orihomage which man pays to the Power ginated or can control, and to cherish

Let government pause on the the most exaggerated notions of the

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" Then,

importance of any great plan which

Small Shot from the Peace Arsenal. have been concerted by our wisdom. We forget that we are only to ourselves the centre of the universe--that if

I have read in that Book which may be con

sidered as the law and lesson of universal peace, all creation appears to revolve around

“ That every plant which my Heavenly Father us, the semblance results from the hath not planted shall be rooted up.' point of vision from which we look at most certainly, war will one day be rooted up

from the face of the earth.--Athenese Coquerel. it—that the things wear the same as

There are two nations in Europe which have pect to every other man—and that, been the cradle of modern liberty ; they have were we suddenly annihilated, the great created, as it were, the public fortune of the schemes of Providence would unfold people, and propagated knowledge, the source

of civilization. It belongs, then, to England themselves much the same as they and France to crown their glorious mission by did before. We are like nervous peo- securing the peace of the world.-Francisque ple in a stage-coach; we seem to fancy


Peace alone allows of an accumulation of the that we must keep our eye on the horses, fruits

of national industry, and of its formation or everything will go wrong—that we into capital ; capital is the foundation from must look neither to the right or to which must spring the improvement of the the left, more especially when we ap

condition of the people, and the progress of

society.-Michel Chevalier. prehend the chance of à collision. We

War is evidently upon the retreat throughtake upon ourselves an imaginary res- out the world; it loses ground as liberty proponsibility, and wholly lose sight of the gresses---for it is to the genius of war and the

genius of liberty we may apply the words of a fact, that our anxiety serves only to

philosopher, that the profit of the one is the tease ourselves—that the reins are in loss of the other.-Michel Chevalier. the hands of the coachman-and that, In our ancient Europe, England took the with all our care, we are not driving first step, and declared to the people—“You

" France took the second step, and but driven.- Edward Miall.

announced to the people-“You are soveLET England apprehend her destiny reign." Let us now take the third step, and and duty now, when world-wide mea

all simultaneously, France, England, Germany,

Italy, Europe, America, let us all proclaim to all sures are requisite for the well-being of

nations-“You are brethren."-Victor Hugo. mankind. Unless some great physical In the place of the words armed peace, let us revolution supervene, to arrest or check

substitute the words organized peace. It is not the propagation of the English race, in only liberty in danger which demands it, but

also civilisation in peril.-Girardin. 145 years it must number 800,000,000 War is an inheritance of the savage state, souls-outnumbering the present popu- disguised by ingenious institutions and false lation of the globe ? Shall England be

eloquence.-Louis Bonaparte.

The mania of having troops; the mania the centre, the soul, and seat of moral

which, under the pretence of preventing wars, and commercial legislation of this kindles them; which, by influencing the despomighty race, at such an epoch of its tism of governments, prepares ultimately the history? Then let her establish an

revolt of the people ; this mania will be,

sooner or later, the ruin of Europe.--Reynal. OCEAN PENNY POSTAGE now. Rowland Among the nations of Europe, war at the Hill bas stated publicly, that nearly end of a few years makes the conqueror as unhalf of the entire correspondence of the

happy as the conquered. It is the abyss in

which all channels of abundance is swallowed United Kingdom passes through the city

up.-Voltaire. of London. Let him extend the Penny A new malady has been spreading itself Post to the compass of the ocean, and

through Europe; it has seized our princes,

and made them maintain an inordinate numhe may live to say that half of the

ber of troops. It goes on increasing, and it entire correspondence of the world has become necessarily contagious; for as soon passes through England and England's as one state augments what it calls its troops, ships to all the sea-divided habitations

the others suddenly augment theirs—a fashion of men. Let the testimonial of Eng- - Montesquieu.

by which nothing is gained but a common ruin. land's debt to his beneficient genius be We are preaching by the pen and book deferred, until the people of every

against the bayonet. An ounce of intellect

shall be worth a pound of shot.-Hy. Vincent. clime, colour, and country, beyond the

War is a dictatorship, and the danger of sea, and the inhabitants of the far-off liberty.--Gen. Cavaignac. ocean islands, may add a world's tribute Slavery, monopoly, and war, are children of

the same mother, whose name is Oppression. of gratitude for an OCEAN PENNY Pos

Two are already conquered, and we will vanTAGE.-Elihu Burritt.

quish the third. -Bastiat.

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If different nations wish to perform a holy cial aspect alone is the use of bread a fact of alliance, the people must be their own diplo- | interest. It is equally so as a matter of namatists. It is thus that we shall bring to the tional economy and of physical science.

If we cause of peace the force of public opinion, find one particular aliment occupying a posiwhich Pascal has called the # Queen of the tion of highest importance in the domestic world."-Bastiat.

habits of a nation or nations, we must seek for War is bankruptcy, and bankruptcy is revo- some other explanation of the fact than mere lution.--Times.

fortuity. This is given in the constitution of There is not a piece of cloth lying in your the material itself. And thus the admirable warehouses that is not a protest against war; adaptability to the physical sustenance of the not a blow strick upon your anvils that does frame of the various foods derived from the not send up a voice in favour of peace. There corn plants, has rendered them first in impor. is not a piece of coal drawn up from the bowels tance among the products of the earth. We of

your island that does not send up, as it sees should therefore expect that in emerging from the light, its prayer for the brotherhood of man. the coarse and unsettled habits of barbarism There is not a grain of corn scattered by the to seek the more permanent comforts of civilihand of the farmer, nor a stalk waving upon zation, the attention of man would be directed his fields, but sends up a protest against war.

to the culture of such kinds of food as would Every sail upon the ocean spreads its arms to furnish the most stable and wholesome nutriheaven, as if breathing a prayer for universal ment, and the use of which would, to some expeace.--Asa Mahan.

tent, secure them from the sufferings of famine We could find much better employment for and of precarious subsistence. And not only the spare capital and labour of the country so, but as civilization advanced, various methan distributing it in the shape of cannon

thods would be devised to render the food more balls; and we can find a much more laudable palatable, and to denude it of the crude aspect occupation for the clergy of our country than in which it is presented to us by Nature, and to desecrate religion by the consecration of to adopt certain forms of convenience and elecolours.--George Wilson.

gance suited to the prevailing habits of the I consider every difficulty thrown in the way time. Accordingly, we find the use of bread of making war as so much gained to humanity. in the place of unprepared grain an early -Sir Samuel Romilly.

feature in the domestic history of civilization. The horrors of war are hidden under its The great family of plants known as the Ceredazzling dress. The true music of war is the lia, arford by far the greater proportion of all shriek of the newly-wounded, or the faint vegetable nutriment, and from their wide difmoan of the dying.--Channing.

fusion over the earth, and admirable suitability Look at Europe at this moment. The people for human sustenance, they may be regarded don't rule--the monarchs don't rule-the ar- as the especial boon of Providence. The corn mies rule, and the armies alone. There can be no plants follow the course of man alone; they extension of popular liberty, no consolidation grow not in wild luxuriance where his foot has of popular government in any of these coun- never trodden; they are not to be found in the tries, until this vast imposture of military force

wide wastes of the earth remote from all traces shall be exposed and destroyed.John Bright.

of civilization, but they ever accompany man, What is war? It is the trade of barbarism, and need his protective influence for their proof which the whole art consists in being the

duction and fruitfulness. The diffusion of strongest at a given point.-Napoleon.

plants useful to man is an accident diminishing War--a wholesale murderer, nursed in the

the evils of hostile invasion-it is a necessary arms of Revenge.

attendant of commercial intercourse. The InThe human mind constantly enlarges: it

dians of New England called the plantain commenced with association-a federation be- “Englishman's foot,” and in the same way, in tween families or tribes; it will propose to it

the infancy of ancient society, wheat might self one day, and is even now, the federation of

have heen similarly regarded as springing from the great human family.--Visschers.

the footsteps of the Persians or the Egyptians. War involves a manifest injustice, inasmuch In times approaching nearer to our own, we as those who provoke the quarrels are seldom

know that wheat followed the march of the the parties to fight the battles.--Edmund t'ry. Romans, as the vine was in the train of the War includes all the suffering common to all

Greeks; and, to come still nearer, we find cotother scourges, but superadds vice and cruelty,

ton remaining in countries which had other. which are peculiarly its own. It triumphs in

wise suffered from the incursions of the Arabs, destruction, and finds its fitting glory in the The migrations of the plants," observez Humravages of death.-- William Stokes.

boldt, “ is evident; but their (the cerelia) first War- a tragedy, generally written by the country is as little known as that of the differheads of nations, to be enacted at the sacrifice ent races of men, which, from the earliest traof the heads of their subjects.

ditions, have been found in all parts of the

The true philosophy of the universal use of
THE PHILOSOPHY OF BREAD. the cereal plants is to be found in the fact that

their nutritive secretions approach nearer in BY JAMES SHIRLEY KIBBERD.

chemical composition to that of the human The use of bread is a more universal feature of blood than any other natural kind of food. the domestic character of civilized nations than Taking the blood as the type of the various any other; and, perhaps, no better criterion tissues of the body, we find its representative of the refinement and general advance of na- in food in wheat. In every grain of wheat tions can be afforded, than the improvements there lies not only the germ of the future in the preparation of food. But not in its so- plant, but also the men who are to be fed upon

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it. The proximate principles which give the

parisons is this

that no material can fully distinctive features to the blood are albumen,

realize the conditions of an aliment, unless its fibrin, hæmatin, oily matter, and alkaline salts.

chemical constitution is such as to enable it to In the cerelia these are represented by the

counterbalance the disintegrating process algluten and vegetable casein, the starch ; the ready described. It must contain a hydrooxides of iron and various earthy salts found

carbonised and an azotised, a calefacient or in the ashes after incineration. 'l'he more dic heal-producing principle, and a nutrient porgestible properties of gluten or fibrin, have

tion, Wheat, or unsophisticated wheaten caused the plants which contain it to be bread, will realize both these necessary condi. used more extensively as a diet by man

tions. Its fecula or starch, consisting of carkind than any other. The secds, however, of

bon and water elements and the chemical fornone these plants yield these secretions

mula of the gluten, is identical with that of anialone. In all cases they contain starch, and

mal flesh. It may therefore be determined, also varying proportions of water. The follow- a priori, what kind and quantity of food are ing table will indicate the proportions of the

needful to sustain the body in equilibrio under protein or nitrogenous and carbonaceous secre- its disintegrating agencics. To replace the cartions contained in some of the corn-plants and bon expended in respiration--wheaten bread leguminosa:

1 lbs., rice 4 lbs., or potatoes 7. lbs. Wheaten 100 lbs.

Water and Nitrogenous Carbonaceous bread in 100 parts contains about 70 per cent. contain

ashes. secretions. secretions. starch, 20 per cent. gluten, 3 sugar, 5 salts, Wheat 7


carbonic acid, ligniuc, and volatile oils, in minBarley.



ute proportions. The destruction of azote is Oats



confined to the muscular and nervous systems, Rice




and is directly proportioned to the activity of Maize



volition. It is estimated that about 350 grains Peas.

... 52

of nitrogen are dissipated in a healthy adult Beans.


every twenty-four hours, but this must vary Lentils



widely from the indolent and morbid-minded The first five in the list belong to the cerelia, voluptuary, to the toiling labourer,“ sweating to which also belong the millet and the rye. in the eye of Phæbus," and by the sweat of his Three main causes operate in the ceaseless dis- brow eating bread. To replace this expenditure integration of animal bodies ; these are respi- about 3 ounces of fibrine will be needed, and ration, mechanical motion, and nervous or this may be supplied by 8 ounces of cooked brain phenomena; to which the giand antago- flesh, or 1 lbs. of bread. This high nitronist is the reparation of the system by the as

genization of the corn-grains and the bean similation of new materials. Under the effects tribe render them fitted to answer all the purof respiration the carbo-hydrogen particles of poses of human alimentation; their gluten, the body are removed in the form of oxides- albumen, and casien, or leg unne, being equal water, oxide of hydrogen, and carbonic acid, to the reparation of the disintegrated animal oxide of carbon. This combination being a particles. Bossingault gives the following scale main source of animal heat, the imperfectly of the relative amount of nitrogen:oxidated carbo-hydrogen particles are deposited Turnips.........

44.67 as fat. Hence the substances implicated in re- Potatoes

180 spiration are termed “calefacient elements," Corn, beans, lentils, &c... .1335 and of which the food must contain a due pro- The chemical constitution of our staple vegetaportion. Under average conditions of physical ble foods would indicate that on chemical activity, the mean amount of carbon consumed grounds alone they are better fitted to support by an adult in twenty-four hours, is eight to life than animal flesh, as containing not one thirteen ounces; the combustion of which principle merely, but all that the frame needs would furnish sufficient heat to convert 24 lbs.

to maintain its integrity. And even in regard of water into steam, or to raise 1,000 lbs. water to the amount of nitrogenous compounds alone, 24 F., or 24 lbs. 1,000 F. The blood is the

and putting aside the starch, the comparison of great source whence oxygen is supplied to the the cereal products with flesh foods, will place body for the removal of effete hydro-carbonized

the former on an equality with the latter. molecules. But respiration is not the only

Nitrogenized compounds cause of waste. Under the agency of mechani.

per cent. cal motion, including also perception, volition, Oat or wheat, from bread, &c.,......50 and other brain phenomena, the effete azotized Roast beef, mutton, venison, &c....50 molecules of the body are resolved into oxidized The result of the most careful enquiry as to compounds of nitrogen, and so removed as ex- the proportions of each kind of material for cretions;a class of bodies possessing the highest human alimentation is this—that food conscientific interest, including urea, uric acid, taining seven parts calefacient to one of nucyanates, oxalates, sulphates, and nitrates of trient material is just that which, under mean organic or ammoniacal bases.

conditions of climate, exertion, and mental acAs these materials are being constantly re

tivity, is sufficient, to sustain the integrity of moved from the body, the quantitative analysis

the system. Milk supplies 1 azotised to 2 reof the oxidised excretia will supply the data for spiratory, beans 1 to 2); starch, sugar, or gạm determining the amount of carbon, hydrogen, 1 to 401. But wheaten bread, as the foregoing 'azote, &c., demanded in the shape of food.

facts will show, is just suited in the proportion Then, by determining the composition of the

of its fecula to its protein compounds, to mainaliments, and their correlation to the trans- tain the health and vigour of the organism, formed particles, an approximation is made to

and may therefore be regarded as the type of a knowledge of the true principles of dietetics.

all food, The general result of such analyses and com

(To be concluded in our next.)

• Coventry.

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were the real representatives of her Majesty's

26 millions of British subjects, as the minority CIAL REFORM.

of 328 were the representatives for the remainIt is a well-known fact, that all who advocated ing 23,873,000 of the population. But it might reforms, of whatever kind they might be, were be said, if the millions were not represented, opposed and belied. Now, if that great astro- property at least was so. No: they were as far nomer, Gallileo, was so treated for a matter of wrong there. The vote of Liverpool, with a belief which lay so far from the door of every rateable property of 1845,445, was counterone, there is certainly nothing to marvel at balanced by Honiton, with a rateable property when such reformers as Hume and Cobden, of £9,891-being only one-fifty-eighth-part of who come forward to interfere with the craft the former. Yet in all votes affecting taxaof a class, should receive a warm opposition. tion, and everything else, Honiton had an Now, what do these men want, and what do equal voice with Liverpool. Again, Middlethey not want? They do not want to change sex, which was one great conglomeration of the British Constitution, as made up of Queen, towns and boroughs, and had a rateable proLords, and Commons. They believe that perty of the annual value of L.7,293,000, was under the present form of government we represented by 14 members, whilst Harwich, enjoy, and would still continue to enjoy, Lymington, Honiton, Totness, Bridgenorth, more true liberty than under any other form. Marlborough, aud Thetford, which returned They would not desire to dim a single jewel in 14 members likewise, had their aggregate ratethe crown of the Queen, nor would they able property only valued at £85,050. Besides, abolish or trench upon the constitutional pri- those boroughs were all more or less subject to vileges of the House of Lords. But in refer- family influence, which involved the startling ence to the House of Commons, something reflection, that on all questions of taxation, behoved to be done. It was only the House the families which control them could neutral of Commons in name, while in reality it was ise the votes of the whole county of Middlesex, not the Commons' House. It was intended to including the metropolis, But these were not represent the feelings of the people, and to the only instances that could be adduced. There protect the interests of the people; but it pro- were many more exhibiting the same anomalies duced neither a reflex of their sentiments, nor in an equally broad and striking light; and he exhibited an earnest regard for their weal. would ask if such a state of things were really These were strong assertions, but they were to be borne? borne out by proofs which could not be invali

I will now allude to the subject of taxdated. Mr. Cobden's motion for a reduction of

ation. As the result of the system, a gross ten millions of taxation received only 78 votes;

sum of about 60 millions sterling was raised Mr. Scott's, for a committee to inquire into the

annually-47 millions of which were raised state of the colonies, towards a reduction in

from trade and industry. Such an immense their cost, 34 votes; Sir John Parkington's

sum could never be raised by direct taxation. bill for suppressing bribery, 54 votes; Mr.

Had the customer of the grocer to pay the tax Ewart's motion for the abolition of capital punishments, 51 votes; Mr. Drummond's, in

on his tea and sugar to an officer at the door,

as he entered the shop, the impost would never relation to reducing the taxation, 100 votes;

be submitted to; but by including it in the Mr. Slaney's, to consider the condition of the

price of the article, it has a less obnoxious apworking classes, got the go-by, by the House being counted out; Mr. Berkeley's, for vote

pearance, while at the same time it is equally

crushing. So heavily did the taxes press upon by ballot, got 85 votes; Mr. Huine's, for ex

the poor, that a weaver, although working all tension of the suffrage, got 81 votes; Mr. Cob

Monday and Tuesday, did not gain anything den's, for international arbitration, 79 votes; by that portion of his week's labour for the Mr. O'Conner's, for the Charter, 13 votes;

maintenance of his family. Of his six days Mr. Osborne's, for reducing the temporalities

wages, he paid the whole he earned on the of the Irish Church, and appropriating the Monday and Tuesday in the shape of taxes. surplus to education, 103 votes; Mr. Tennyson

The speaker had made himself well acquainted D'Eyncourt's, for triennial Parliaments, 76 with the miseries of the poor. He had explored votes. All these questions were more or less the haunts of wretchedness and want. He had deeply interesting to the people, yet all of

seen the sempstress at her never-ending and them were rejected by large majorities. But

ill-reqnited toil, daily and hourly wasting her the House of Commons did not only not repre- miserable existence in a vain attempt to prosent the people at large, but it did not even long it. Others, too, he had visited of a differrepresent the electors themselves. Thus, on

ent calling, but equal in suffering and want the one hand, there were 42 members in the

ground to the dust by a system which forced House who represented 100,000 of a popula- thousands to starve that a few might riot in tion, while, on the other, a like number repre- luxury. He knew that much of the misery sented no less than 3,780,000. Here it was endured by the poor was self-inflicted; but he plain that even the electors themselves were

knew, at the same time, that the sempstress, not represented, for the representatives of the

in purchasing her tea--to her a real necessary few balanced those of the many, and neutralised their every vote.

Would any one, of

-paid to the Government 2d. out of every 3d.

in the shape of taxes; and who knew but that honesty and common sense, assert that such the very inadequacy of their wages to meet an arrangement was right and fair? Again, of their real wants, made them, in desperation, the 658 members that constituted the House, too often indulge in courses which they would 30 made a majority, and that number was otherwise shun. But ascending the scale, go orned by the boroughs; so that 3,127,000.- | into the coffee-room, and view the workman

Hunt of population these represented reading his newspaper. The tea or coffee that

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