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as a lecturer on temperance, he is not satis

fied with the machinery of temperance socieAn Inquiry into the Extent and Causes of Juvenile Depravity. Dedicated by special per

ties. The following passage is worthy of all mission to the Right Honourable the Earl of attention :-"Is there no philosophic spirit

Carlise. By THOMAS BEGGs. Gilpin. among the active leaders of that useful We have had this book before us for and important movement in favour of some time, but want of space to do any- temperance, that will undertake to point thing like justice to the subject on which the labours of societies to something more it treats has delayed the notice until the worthy of their efforts than the employpresent number.

The late discussion on ment of a few agents and missionaries ? the Ragged Schools, and on the Summary Surely it is not wise to expend time and Convictions Bill, has given an extraor- means in elucidating established facts or dinary interest to the questions which enforcing truths that none are ignorant or have been taken up by Mr. Beggs in his hardy enough to dispute. Would it not be Essay. We cannot hope to indicate even more in accordance with the spirit of the the topics he has introduced. The first age, to direct the inquiry to the causes of chapter is devoted to a statement of the sub- | intemperance, and the working out of pracject. The author has apparently no scruple tical means for their suppression and rein attacking the various palliative chari- moval ? Temperance reformers have ties which from platform and pulpit have been the pioneers of a great and glorious so often been boasted as the glory and work; and it is their province to lead pride of our times. He says that “ the public opinion to still greater triumphs. ignorant and presumptuous quack is but If they neglect the duties of the position a type of society in its treatment of moral so honourably acquired, they must not evils,” and protests against reliance on complain of weakness and want of support, poor laws, soup kitchens, and schemes of nor feel surprise that their progress is prison discipline as unworthy the en

feeble and slow. These are the necessary lightenment of the age. He proceeds to consequer.ces of allowing the intelligence examine the various statistics as to the which they have been instrumental in numerical strength of the dangerous classes. creating to outrun them in the race. He boldly attacks the exaggerations

Mr. Beggs deprecates the notion of which have found currency in several of reforming society by any one great our popular works; and objects to the panacea.

A combination of agencies statement so often made by authority in

must be employed. He does not conTemperance works that 60,000 drunkards tent himself with objecting to the meadie annually. Mr. Beggs on this head sures proposed by others, but suggests has been controverted; but as yet no at- principles of action, much more in accordtempt has been made to shew by calcula- ance with Christian feeling, and more tion and fair analysis the correctness of worthy of the age than those on which the statement he attacks. Those who our present remedial agencies are based. have entered upon the subject have shown The book must be read to be appreciated, a greater disposition to carp with the It is full of fact, every page is suggestive, author than deal with the statements he and we urge our readers to make themhas made. He shows the impossibility selves fully acquainted with its contents. of the statistics so often quoted from a They will rise from it better prepared to work by Dr. Harris, and as we think suc- take part in promoting the great work of cessfully, proves that crime is decreasing juvenile instruction and improvement. both in intensity and amount.

They may not agree with all that is adappalling amount unquestionably remains. vanced, but they will scarcely find a pasHe then enters into an examination of the sage that is not full of importance to social and domestic condition of the dan- those who are engaged in various labours gerous classes, and shews how intimately connected with the young. The author is the vice of drinking is connected with the

earnest and forcible, and is never diverted other vices; disfiguring the great bulk through the course of his argument from of the mendicant, the pauper, and the

the subject in hand. criminal classess. As will be expected by

It is computed that two-thirds of the seed those who are acquainted with Mr. Beggs sown by farmers never germinates.

A very


life to dead bodies, and spread a web of tele

graphic wire over our land, which will soon GALVANISM.

render time and distance terms obsolete. Gal This science, of which we yet know but the vanism has revealed more of the secret workpreface to its great volume of facts, was acci- ings of our system than any science of modern dentally discovered about 1790, by a French days; and is so closely associated with our comlady observing the convulsions of some frogs mon philosophy, that it is peculiarly the science that lay prepared for a dainty luncheon near to of the nation and the cottage. A few homely ex. the conductor of an electrifying machine. She periments will display its constant presence. The revealed the phenomenon' to her husband, pleasure experienced in drinking out of a pewProfessor Galvani, and he pursued a chain ter pot is produced by the galvanic action of of experiments, which being sustained and ex- the liquid upon the metal. If we place a piece tended by M. Volta, of Como, led to effects so of zinc under the tongue, and a half-crown or new and important, that another department silver spoon above, nothing peculiar will occur of philosophy was found necessary to embrace until they are connected, but on bringing them, and was called, in honour of its founder, them together a smarting sensation will be felt; " Galvanism, or by some “ Voltaic Electrici- and if performed in the dark, a small flash of ty."

light will pass before the eyes each time the If a frog be divided, and a small piece of zinc connection is made. Place a penny or halfbeing attached to the spine-we allow the hind crown, with the under side moistened with leys to rest upon a piece of silver, they will acid, on a piece of zinc somewhat larger, and move in a slight dance ; and if dipt in salt on the coin a common earth worm; whenever water first, the effect will be increased. This was the little creature attempts to crawl down it the primitive experiment, and the pewter- connects the circuit between the two metals, dish and brass conductor were the metals and, receiving a shock, returns to its former which convulsed the frogs in Galvani's larder. position-the only one tenable without pain. Volta contrived an arrangement which in. On this principle rings are made to encircle creased the power, and also rendered it avail. the trunks of trees and prevent grubs from able for experiments, by piling a series of plates climbing to damage the fruit and buds. On upon an earthenware dish in the following galvanic principles st pens are also made, order :-Copper cloth moistened with dilute which having a small piece of zinc revited to acid and zinc, copper cloth zinc, and so on, them, form a voltaic pen and prevent corosion. from twelve to twenty times; a wire soldered There are a hundred other domestic uses and to the top and bottom plates, and held in the comforts which this science may be made subhand, gave the shock. This he afterwards in- servient to ; and further research in it will proved upon by immersing slips of metal in a unveil new beauties and powers in the secret range of glasses filled with acidulated water, workings of nature. It is to galvanism we are or zinc and copper in each, connected by wires indebted for our present telegraphic commuvijoined from the copper of one glass to the zinc cations, which have often borne upon their of the next through the whole range. This swift wings the ministers of justice to appremachine is called a battery, and the one now hend guilt-averted the de:ith-blows of railway generally used is but a slight alteration of mistakes-drawn around the death-bed of the Volta's ; but as it occupied less space, and is departing the friends who alone can gladden more convenient, it is the one we shall advise last moments, and is fast linking together the our scientific readers to make, and describe cities of England and the nations of the world ; accordingly.

so that soon the breathings and sighs of our Get a trough or box of oak about twenty: people, and the whispered thoughts and four inches long, three-and a-half broad, and desires of foreign lands will echo each mofour deep, and having cut grooves along each ment in the London temple of the lightning side about one inch a-part, line the whole

wires, We cannot detail the particulars of the thickly with pitch or any resinous cernent. electric telegraph in this sketch, but hope to Warm on the hob of the grate pieces of slate or have a place for it in a future number of Cotglass, and slip them, while warm, in thegrooves, tage Science. and with a little pressure they will melt their way into their places; and, when cold, GUTTA PERCHA.-It is strange to what an the whole will be water-tight. Arrange copper extent a new substance found in nature will and zinc plates, connected with slips of copper,

alter all the habits of man. We see it especiastride over the partitions, a pair in each cell, ally in the metals, how civilization seems even the zinc of one joined to the copper of the next, to depend on some of them, and how they mark and wires soldered to the end plates to operate more or less all the external life of a country with. The trough being filled with dilute sul. with their inimitable hand-writing. Leather phuric acid, the battery is complete; and if bottles have given place to glass, but Mr. Alexcomposed of twenty-four cells will fuse metals, ander M‘Dougal, of Manchester, has somewhat fire combustibles, and give very smart shocks. returned to the old method of using barrels To render it durable, the zinc plates should be lined with gutta percha for carrying muriatic amalgamated with mercury, which is done by acid, instead of glass carboys. So far this new rubbing quicksilver over them while wet with product acts like malleable glass, and it will acid. Thus have we briefly traced the history be the means of taking many substances to and construction of the Voltaic battery, and great distances, and of course in gutta perche now let us glance at the results. This simple we have a new agent, how extensive we do not box of plates—this silent machine which a know, but still new. It has already begun to child might manage--and a school-boy con- affect our habits, and with them consequently struct, has reduced nature's most complex our modes of thinking to an equal extent.forms into their simples, restored muscular The Leader.



I say

Controversial Page.

HOW TO CLOSE SHOPS EARLY. (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for all the opinions entered in the controversial page.] I am about to write on a debateable subject

not that the early closing subject itself is de

bateable, as there can be scarcely two opinions THE SPELLING REFORM.

about it-but about the means of altering the AFTER reading the articles which appeared in present unjust and iniquitous system. the pages of THE PUBLIC Good on the above sub- unjust aud iniquitous, for what can be more ject by one of the Pitmans, I was quite pleased to

so than our present late shopping system? see that any one who did not agree with what is Really, I sometimes blush that I am an Engcalled the new system of spelling” might state

lishman, when I think on the many, many his own opinions, and give his reasons for hold- wrongs, which selfishness perpetuates among ing them. I am one of those who do not see

us. Look at the present state of things. We either the propriety of interfering with the es- see young men and women who would, under tablished mode of spelling words, or the prac

a better arrangement, be respectable and useful ticability of the Phonetic system. The Eng- citizens, made into mindless machines. We lish language enshrines one of the finest and see them toiling for sixteen or eighteen hours most exalting literatures that ever existed in a-day-and for what? To meet an urgent neany age or country. It is not only in use

cessity? To perform something which humanamongst ourselves, but in America, in Africa, ity demands ? Nothing of the kind. The late in India, in Australia, and a great many other shopping system is the result of thoughtlessplaces in the world. And to disturb language ness, stony-hearted indifference, and selfishas it is now constructed, would not only ma- ness. It is a system into which the people in terially inconvenience the inhabitants of our their eager pursuit after perishing gold, and owu country, but of many other countries. It

their carelessness of the means employed in would also, I think, injure our literature. obtaining it, have plunged. All who have Many of the best thoughts of many of our best

hearts to feel, or who have minds to see its authors, would be marred if expressed in any

disadvantages, must deplore such a state of other way than those in which they were

things. There can only be but a very, very originally uttered or penned. A material mo

small number of men who would perpetuate dification of our etymology, such as that con

such a system for its own sake. Perhaps there templated by Messrs. Pitman and Ellis, would may be a few such, who though living in the not only seriously inconvenience all who talk present, are in reality the inhabitants of a past our language, but it would build an almost in- age. And, the chief thing to be considered surmountable barrier in the way of those fo- now, is the best means of putting it down. By reigners who are now learning, or who may persuasion and mutual arrangement, say some. have learnt, our language. They would have Early closing societies have tried to do the deto unlearn what they have learned, which, to șired thing by such means. But, as yet, they say the least of it, would be sufficiently un

have failed, and so I am afraid they will do. palatable to induce them to throw up the lan

And why? Because it will be an exceedingly guage with disgust. What, if the French or difficult, if not an impossible thing, to bring the Germans were to alter their method of shopkeepers all of the same opinion to do the spelling, would it not perplex all who may, in

same thing at the same time. They do not this ountry, be learning, or who may have

possess humanity, heroism, and determinalearned, either of those languages? No doubt

tion enough to carry them to such an issue. there are inconsistencies in our way of spelling. They have

from time to time in various places, But have they not come down to us with the

come to some agreement among themselves. sanction of ages ? The question is, not that

After a short time some morally weak or selwe have inconsistencies in the construction and fish man, has kept his shop open later, because pronunciation of our words, but would it not some other one did, or for some other reason. be more inconsistent to so remodel them as to When one has broken the agreement, others

have done the same. require the introduction of new characters as

And in a very short time significations of sounds ; to have an altogether they find themselves just where they were benew alphabet, a new type, and to have all our

fore they commenced an alteration. And so printing and writing cast in another mould, to the thing will go on, if some more stringent begin our childhood again, to learn another means be not employed to oblige to close ear

lier. alphabet, and pass through another educa- I think they should be made to close the tional training, and to call on all others who shops earlier—that apprentices and assistants either talk our language, or who are learning

have a right to more time, and that governto talk it, to follow our example? Why, really

ment should guarantee it to them. What more the Phonetic innovators have not attempted

easy thing than to pass a legislative enactto measure the magnitude of the work to

ment that at such an hour all shops should be

closed? This would do the thing at once. which they have committed themselves. Even admitting the propriety of all alterations in

Those who would now close earlier, but who our spelling of words, the thing to be ascer

cannot because others will not, would then be tained, is such a sweeping system as the Pho- protected by the law. Besides the government netic one, practicable or even possible? I think

interferes in factories, in mines, and other a man must have a more than ordinary portion places, and why not in shops? A change is of credulity to think so.

demanded at once, and in my opinion it can Most respectfully,

only be done by Parliamentary interference. HOLDFAST.

J. B.

ALMANAC OF NATURE-JUNE, 1850. Now is the time of leaves and flowers

ing rush gleam and nod beside the stream as Now is the earth in her golden prime; And buds that were watered by April showers,

if about to sail out into the current, and leave Now gaily blossom in suminer's-shrine.

the green home of grass and rushes in which

J. S. HIBBERD. they have been sheltered during all the biting Now the summer has opened her grand tem- into flower, and shake their panicles of purple

storms of spring ; the grasses come flickering ple of foliage, and has hung the green doors

or of silver bloom in every passing wind ; and with new troops of flowers. The fields are

the green earth, bedecked in her new gar. ankle deep in flowers, and the earth is holding a jubilee. The bird and the bee are sing-ments and robed from head to foot in flowers, ing their merry songs, and the forest runuels

is jubilant and glad.

Around in the fields and above, among the are tinkling along over the shiny pebbles as if they must be merry too. The mornings and in short flights, and chirping and twittering to

trees, the young birds are trying their wings evenings are like glimpses of the olden days each other, as though exulting in the new of enchantment, and dew-drops sparkle in the chalices of flowers, and rich clouds of aroma powers with which they find themselves en.

dowed. float over the earth and steep the senses in a

The blackcap is now engaged in the rosy bliss. The hedges are like high walls of whole of this anxious period, it makes the

watchful labour of incubation, and during the interlaced roses and honeysuckles, and the air resound with its harmonious notes. There meadows and woods are sprinkled with orchises and composite plants innumerable. In ping over the corn-fields and around the walls

are large flocks of redstarts jerking and skipboggy places we may now find the butterwort, of old buildings and ruins : at daybreak they and that curious plant, called sun-dew. In the marshes and beside running streams the may be seen on the topmost boughs of the water-crowfoot and the water-violet, and the The Hycatcher and the goldfinch are also in

trees, pouring out their floods of merry song. forget-me-not, and the brooklime produce song during this month ; but many of these their lovely blossoms, and make such green birds which uttered such joyous notes on the spots as radiant as though the golden stars first dawn of spring, and which make the wel: had fallen from the sky. On the sea shore the kin ring for joy when the first glimmerings of horned poppy has a brilliant appearance, and sunshine come, are now silent. its sea-green leaves harmonize beautifully gale, the thrush, the blackbird, and the wren

The nightinwith the hue of the waters which wash its have ceased to sing, and when they hie alone, roots, and sprinkle it with briny spray. In

the woods and forest-paths are mute. the same situations inay also be found, the sea milkwort, the sea holly, or eryngo, and the quiet dells and wild nooks in the old woods,

The dry banks by the roadside and the many other loveiy plants which grow

amid the shingle and the sands.

are now tenanted by multitudes of insects.

The ant-lion digs his pitfall and lurks below The ferns unrol their fronds, and spread like a demon ready to seize with his terrible their fan-like foliage waving on the summer fangs any unfortunate creature which shall air ; the scarlet poppies glitter in the sunny fall within his power. If the prey be larger fields, and tower up boldly above the green and more formidable than ke dare attack with and waving corn. The white water-lily reposes impunity, he flings upon it repeated showers like a river queen upon the blue bosom of the of sand, until blinded, bewildered. and conquiet waters; the yellow flag and the flower-1 fused it becomes an easy victim to his rapacity.

The planet Mercury is in the constellation Taurus all this month, and situated in the Milky Way. Venus is in Gemini till the 17th, and in Cancer from the 18th; she is moving eastward, and is an evening star during the month. Mars is an evening star, and is in the group Cancer till the 20th; on which day he passes into Leo. Jupiter is in the costellation Leo throughout the month, and appears as a brilliant blue star in the evening. Saturn is a morning star, and is in the constellation Pisces during the month. 1 | Dist. of Sun from Earth, at noon, 96,375,000 m. M. Poussin, Art.

1594 Su Planet Venus at her perihelion. M 3 Moon in Pisces. Water avens, yellow iris fl. William Hilton. Art.

1786 Sweetbriar, trailing, burnet, and dogroses fl. T. S. Albrecht. Natural History,

1745 W 5 Water violet and water gladiole. Butcher bird. Adam Smith. Wealth of Nations.

1723 Th Common blue flax. Blackcap sings.

P. Corneille. Drama.

1606 F 7 Yellow rattle and enchanters might-shade. John Rennie. Waterloo Bridge,

1761 Moon in Taurus. Sticklebacks en, in mor. com. J. D. Cassini. Astronomy.

1625 Su Dedder, and bird's nest orchis. Snakes abound. B. Pascal. Philosophy.

1623 M Largc fíowered butterwort in fl. John Dolland. Optics.

1706 T Moon in Gemini. Redstarts in flocks.

Ben Jonson. Drama.
Sedum alba and S. acris in f.

M. D. Arjona. Poetry,

1761 Th Brooklime, water lily, and back bean

T. Arnold, D.D. History.

1795 F Moon in Leo. Three species of orpine Al. T. Pennant Zoology and Antiquities.

1726 S

Scarlet pimpernel, poppy, gromwell, and bu- P. G. Rembrant. Art. Su 16 Moon in Virgo. (gloss. — Salvator Rosa. Art.

1615 M 17 Red fumitory, charlock fl. on banks. T By the seaside valeriam, samphire. K.W. R. Rotteck. History.

1775 W 19

Urtica ureus, U. dioica and other nettles in fl. R. P. Morghen. Engraving.
Moon in Libra. Poppies fl.

A. L. Barbauld. Literature.
F 21

Caterpillars of vapomer and tussock moths.

L. D'Arvieux, Oriental Literature.
Feather grass, (Stipa permata) in ti.

Thomas Day, Education,
Su 23
Foxglove, mallow, bladder campior on hedge- E. L. Malus. Polarisation of Light.

1775 M Moon in Sagittarius. [banks. J. B. Massillon. Divinity.

1663 T 25 Quake grass, (Briza media) fl. J. H. Tooke. Diversions of Purley.

1736 W 26 Moon in Capricornus. Sweet scented vernal George Morland. Art.

1763 Th 27 Wild hyacinth in fields.

28 Moon in Aquarius. Bitter swelt by river sides. Charles Matthews. The Comedian.

Cinquefoil and tormentil fl.

P. P. Rubens, Art. Su 30 Moon in Piscer. Ino statices abundant.











1758 1743 1635 1748






them who are determined to sciibble, to write as Notices to Correspondents, well as they can and burn their productions, to

write and burn again ; and if, after all, they

should not be sufficiently fortunate to have THE POETIC SUPPLEMENT.-With the present print, not always to put it down to the incapa

their names, or the fruits of their genius in number, we fulfil our promise by presenting city or impartiality of editors, but to imagine our subscribers and the public with a sup- that it may arise from their own inability, or plemental number, consisting wholly of

the unsuitability of their contributions to the poetry. We hope, and we think, it will be periodicals to which they may be sent. found interesting and instructive. We have

PRIZE ESSAY ON WOMAN'S MISSION.- We fully not been able to appropriate one-half of the

thought that our space would have permitted poetry sent us. Since the intimation which

us to have inserted in the present number the appeared in our last, of our intention to

above Essay. As yet, we do not know the decipublish the Poetic Supplement in June, and sion of the adjudicators. This we shall know the invitation we gave our frieuds to supply in a few days; and our readers may expect, us with suitable contributions, we have receiv- without fail, the successful Essay in our next. ed a respectable carpet-bag-full of letters. We

One reason why we have not pushed the have received an abundance of poetry and

matter more vigorously is, we were desirous rhyme. good, bad, and indifferent. We have

to get the Essay on

“ Woman's Mission” inhad many good pieces, but many more inciffe- serted in the same number which contains the rent, and still more bad. If we had twice the

ladies' autographs. space we could easily have filled it; but we

We were very glad to learn from many quarvery much fear our readers would not thank us

ters that the prize poem on Home, has been for it. It was our intention, at first, to have

read with much satisfaction. mentioned every poem that reached us, which

SPARL.—You are right. The series of Public we have not the space or the inclination to in.

Good tracts, which will be issued soon, will, to a sert ; but their number prevents our doing so. It considerable degree, supply the apparent de. is right that we should say that several very good ficiency. poems reached us too late for insertion. Had

S. P. R.- We cannot say whether the prize they arrived at an earlier period, they would

essay on mechanics' institutions will appear in bave had the preference to many which were a supplementary number, or in successive in type. To one and all of our contributors, numbers of our magazine. correspondents, and friends, who have so ge

J. T. - We have decided not to bring out the nerously contributed, and who have promised

Public Good oftener than once a month for the to co-operate and push the sale of the Poetic present year. Supplement in their respective neighbour

J. W., R. M. C., and T. A.-We would rather hoods, we proffer our most cordial thanks.Those of our subscribers who have not got the

not have contributions sent us written in phoSupplement, may get it at any time through nography. their booksellers. It is uniform in price and A column of original couplets in our next. size with the Public Good, and will be found

LADIES' HAND WRITING. We have from time a very good companion for the numbers which to time received communications from ladies have been issued and those which are to come.

so badly written, that we have been unable to In our last we stated a hope that the present

get through their manuscripts. What we disnumber would contain a portrait of Mrs. Bal- like most, and what we think all editors must

As we have been unable to get a good dislike, is that sharp pointed hand, in which all likeness of that highly esteemed lady, we have the bottoms and all the tops of the letters are given a page of autographs instead.

alike. This may be fashionable, but to us it is AUTOGRAPHS.— The present number contains disagreeable. A German lady once asked us the autographs of

why it was that almost all English ladies wrote

alike. We could only answer by stating that Charles Dickens. Dr. Achilli.

they were so educated, but we do not know John Bright.

J. Sheridan Knowles. why they should be. In fact, we think it foolBaptist Noel.

Sir Joshua Walmsley. ish and injurious-foolish because it is acting Thos. Noon Talfourd, William Wordsworth. in obedience to an absurd fashion, and injuriSouthwood Smith. William Charles Mac- ous because it interferes with the character of Thomas Cooper.


distinctive writers. If there is to be any fashDouglas Jerrold. Benjamin Disraeli,

ion at all in writing, or if any particular manSamuel Rogers. Isaac Pitman.

ner of forming the letter be generally adopted, Geo. Crabb. Thos. Moore,

let it not be that angular sharp-pointed unYOUNG WRITERS.–We have received prose

beautiful mode, which has for too long a time and poetical contributions from many who

been too much in vogue with educated women, call themselves young authors. In many cases

but something more flowing, curve-like, and there was no necessity for them to tell us so,

beautiful. No doubt we shall call down upon as what they wrote was an evidence of it. But

ourselves many severe strictures for thus speakbecause they were young and inexperienced they ing against the fashionable mode of our fair imagined that a preference would be given to

friends' writing ; but we are prepared for that their lucubrations. In this they are sadly mis

if we can in any way check the progress of what taken. What would the mass of our general

is to us, at all events, an unmanly if not an unreaders say if we inscrted inferior poems and pa

womanly practice. pers because their wiiters were young ?

We Lines written by a Quaker, and sent with a would advise our young friends, or those of watch to an unskilful watchmaker, who had


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