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THE PHILOSOPHY OF BREAD AND BREAD
(Continued from page 25.)
dition of a proper proportion of muriatic acid to the water used in making the bread, and of carbonate of soda to the flour. The philosophy of their action is thus :-Muriatic acid is a compound of chlorine, hydrogen, and water. Carbonate of soda is a compound of soda and carbonic acid. The muriatic acid sets free the carbonic acid, and combines with the metallic base of the soda, forming common salt, while the carbonic acid expands within the dough and gives the bread the same spongy texture as fermentation. The theory of the process can be rendered simple by a diagram :
The various baking powders are, without ex- per cent. loss in the substance and nutritive ception, un wholesome; they are mixtures of properties of the flour itself. citric or tartaric acid with carbonate of soda ; The use of muriatic acid is acceptible on the and when they combine with each other under score of economy, but it is not safe to use the the influence of moisture, a pernicious salt of muriatic acid of commerce, as that is never soda is produced.
sufficiently pure to he allowed to enter into a Another mode of raising bread is by means mortal stomach. It invariably contains iron of leaven. In this process a portion of flour is and very often arsenic. So great a difficulty wetted, and allowed to, ferment spontaneously, have I, on many occasions, experieneed in and then mingled with dough consisting only getting this acid in a pure condition for cheof flour and water ; and the bread produced is mical purposes, that I have been under the neremarkably mellow in flavour and easy of di- | cessity of preparing it myself. I denounce in gestion. The last mode of making bread is by a wholesale manner, and without reserve, all simply mixing flour and water in the proper Baking Powders,' as insiduous and destrucproportion, and then baking without any tive to health. In fact, the purest, most plealightening whatever. This is unfermented sant, and most economieal bread is that made bread, and from chemical reasoning and ex- without any lightening or leavening whatever. perience together, I do not hesitate to pro- It will keep sweet and moist longer than any nounce it to be the best bread that can be other kind, is of a most relishing flavour, and eaten; although it has a strange flavour and the most wholesome food that can be eaten. appearance to those unaccustomed to eat it. Leaving these facts to the reader, I now preI have myself used for some time past the un- sent a few recipes for making bread, according leavened biscuits made by the Messrs. Edwards, to each method mentioned. of the Albion Mills. Blackfriars, and find them to be the best bread I can obtain, in the ab
RECIPES FOR MAKING BREAD. sence of home-made unleavened loaves.
The relative value of these different modes 1. Household Bread.-Take one bushel of of making bread may be briefly stated thus :- good flour, and mix with it two gallons of lukeThe Panary fermentation has an advantage warm water, and three pints of good yeast; possessed by no other process of furnishing stir well with the hands till it becomes tough. test of the quality of the flour. Its indications Let it rise, and then add another two gallons of the comparative excellence and soundness of warm water and a pound of salt, work it of wheaten flour is unequivocal.
Wheaten well, and cover it with a cloth; then prepare flour is distinguished from that of all other your oven, and by the time it is ready, the cerelia by its gluten and the completeness of dough also will be ready ; divide the dough its panary fermentation ; and this complete. into loaves of about five or six pounds each ness is just in the precise ratio of its amount clean the oven, put in the bread; shut close of gluten. But by the use of the chemical and bake for three hours. Coarse flour abagents mentioned, no indications are afforded sorbs more water than fine. as to whether the flour is of the first excellence, 2. Hagget's Economical Bread. - Take five or altogether unwholesome and worthless. pounds of coarse bran, and boil it in five gal
This peculiarity of the panary fermentation Tons of water, so that, when smooth, you may is useful as a test of the value of the flour, but have three-and-a-half gallons of it fit for use. in daily use must be balanced against the 22 With this knead four stones of flour, with salt
THE PHILOSOPHY OF BREAD AND BREAD MAKING.
and yeast in the same proportion as in other baked they will keep many weeks, and improve bread; bake it two hours and a half. The by keeping. These are well known in London water in which the bran has been boiled has
as “ Digestive Biscuits." imbibed a considerable amount of nutritive
9. Potato Bread.-Boil six pounds of potamatter, and hence the bread made from it is
toes, and mix them well with as much milk as more nutritious than if made from pure water.
will enable them to pass through a colander. The above quantity of four made with plain
Take a pint of yeast and the same quantity of water yields 69 lbs. 8 ozs. of bread, but when
warm water, and mix with the potatoes, add mixed with bran-water it produces 83 lbs. 8ozs.
this to 10 lbs. of flour and a quarter a pound of leaving a balance of 14 lbs. of excellent bread
salt. Knead it well, and let it stand before the on every 56 lbs. of flour,
fire one hour to rise; then divide into loaves, 3. Fermented Bread.-The following formula, and bake for three hours. proposed by Mr. H. Draw, affords very good
10. Rice Bread.- Simmer 2 lbs. of rice in a bread, in many respects superior to that made with yeast :
gallon of water till it becomes perfectly soft.
When sufficiently cool, mix it well with 8 lbs. Flour
3 lbs., imperial. Cold water
of flour, with yeast and salt as for other bread. 1. pint., imperial.
When well kneaded, set it before the fire to Sesquicarbonate of soda, oz, troy.
rise. Bake as other bread. It is very econoMuriatic acid 5 fluid drs., sp.gr.1.16.
mical. Salt if required. Mix the soda perfectly with the flour, and the
11. Tea Cakes.-Flour 1 lb., sugar 1 oz., acid with the whole of the water. Then mix butter 1 oz., muriatic acid 100 minims, sesqui. the whole intimately and speedily together.
carbonate of soda 80 grs., milk 7 fluid ozs., The above generally may be made into two
water 7 fluid ozs. Rub the butter with the loares, and should be put immediately into a
flour ; dissolve the sugar and soda in the milk, quiek oven. It would require about one hour
and the acid in the water. First add the milk, and a half to bake.
&c. to the four, and partially mix; then the
water and acid, and mix well together; divide 4. Fermented Bread.- Take 2 lbs. of wheat
into three portions, and bake twenty-fiye mimeal or fine vur, tea-spoonsful (or 1 oz.) of
nutes. Flat round tins are the best to bake Powell's saccharine powder, and 1 pint of water.
them in, Mix the powder well with the meal (and salt if preferred), and pour the water on gradually,
12. French Bread.-To a peck of fine flour stirring it quickly with a wooden spoon into a
add the yolks of twelve and the whites of eight light dough of such consistency as will scarcely
eggs, beaten and strained, a quart of good bear kneading, which it will not require. Put
yeast and some salt. Then mix with as much it into a tin, or make it into a round loaf and
milk as will make the whole into a light dough, bake it immediately, or it should not stand
stirring it well, but without kneading. Have more than twenty minutes before being placed
ready several wooden dishes, holding about a in the oven. The oven should be rather quicker quart each ; divide the dough among them ; set than that usually required for yeast bread.
it to rise ; and then turn them out of the bowls That all may be well mixed, it is better only to
into a quick oven. When baked, rasp them. make up one or two loaves at once (which only 13. To make Yeast.-An excellent substitute requires a few minutes,) and then another por- for yeast may be prepared from potatoes. Boil tion in the same way, till all is prepared, then and peal some mealy potatoes, and break them the whole can be put in the oven at once. up very fine, adding as much water as will 5. Leavened Bread.-Put half a pint of wheat
make them of the consistence of yeast. To meal in a vessel, and just cover it with water,
every pound of potatoes add two ounces of and let it remain about twelve hours ; then coarse sugar, and when just warm, stir it up make a dough of 12 lbs. of meal, and sufficient
with two spoonsful of yeast. Keep it warm water, and add to it the meal which has been till the fermentation is over, and in twentyleft to ferment. Bake it in the usual way.
four hours it will be fit for use. 6. Unleavened Brend.-Mix equal quantities
yeast may thus be made from one pound of of coarse unbolted wheat flour and coarse oat
potatoes, which will keep good for three
months. The 'sponge should be set eight meal, with enough water to make it of a neces
hours before the bread is baked. If it works sary consistency. Let it remain about two hours, then bake it well. This bread should
well, so much the better. not have yeast. It is the most wholesome food that can be eaten, and exceedingly pleasant.
7. Indian Corn Bread.-Indian corn absorbs twice as much water as wheaten flour, and
THE VALUE OF LABOUR, -Cast-iron worth £1 should be mixed with boiling water. Other
sterling, is worth, converted into ordinary wise it may be treated the same as wheaten
machinery, 24; larger ornamented work, £45; meal. A stone of maize meal produces three
buckles aud Berlin work, £660, neck chains, pounds more bread than the same quantity of &c.,, £1386; shirt buttons, £5896. Bar-iron, wheat.
worth £1 sterling, in knives, £36; needles,
£71; penknife blades, £958; polished buttons 8. Digestive Biscuits.-Another excellent me. thod to make unfermented bread is to mix up
and buckles, £897; balance springs of watches,
£500. wheat-meal in as small a portion of water as will cause it, after much kneading or rolling, From the Roman Catholic directory it apo to adhere ; then roll and cut it into biscuits pears that there are now in England 674 chapels, about half an inch thick, three inches square, 888 priests, 13 monasteries, 41 convents, 11 and bake them in a very quick oven.
If well colleges, and 250 schools.
A quart of
ALMANAC OF NATURE-APRIL, 1850.
of a reddish tinge, and the beech too opens its
and the lime throw a soft shadow of tender The silver wreath of May.
green. And now that the forest trees have The year has now entirely shaken off the traces got their leaves, they begin to show their blosof Winter, and begins to revel in sunshine and
soms. Those of the lime are peculiarly beauti. floral beauty. The weather is becoming ful, being attached to a long, thin, membranegenial : sunshine and flowers alternate with
ous bract, which renders them easy of recogeach other; and the earth grows in loveliness, nition, and they are delightfully fragrant. The and becomes joyous with song. Most of the flowers of the maples have no petals, but the wild flowers are now in perfection; the blos- anthers of their stamens are deeply colouredsoms of the sloe and the bullace 'adorn the either red or yellow, and are very ornamental. hedges, and the buds of the hawthorn are has- The plane trees still retain the ball-like fruits tening to open, and cover the hedgerows with of the previous year and these do not fall off
till summer has invested the branches with their fragrant foam. Among herbaceous plants of this month may be enumerated cow
their own massive robes. Towards the end of slips, polyanthuses, the arum,
the month the large red catkins of the black “Beting'd with yellowish white, or lusty hue;"
poplar begin to fall, and look on the ground dog violets, purple anemonies, the lady orchis, kins of the Italian poplar (Populus mondifera)
like caterpillars of the goat-moth. The cat. wood sorrel, ground ivy, meadow saxifrage, the also begin to fall and scatter the ground with forget-me-not, wood scorpion-grass, and vari.
masses of cottony substance. The ash now ous kinds of ranunculus or crow-foot. These make the fields and banks gay with their
blose produces its curious seed-pods, which in some soms, and sweet with their refreshing odours. bearn, and the common horn-bearn are also in
parts are called ash-keys. The hop hornA very curious plant, the toothwort (Lathece
flower. squamaria) may be found occasionally at this season growing on the roots of trees. It has a pearance in this month. About the fourteenth
Most of the migratory birds make their ap. yellowstalk, clothed with white tooth-like we hear the first notes of the cuckoo, which scales, and bears purple flowers. The curious liverwort (Marchantia hemisphærica) is usual- Ilid in some bush, now sings her idle song, ly in perfection at this season: it has the ap
Monotonous, yet sweet; now here, now there; pearance of a number of little green toadstools
Herself but rarely seen. growing out of flat leaves, and frequently The common sand-piper may now be seen in grows in company with the common liverwort, the marshes and beside lakes and ponds. It on the earth in flower-pots, on the banks of is said that when diving, this bird uses its ditches, or in the moist crevices of rocks. The wings under water the same as in flying. This trees come into leaf one after the other, and bird is supposed to pass its winters generally by the end of the month the forest is clothed in the south of Europe, but it has been in a garment of emerald. The elm puts on its found at Tangiers, in Asia Minor, and even delicate robes; the oak assumes its new foilage I in India.
The planet Mercury will be in the constellations Pirces, Cetus, Pirces, Aries and Taurus, respectively from the Ist to the 30th of the month. He is favourably situated for observation during a few evenings at the end of the month. The planet Venus will be in the constellations Pisces, Aries, and Taurus, and is an evening star throughout the month, Mars is in the group Gemini and is an evening star, inoving eastward throughout the month. Jupiter is in the constellation Leo, and moves westward during the month. Saturn is in the constellation Cetus, and being near the sun is unfavourably situated for observation. M1 Dis. of Sun from Earth, at noon, 94,190,000 m. Descartes. Metaphysician.
1596 T 2 Moon in Op. Globe fl. and marsh marigold tl. T. Jefferson. American Independ.
1743 W 3 "Grace and beauty everywhere flushing into George Herbert. Poetry, etc.
1598 Th 4 Moon in Sagittarius. Spring gentian f. [life.” B. Kennicott. Hebrew Literature.
1718 Sirius S. 5h. 44m. p.m. Dog violets fl. Thomas Hobbes. Metaphysics.
1588 S 6 Sand pipers, Titlarks, in fiights.
James Mill. History of British India.
1773 Su' 7 Moon in Cap. Toothwort (Latheæa squamaria) William Wordsworth. Poetry. M8 Wistarin, or Glyaire sineusis fi. (A. J. C. Loudon. Horticulture,
1783 Laburnum, and wild cherry A. Sir H. Wotton. Politics.
1568 W 10 Moon in Cetus, moving near Pisces and Aries. William Hazlitt. Criticism.
1778 Th 11 Scolopendra electrica in gravelly soils.
G Canning. Politics. 12 Robinia pseudo acacia fi.
Earl Durham. Polities.
1792 S 13 Water ranunculus and meadow saxifrage fi. E. W.Tschirnhausen. Mathem. Opt.
1651 Su 14 Cuckoo begins to sing.
C. Huyghens. Mathematics.
1629 M 15 Moon Occults Ald. at Sh. 3m. p.m.
L. Euler. Mathematics. T
1707 16 Procyon S. 5h. 53m. p.m Death watch now Sir H. Sloane. British Museum.
1660 W 17 Moon in Or., crossing the milky way. [heard. Edward Stillingfleet. Divinity.
1635 TL 18 Moon in Gemi. Saw fly dep. eggs in g'berry lvg. John Leland, Antiquarian and Poet.
1552 F 29 Fem. earwigs dep. their eggs in shelter'd spots. D. Ricardo. Political Economy.
1772 20 Pansies, chickweed, stitchworth, hyacinth, Al. Robert Fowlis. Printing, Su 21
1707 Moon in Leo. Box and white bryony, fl. R. Heber. Poetry. M22 Regulus S. 7b. 58m. p.m.
1783 H. Fielding. Norels, etc.
1707 T 23 Black cap begins to sing,
W. Shakspere. Druma.
1564 W 24 Hoon in Virgo. Sea pea (Pisum maritimum) 4. E. Cartwright. Power-loom.
1743 Th 25 Wild heartsease il Chesnut, hazelnut, f. 0. Cromwell. The Protector.
1599 F 26 Nightingale's first notes. Hornbeam in fl. David Hume. History und Metaphysics.
1711 8 27 Moon in Libra. Wood spurge, oak, fl.
Edw. Gibbon, the Roman Historian.
1737 Su 28 Ash tree, and many species of speedwell A. F. Baily. Astrononny.
1774 1 29 25 species of willow in fl.
Charles Nodier. Poetry.
1780 T30 Crab-apple, pear and common plum, f.
B. Asioli. Music.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
Answers to Correspondents, &c.
We wish it to be distinctly understood, that we cannot, under any circumstances, insert
quack medicine advertisements. We believe Editor's Address:-16, Hardinge-street, Islington. quack medicine sellers, whatever may be their
professions, are in most cases injurious to the Parties who wish to have their communica- community, and consequently we can in no tious inserted or noticed, must furnish us with way promote or sanction their practices. their names and addresses in confidence.
For the conveniance of Reformers, it is our PRIZE POEM. - We had hoped that the Prize
intention, from time to time, to give forms of Poem on Home, would have appeared in the
petitions to the Houses of Parliament. We do present number, but we have not yet received
this, as we are very well aware of the indispothe decision of the adjudicators; who, we fear, sition on the part of a great many people, who will have some difficulty in deciding, on ac
feel desirous to petition the Legislature for the count of the large number of very good poems
redress of some grievance, or for the removal which have been sent us.
of some abuse, but who do not like the work We wish all the competitors to distinctly un
of constructing the petition. With the present derstand that no poem will be rejected that number we give forins of petitions for the abofalls within tbe limits of either of the announce
lition of taxes on knowledge and for arbitraments which appeared in the February and tion and disarmament. March numbers. Any poem that is eighty lines or upwards, and that does not extend beyond a
(FOR ARBITRATION AND DISARMAMENT.) page, will be eligible for the prize. We have To the Honourable the Commons of Great Bri. received several that, whatever may be their tian and Ireland, in Parliament assembled, merits, cannot obtain the prize on account of
The Petition of the their shortness. We cannot undertake to re
Sheweth:turn the manuscripts of the unsuccessful com. petitors.
That your petitioners believe the present
enormous standing armaments, maintained by Our readers will see, in the announcement in
the various countries of Christendom, are a the last page, that the periods for sending in
great evil, by the large and unproductive exthe competing manuscripts for the Prose Tale
penditure of wealth which they occasion, and on the Early Closing Question, and the Essay by the feelings of mutual suspicion and dison Mechanics’ Institutions, is extended to meet
quietude which they foster and perpetuate the convenience of competitors. If any one,
among the nations. previous to seeing this announcement, should
That your petitioners are convinced that a have sent in his manuscript, and who would wish it to be returned, we should be most
hap- prudent and timely recourse to Arbitration, is
a more certain and satisfactory, as well as a py to comply with his request. Mr. Jolin Lilwall, Secretary of the Early international differences, than the practice of
more rational and Christian method, of settling, Closing Association, 32, Ludgate Hill, has kindly offered to supply, on application, any
appealing to the sword.
Your petitioners therefore pray your IIonour. competitor for the Tale, who may be in want
able House, to adopt such measures as may of any accurate information on the subject,
seem requisite to promote negotiations bewith any of the publications of the association.
tween the Government of this country and The proprietor of the Public Good, being a
other Governments of the world respectively, member of the Whittington Club, has offered calling their attention to the necessity of enterShakspear's Works in one Volume, beautifully ing, by a general and simultaneous measure, bound, for the best short essay on Elocution upon a system of disarmainent, and the wisClasses, and Milton's Poetical Works in one dom of forming such Treaties of Arbitration, volume, beautifully bound, for the best De- as shall bind the parties, in case of any future scriptive Poem for recitation in elocution misunderstanding, to refer the subject matter classes. Only members of the Whittington of dispute to the decision of Arbitrators. Club are eligible as competitors. We merely And your petitioners will ever pray, &c. notice the matter here to let our numerous readers know that the successful essay and
(FOR REPEAL OF TAXES ON KNOWLEDGE.) poem will appear in our pages.
To the Honourable the House of Commons, the
Petition of the undersigned. "The Spelling Reform.”—The paper on this
SHEWETH:subject by one of the Pitmans, which appeared in the 2nd and 3rd numbers of the Public That all taxes which specially and directly Good, has, it appears, elicited contrary opinions impede the diffusion of knowledye, are inas to the utility and practicability of the new
jurious to the best interests of the public. system. This being the case, we shall have no That the Tax upon Newspapers-called the objection to admitting a short paper in de- Stamp; the Excise Duty upon Paper, and the fence of the old system. We think a temperate,
Tax upon Advertisements, are direct obstacles reasonable controversy on the subject will do to the spread of all kinds of valuable inforına. no harm but good. In future, it is our inten- tion amongst the great body of the people. tion to devote a small portion of each number Your petitioners therefore pray, that the to matters of controversy, in which parties Excise Tax upon Paper, the Tax upon Adver. for or against disputed questions may take a tisements, and the Stamp Tax upon News. part. It may be called the “controversial de. papers, may be abolished, leaving the proper partment." We should prefer short, pithy, authorities to fix a small charge for the trans. and pointed communications, and all of them mission of Newspapers by the Post. pointing to the public good.
And your Petitioners will ever pray.
These forms of petition must be copied in “The Reminiscences of a Sick Nurse.”—The writing, as no printed petitions are received ; first paper is very good. It is requisite we every person siguing them should state his or should see the whole before we could proher name and address; the petitions may then nouace on its suitability or unsuitability to be directed, open at the sides, to any Liberal our columns. Member of the House of Commons, who will G. M. E.-" Truthfulness" received. receive them post free.
Pelagius," “ Ode to Felicity,” and “the E. U., NEWPORT. Captain Sword and Sempstress," may appear in the supplementary Captain Pen,” by Leigh Hunt, is an admirable number, if we issue it. poem on the advantages of peace and the hor. “A Working Man,” wishing to shew the rors of war.
value of Infant Schools, says, “ The other J. H, P., Bodmin, says, “You have done in- evening, after my day's labour, I had returned calculable good by calling public attention to home, and was in the act of sawing a log of the 'undeveloped resources of England.' In wood, and being tired from my day's work, I this county (Cornwall) there are thousands felt inclined to give up the task, which the and tens of thousands of acres uncultivated child, who was holding the light, observing, and unprofitable ; and there are at the same said, time hundreds if not thousands of men out of employ. Emigration may be a good thing for
'If a weary task you find it,
Persevere and never mind it. some, but there are large numbers who have not the money to emigrate. Would it not be These words had the desired effect: I finished better if some arrangement were come to so the job, and felt quite cheered that the little that the poor could obtain possessien of those child had stimulated me." uncultivated waste lands, more cheaply and W. C., Sturminster. - His “ little paper" more easily than they can now ? Most deci. would very likely be “acceptable” at “some dedly it would be. At present there is little future period.” inducement for any poor man to 'hedge The Beard. - Amicus says, “In reply to round' and 'break up' a few acres. It will W. F., I will just remark, that my argument take several years before the waste land could for perinitting the growth of the beard is not be brought into a thorough good condition, applicable to toe and finger nails; because when perhaps the lives on the lease may die, there is no probability that people will be disand the cultivated farm falls into the hands of posed to cut their nails entirely off as they do the landlords, who are the only persons bene- the beard. He must distinguish between par. fited. Under such circumstances, it is not to ing or trimming and an entire removal. A be wondered at when we see so much unde- short beard is a beard still.” veloped land, and so much unappropriated Another correspondent says :" In answer labour, in such a poor county as ours.”
to W. F. saying it would require more time A. G., Dalston, Cumberland.-Not exactly to keep the beard thoroughly clean and trim suitable. We do not wish to perpetually parade than would suffice to shave,' I beg to say the words "the public good" before the public. that if such be the case, the beard-trimmer When they are applied, let them fall into their must be a very slow hand at his work. I shave places, like apples of gold in pictures of silver. every day, and it occupies at least seven mi.
A Financial Reformer.-It is true that Mr. nutes on the average. This will be found to William Arpthorp, 26, Bishopsgate-street, is be 49 minutes a week. Of course I nake no appointed one of the collecting agents of the calculation for a bit of a cut now and then. If Parliamentary and Reform Association. I let my beard grow, trimming it once a week
Aliquis.----It was Mr. George Cox, of Barbi- would be sufficient; and I think, after I got can, who delivered the lectures on Emigration used to it, I could do it in seven minutes. This at the National Hall with dissolving views. would leave 42 minutes in favour of letting the We have no means of answering the other beard grow, as far as the time part of the question.
matter is concerned.' A Subscriber may expect an article on Emi. W., Bridgewater.-Thanks for the “Gems." gration, containing many practical sugges- Spiritual Utopians.-Most respectfully detions, in our next number,
clined. Anti-Smoker. ---He will not be disappointed. G. W. W.-Thanks. We shall aim a blow at tobacco-smoking soon. J. P., Bridgewater. – Hardly substantial We look upon the drinking, smoking, and enough for our book. snuffing usages of society as members of the John Allen, Pontefract.-We are glad to same family of errors, and the sooner they die find he is gratified at our proposal to publish a and depart from the world they have so mate- supplementary number of “ Public Good" rially injured the better.
poetry. “ Hannibalism Reversed,” “ Eleven Minu. J. F., jun.-It may be so. We do not pretes,” &c., not accompanied with any name or tend to compete with any one in stationery, address, and consequently could not be in- The cheapness of a periodical does not depend serted, if suitable.
on its size. Edward Wilkie, Plymouth, has our thanks. “ Lines to April," by Minna ; “ Lays of the
P. R., York.-Having offered a prize for the Gibbet ;" and Sonnet," by Kent; all very best tale on the Late Shopping System is the good, but not inserted for want of space. reason why we have not had an article on it our poetical contributors could send us space before now.
as well as lines, we would satisfy them, and “ Phonetic Truth."--Rather too rhapsodical pacify the public by inserting their effusions for us. Plain prose is more applicable to such more generally than we do. a question, and especially in the present stage “He that hath Pity on the Poor lendeth to of its existence, than tlorid poetry.
the Lord," by A. B.Respectfully declinedo