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by experience. There can be no doubt that if the traffic be not impeded by the fear of passing under the river, it must be immense. The convenience of escaping the , long circuit up to London Bridge, which, from the various obstructions in the streets, and the general difficulty of passing through the most crowded portion of the city, músť, now occupy many hours, would obviously direct the whole current of the traffic into the Tunnel, Hitherto, no expedient has been adopted to shorten the passage of the traffic ; and the contriyance by which 1200 clear feet are substituted for at least three miles of the most' encumbered thoroughfares imaginable, must be adopted as a matter of palpable advantage. Still there 'may be difficulties in the way which practice only, can exhibit. But any fear of the structure itself we should regard as altogether visionary. The building of the Tunnel seems as solid as a rock. During the whole period from its commencement, we have not-beard a single instance of its giving way, vast as the pressure was from above, and trying as were the damps, the ground springs, and the extreme difficulty of building under water. At this moment the roof is obviously as free from damp as the roof of St. Paul's! — and unless an earthquake should burst it, the whole fabric seems much more likely to Jast than were it exposed to the diversities of temperature, the heats and frost, above ground. The especial advantage of the system of the Tunnel is, that it can be adopted in any part of the course of a river, and even in its widest part, (for' few European rivers exceed the breadth of the Thames at Rotherbithe, unless they where spread'inio marshes or lakės, and yet. offer no impediment to the navigation. ..;:,
But we regard it as having a still higher character ; we consider it as a noble and essential adjunct to the railway sys tem, and to have come exactly at the proper period for completing a system which is now spreading over Europe, which is obviously meant as a great instrument of civilization, and wbich without it must suffer a full stop at the banks of every great river. For we cannot look to any resource in the clumsy, and always insecure contrivance of a bridge of boats or masonry, incurring great loss of time, requiring change of en
gines and carriages, with a hundred other disadvantages ; while, by a tunnel, the whole train might sweep along wholly unobstructed, and be many a league on its course before a traveller could have crossed by the bridge. We shall thus probably see the Rhine, the Danube, and the Rhone passed below their beds, if the Governments of their countries shall have the funds or the common sense to follow up their present projects for the rail-roads. Our impression decidedly is, that the tunnel is essential as a part of the railway. England has a right 'to pride herself alike on the scientific intrepidity and the palpable value of the undertaking to mankind. Brunel has been knighted on the completion of his work. : But his perseverance and talent deserve a more productive distinction.' We hope that he will give us a history of this great, new, and decided triumph over nature.', 'i .?" iii!
. (BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE.)
ANCIENT BRONZE --Among the Egyptian antiquities in the British Museum there are several cbisels,' saws, and other tools, made of bronze; and also remains of granite sculptures, which, supposing them to have been executed with these tools, show that they must originally have been of a hardness and temper equal to that of our best modern tools of iron and steel. No Egyptian tool of iron has ever yet been found; nor is there any trace of this metal having been used for such purposes in the days of the pyramids. A small bronze knife, found at Thebes, was, after being buried for at least 2,000 years, of so good an edge, that it was used for a penknife several months after its exhumation. How the Egyptians contrived to obtain bronze of só superior a quality is now unknown; it is one of the lost , arts, the re-discovery of which,' (chiefly, however, on account of the rust-proof property of this compound metal,) would be worth a diadem.
ERICSSON'S STEAM FIRE-ENGINE REVIVED AN AMERICA,“When I left New-York, it was rumoured that the several insurance companies of that city had determined to have fires put out thereafter by steam.---They' were having 'built “a 'powerful steam fire-engine, to cost 6,000 D. It was building on a plan of Ericsson's, the inventor of the transversal screw-paddle for steam-ships. The engine was to weigh a little more than two tons, to have the power of 120 men, and to tbrow upwards of 30,000 pounds of water per minute, to the heigho of above 100 feet. Its power, and the quantity of water to be greatly increased over that which I have stated. It was to be called i. Exterminator." Able ! engineers are 'of opinion that it will perform the work of at least six of our best enn gines, and it will have the advantage 'of a power that will never be worn out by fatigue. The bore to which the hose will be attached is fifteen inches and three-quarters in circumference, and the mouth of the pipe will be much less, giving a great impetus to the volume of water, and throwing it to a greater distance than our best engines. It is so con structed, that, should it be necessary, three or four streams can play from the engine at the same time. The engine will be stationed in the fifth district, probably at or near Burling Slip. It is to be drawn by a pair of strong horses, and attended by a driver, an engineer, and a fireman.—Le Cras's United States and the Canadas.
A PASSENGER-PROPELLED LOCOMOTIVE — REMARKABLE PERFORMANCE. -On Saturday last, a very successful trial was made at Holywell (Flintshire) of a carriage coustructed by Mr. P. Williams, surgeon, of that place, to run on common roads, and to be propelled by the passenger or passengers. Two men propelled themselves in it, with little difficulty, up al hill of a considerable rise, at the rate of at least 6 miles an hour ; for a good walker could not keep pace with it, and even had to run to follow it. On a level they attained a speed of 12 and 10 miles an hour, and returned down the first mentioned acclivity at the rate of about 15 miles an hour, The experiment was most satisfactory, and justifies the opinion that this carriage is probably the best combination of power which has been yet applied to such a purpose.
bes. It is to driver,
is of a naturfectual manneriar system
In whilst they theme
· The parties to whose use this carriage seems most adapted, are young people and invalids. The exercise of propelling it is of a nature to call into operation' all the columnal muscles in a most effeétual manner, and thereby to give great tone and vigour to the muscular system, Invalid ladies and gentlemen may have it worked by servants, whilst they themselves are simply occupied in guiding it. The propulsion of the carriage may be aided by the effect of the wind acting on a revolving umbrella, kite, or sail. With little fatigue, it will certainly convey two or three individuals', on a good hard surface, at the average 'rate of about 8 miles an hour. By: 60 revolutions per minute, a rate of speed will be attained of upwards of 10 miles per hour. A pony may be applied when it is considered desirable not to use the machinery.' : : :: ::: O) **** - ;A FLOATING MANUFACTORY.+Amongst the strange craft to be sèen 'navigating the Ohio, is a floating Glass works.» «A large boat, » says M. Le Cras, wis fitted up with a furnace, tempering oven, and the usual apparatus proper for such an establishment. It is on full blast, every 'right, melting glass Ware which is relailed all along shore, as the 4 Works' float down the stream.'
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LIST OF NEW PATENTS.
Henry Barclay, of Bedford-row, for a composition or compositions applicable as tools or instruments for culling, grinding, or polishing glass, porcelain, stones, metals, and other 'hard substances. April 30; four months to specify.
‘John Robinson, of Watney-street, Commercial road East, engineer, for improvements in windlasses and capstans. May 3; six months.
John Railton, of Blackburn, machine-maker, fór certain improve ments in machinery or apparatus for weaving. May 3; six months. : Godfrey Wetzlar, of Myddleton-square, Clerkenwell, for improvements in rendering fabrics waterproof. (Being a communication ). May 7; six months.
Joseph Warren, of Heybridge, Essex, agricultural implement maker, for certain improvements in ploughs. May 9; six months.
Francis Prime Walker, juniory of Manchester, coal-merchant, for certain improvements in the manufacture of I candles, candlesticks, or candleholders, and in the apparatus connected therewith. May 9; six months iis oi! ;i ;, ., . 1 . 1 . Hil.
George Haire, of Manchester, gentleman; for certain improvements in machinery, or apparatus for -sweeping and cleaning chimneys and flues. May..9; six mouths. i c i li
Thomas Edge, of Great Peler-street, Westminster, gas apparatusmanufacturer, for certain improvements ini apparatus for gas-water and other fluids. May 9; six months.
Samuel Hall, of Basford, O. E., for improvements in the combustion of fuel and smoke. Mayı:9; six months. . .1,101 !!! :
Jacob Wilson, of Wigmore-street, Cavendish square, upholsterer, for certain improvements in bedsteads. May:9; six months sincool
William Sanderson, of Aldermanbury, London, silk-mahrufaéturer, for improvements in weaving fabrids to be used for covering, butt lons. May 9; six months. - John Melville, of Upper Harley-street, esquire, for certain simpravements in prope Hing vessels. May 11; six months. 411.39,
Jobn Browne, of: Brighton gentleman,- for improvements in the · manufacture of mudi boots and overalls. - May 12; six months..
Thomas Williams, 7of Bangor; smith, for an improved churn. May 17; six months.
William Brunton, of Neath, Glamorgan, c: E., for an improved method or means 'of dressing ores and separating metals or minerals from other substances. (For the colonies only). May 19; 4 months.
Joseph Gibson, of Birmingham, manufacturer, for certain improvements in axletrees and axletreeboxes. May 23; six months. >
John Bennet Lawes, of Rotherhampstead, Hertfort, gentleman, for certain improvements in manures. May 23: six months.
John Bishop, of Poland-street, Westminster, jeweller, for a new or improved construction of brake apparatus applicable to railway carriages. May 23; six months. ..
Thomas Middleton, of 'Loman.street, Southwark, engineer, for an improved method of preparing vegetable gelatine or size for paper and also an improved mode of applying the same in the manufacture of paper. (Being a coumunication.) May 23: six months.
William Tudor Mabley, of Henrietta-street, Covent-garden, mechanical draftsman,' for improvements in machinery or apparalus for making nails. (Being a communication.) May 23 ; six months.
Benjamin Cook, junior, of Birmingham, brassfounder, for improvements in the construction of bedsteads, both in metal and wood. May 23; six months.
Frederick Goos, of Manchester, jacquard machine-maker, for ertain improvements in the jacquard machine or apparatus, to be used or employed in looms for weaving. May 23; six months.