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such mean fellows, enrich themselves, and beggar and insult over the gentry. In a word, by their prodigality, it comes to pass, that not only those, but taylors, dancing-masters, and such trifling fellows, arrive to that riches and pride, as to ride in their coaches, keep their summerhouses, to be served in plate, &c.

- an insolence insupportable in other well-governed nations.”

The two articles which conclude this chapter were put into my hands by Mr. Nichols, and are part of the collections of the late Rev. Dr. Lort.

« From the Northumberland Household Book. -An account how the Earl of Worcester lived at Ragland Castle, before the civil wars (begun in 1641);

“ At eleven o'clock the castle gates were shut, and the tables laid; two in the dining-room, three in the ball, one in Mrs. Watson's apartment, where the chaplains eat (Sir Toby Matthews being the first), two in the housekeeper's room, for the ladies women.

“ This was probably the noted Sir Toby Matthew, enumerated among Mr. Walpole's painters, who wrote the famous character of Lucy Percy, Countess of Carlisle, printed by Fenton in his notes on Waller's poems. He was a son of an Archbishop of York; but, turning Papist, had probably accepted the place of Chaplain in this great Earl's family, who iras a Roman Catholick. “ The Earl came into the dining-room, attended


by his gentlemen ; as soon as he was seated, Sir Ralph Blackstone, steward of the house, retired; the comptroller, Mr. Holland, attended with his staff, as did the sewer Mr. Blackburn, the daily waiters, Mr. Clough, Mr. Selby, and Mr. Scuda more, with many gentlemen's sons, from two to seven hundred pounds a year, bred up in the castle; my lady's gentleman usher, Mr. Harcourt; my lord's gentlemen of the chamber, Mr. Morgan and Mr. Fox.

At the first table sate the Noble Family, and such of the Nobility as came there.

“ At the second table in the dining-room sate Knights and honourable gentlemen, attended by footmen.

In the hall, at the first table, sate Sir Ralph Blackstone, steward; the comptroller, Mr. Holland; the secretary; the master of the horse, Mr. Delawar ; the master of the fish-ponds, Mr. Andrews; my Lord Herbert's preceptor, Mr. Adams, with such gentlemen as came there under the degree of a Knight, attended by footmen, and plentifully served with wine.

At the second table in the hall (served from my lord's table, and with other hot meat) sate the sewer, with the gentlemen waiters and

pages, to the number of twenty-four. At the third table in the hall sate the clerk of the kitchen, with the yeomen, officers of the house, two grooms of the chambers, &c. Other officers of the house


hold were, chief auditor, Mr. Smith; clerk of the accounts, Geo. Wharton; purveyor of the castle, Mr. Salisbury; ushers of the hall, Mr. Moyle and Mr. Cooke; closet-keeper, gentlemen of the chapel, Mr. Davies, keeper of the records, master of the wardrobe, master of the armoury, master groom of the stable, for the war horses, 12; master of the hounds, master falconer, porter and his


“Two butchers, two keepers of the Home Park, two keepers of the Red Deer Park.

“Footmen, grooms, and other menial servants, to the number of 150; some of the footmen were brewers and bakers.

Out Offices— Steward of Ragland, William Jones, Esq.; the governor of Chepstow Castle, Sir Nicholas Kemeys, Bart.; house-keeper of Worcester-house, in London, James Redman, Esq.

“ Bailiffs, thirteen; two counsel for the bailiffs to have recourse to ; solicitor, Mr. John Smith.”

What follows may be considered as a somewhat later establishment, being the orders of that Lord Fairfax who had been General of the Parliainent forces.

Lord Fairfax's Order for the Servants of his

Household (after the Civil Wars.) " Order for the house remembrance for servants - That all the servants be ready upon the


rung before the

Terras at such times as the strangers do come, to attend their alighting. Prayers - That one of the chapel bells be

prayers one quarter of an hour ; at which summons the butler must prepare for coveringe, but not cover.

“Porter. When prayers shall begin (or a very little before) the gates on all sides must be shut and locked, and the porter must come in to prayers, with all the keys; and after service is done, the gate must be opened until the usher warne to the dresser. :." Butler --The butler, with the yeomen of the chambers, or some other yeomen, must go to cover ; the prayers doné, formes and cussins where the ladies and the rest did sit must be removed.

“ Servants after supper After supper (I mean of the servants) they must presently repair into the dining-chamber, and there remove stools, see what other things be necessary, and attend further directions unto liverys be served, which they must be ready for upon the warning; and, in the mean time, let the butler (with one to help him) make them ready, and let not these servants depart until the best sort of strangers have taken their lodgings, and the porter must lock the door, and keep the keys.

Morning — Let the servants attend by seven of the clock in the morning in the hall.

« Breakfast

“ Breakfast - The clerk of the kitchen must appoint the cooks, what must be for breakfast for the ladies in their chambers, and likewise for the gentlemen in the hall or parlour, which must be served by eight of the clock in the morning, and not after.

“ Dinner must be ready by eleven of the clock, prayers after ten, and the orders observed as is aforesaid.

“ The Hall — The great chamber being served, the steward and chaplain must sit down in the hall, and call unto them the gentlemen, if there be

any unplaced above, and then the servants of the strangers, as their masters be in degree.

“ The usher's words of direction; first, when they go to cover, he must go before them through the hall, crying, By your leaves, gentlemen, stand by

“ The coveringe done, he must say, 'Gentlemen and yeomen for plate.'

“ Then he must warn to the dresser, Gentlemen and yeomen to dresser.'

“ And he must attend the meat going through the hall, crying, “By your leaves, my masters.' Likewise he must warn for the second course, and attend it as aforesaid.

“ If bread or beer be wanting on the hall table, he must call aloud at the barr, · Bread or beer for the hall.' " If any unworthy fellow do unmannerly set


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