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of the country, in this stage of my work, makes it necessary to say something on that head. The absence of Suetonius, for the purpose of subduing the refugees in Anglesey, induced the inhabitants of England to think a favourable opportunity now offered of recovering their liberty; and, meeting with partial success, Suetonius lost not a moment in regaining London, not then honoured with the title of a colony, but large and populous ; the inhabitants of which, dreading the miseries of war, entreated the Roman commander to defend them, but in vain; as he was well aware he had a better prospect of success in the field. The celebrated Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, had by this period displayed so much courage and conduct, that she was implicitly followed by crowds of her countrymen ; who, led by her, entered London, where an indiscriminate massacre took place, equally cruel and unjustifiable, and

only paralleled by those of Camalodunuin and Verulamium. Constantly reinforced by multitudes, Boadicea soon found herself mistress of the fortunes of 230,000 men. With an army so enormous, she conceived it impossible the Romans, though brave and well disciplined, should even face her troops with only 10,000 men. Suetonius, convinced of the difficulties of his situation, took measures to secure a position calculated to render a small army effective against greatly superior numbers, which he completely succeeded

in accomplishing, by forming his men in a deep valley, with inaccessible sides, and a wood in their rear. Boadicea, arrayed in full regal splendour, seated in a chariot with her two daughters at her feet, drove through the ranks of her followers, and, relating the cruelties she had experienced, and those suffered by her offspring, exhorted them to confide in their own strength and the weakness of the enemy; adding, that she was resolved to conquer or die free, whatever might be their determination. · The signal for battle having been given, each army fought according to the custom of their respective nations; and with a similar effect to that experienced in the case of Caractacus. Unable to bear the reverse, the highspirited Boadicea terminated her existence by poison.

As the only authorities we possess, relating to the disposition and propensities of the natives, are those of their conquerors and oppressors; such authorities should be rejected, had we it in our power to supply their places. The Roman writers agree in describing them as muscular and handsome; but proud, vindictive, boastful, and satirical; rashly courageous and vain, and extremely outrageous when intoxicated. Indeed, they assert, that in the blind pursuits of their rage, they would not fly from a falling house, an inundation, or the most immediate prospect of death; and this latter part of their character is


confirmed by their constant resistance of their enemies, under every disadvantage; and the charge of more deliberate cruelty, by the massacres of Boadicea. Admitting each of these bad qualities to have existed in the degree stated, it will appear, on reflection, that they were the natural consequences of the Roman invasion. Every hateful passion of the human soul was excited, and the extirpation of their enemies became the favourite wish of the whole community. When time had softened this propensity, the virtues began to resume their stations in the breasts of the Britons; and they were found to be frank and generous, docile and hospitable. Giraldus Canıbrensis gives a very pleasing idea of the reception of strangers by our countrymen: nothing produced them greater pleasure, which they expressed by entertaining them with the musick of the times, and the best fare they possessed ; at their departure presents were exchanged, to perpetuate the memory of the visit,

The same author mentions, that it was the custom of families to inhabit a large hut or house, which, having a fire in the midst, served to warm them in the day, and to sleep around in the night upon rushes. This peculiarity, it is supposed, induced Ciesar and others to imagine the females of it were not appropriated to individuals in marriage, but lived in common with the males: an idea that is refuted by the general in


dignation excited by the conduct of Cartismandua already mentioned. The faithful affection of the youth to their parents and near relatives, and the fidelity exhibited to their favourite chiefs, were most pleasing parts of their character, and palliated, in some degree, the propensity to idleness with which Tacitus charges them, and that of proneness to intoxication mentioned by Diodorus Siculus.

Many inferences relating to the manners of the people might be collected from authors who have written the early history of neighbouring states; but this is at best an uncertain method of judging of them : indeed, as much may be imagined by attentively considering the general situation of the nation, as will serve to prove they were not distinguished by any very brilliant conceptions resembling modern propriety. In the article of Marriage, the agreement of the parties and their friends, and the exchange of presents in the manner of a dowry, were all that seemed necessary. Whether their Druids interfered, by incantations or blessings, can only be conjectured. As arms and agriculture were for a long time the sole pursuits of the male population, the portion of the female consisted, in all probability, of military weapons, horses, cattle, corn, and farming utensils, such as they then were: the presents, on the other hand, must have been principally the favourite ornaments of the day. It seems


almost superfluous to add, that the domestic concerns fell to the share of the woman; who may besides have assisted at least in agricultural pursuits, while the males of her family were plundering their neighbours, or resisting their incursions. Judging from the customs of other uncivilized

persons, we may safely conclude, that many expedients were adopted to render the children of each marriage vigorous and hardy; and indeed their very manner of living contributed to this end. Inured to every change of the season from their infancy, bathing and temporary exposure, the present methods adopted for that purpose, were superseded. Accident, no doubt, frequently produced the former, and unrestrained freedom the latter. At all times, and in all kinds of weather, when Nature had granted the youth the full use of his limbs, little was required on the part of the parent to induce him to use them in all the sports common to that stage of life. When they were strong enough to assist in the chace, numberless opportunities were afforded to turn their eagerness to military purposes, in ambush, and the best mode of annoyance, without the risk of personal injury. It has been already mentioned, that the Druids initiated them into the learning of the time.

The perfection of the human system must depend greatly upon the nature of the food which supports it. Every authority we possess demon


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