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out, in the memoirs of the Cale- further attempts to see if an ex-
donian Horticultural Society, di- tract of lettuce may not be ob-
vers means to obtain the juice of tained, which shall have all the
the lettuce, which he calls lactu- properties of the lactucarium, and
carium : he advises to use cotton, which will cost less than that I at
sponge, or pencils to collect it, first obtained. I found that the
when it escapes from the incision plant contained much more milky
in the plant; but Mr. Probart, juice when in flower, and the
apothecary, at London, has made leaves had commenced turning
experiments much more exten- yellow, and I observed that irhen
sive: the results are recorded in the plant was cut, the greatest
the Pharmacologia of Dr. Paris ; part of the juice concreted in a
it is to this author that we owe deposit in the bark of the stalk
them. “I planted,” says Mr. and in the old leaves, a circum-
Probart, rows of lettuce eight stance which explains how at this
inches apart, that a person might time these parts mentioned ac-
pass between them without da- quire an extreme bitterness.
maging the stalks. I commence " These observations led me
my operations immediately before naturally to choose this time for
the time of flowering, and then my operations, and only to take
cut an inch from the end of the these parts to prepare my es.
stalk; the milky juice immediate- tract. I took care to reject the
ly runs out and is collected on internal substance of the stalk
pieces of cotton cloth about a and the young shoot. I then ma-
yard square.

cerated in water for twenty four “When these pieces of cotton hours the parts retained ; then I become charged with the juice, boiled them for two hours; I then they are put into a vessel contain- strained the decoction without ing a very small quantity of wa- pressure ; I then evaporated, as ter: when this water is sufficient- it could be done with safety, and ly saturated with juice, it is eva- then got rid of the rest of the waporated, at the ordinary tempera- ter by pouring the concentrated ture, by pouring it into very shal- decoction ou plates, as with the low dishes. Very soon, that is, lactucarium." Mr. Probart has after a few hours, the dried juice given to this preparation the name of the lettuce, lactucarium, is of concentrated extract of letfound adhering to the bottom of tuce,* to distinguish it from the the vessel, and having the appear- other extracts of lettuce of the ance of an extract, but different shops. This concentrated exin its physical properties from all tract possesses, according to Mr. the extracts of lettuce ordinarily Probart, the same properties as prepared.

the lactucarium or thridace ; but By this method.” says Mr. it must be given in larger doses. Probart, “I obtained with much

A concentrated tincture of the facility the juice of lettuce ; but juice of lettuce is also prepared. this mode of preparation renders it very dear, on account of the small quantity, comparatively,

* We should remark, that this extract

of lettuce does not resemble at all the which is collected.

thridace obtained by the process of M. • This induced me to make Caventou.

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The following is the process of they were under the influence of M. Caventou:

thridace, and he found, on an aveTo obtain the thridace, he ga- rage, that the pulse beat, before thers the lettuce at the time very taking the medicine, sixtyseven near its flowering ; strips off the times in a minute, and during the leaves and bruises the twigs light- action of the substance it was rely, and presses them to extract duced to sixty. In some patients, the juice : when it is obtained, it the diminution of the number of is evaporated, at a temperature pulsations was from one to twelve: not exceeding 30 or 35 deg., (86 in one individual it was much to 95 deg.,) to the consistence of more. As to the diminution of a thick paste.

the temperature, it was estimatAction on the animal economy.-- ed with the centigrade thermomeAccording to the observations of ter at one degree, and in one or Dr. Francois, the action of the two cases at one and a half. juice of lettuce is sedative; it di Cases in which the thridace has minishes the rapidity of the circu- been administered. During the lation, and, consequently, the na- month of August, 1824, eleven tural heat : it differs very much patients were chosen in the wards in this respect from opium. of St. Raphael, St. Leon, and St.

“ Those who use for the first Michael, at the Hospital de la time the thridace,” says Dr. Pitié. Dr. Francois gave them Francois, “experience at the thridace, prepared by M. Cavenstomach, as soon as the substance tou : some were afflicted with is introduced, a strange sensation, rheumatism, others with phthisis, like cold, but not disagreeable. or convalescent from acute disThe viscus accustoms itself very eases; all were deprived of sleep; soon to its action ; also, to obtain ten experienced the calming acan effect several days in succes- tion and somniferous influence of sion it is necessary to double ra. this remedy. From the 25th of pidly the doses, then to suspend September to the 24th of Octothe use of it for a day or two, and ber, thirty six patients in the same return to the first dose, which is wards made use of it ; they were ordinarily two grains to an adult. observed with the greatest care ; If this quantity is not strong enough three had acute rheumatism; to procure sleep, the patients, at eight the same disease in a chroleast, pass the night free from nic state ; one a quotidian fever; agitation and pain ; a calm which one gastro enteritis ; three organthey apprecjate the better, as it ic affections of the stomach ; two is not accompanied nor followed chronic peritonitis ; two chronic by drowsiness, stupor, constipa- irritation of the bladder ; three tion, suspension of the functions, phthisis pulmonalis ; two hyperdesire, and other inconveniences trophy of the heart ; one a phleginevitable to the use of opium or monous deposit in the arm; the its preparations."

others were convalescents topDr. Francois examined the mented with want of sleep and pulse of twelve patients, with a fatigued with pains in the meinsecond watch, and took the tem- bers. All experienced from its perature of the body by placing a use a relief more or less sensible thermometer in the armpit, while and durable ; their pains were

calmed, and they were enabled to state differ from inflammation, enjoy a quiet sleep, of which they which is often transitory, evaneshad been deprived for a long time. cent, and, to the dismay of the That contraction of the pupils, so morbid anatomist, leaves not a evident in persons who take opi- trace behind! Bichat is a strong um, was not observed in any of authoritory on this point; he says, these.

-Anat. Gen. Vol. I. 570,-"A Dr. Francois observes, also, serous membrane may have been that persons exhausted by noctur- considerably inflamed during life, nal spermatic ejections, have been and yet present nearly a natural cured by the use of thridace con- appearance after death; and it is tinued six weeks or two months. just the same in erysipelas. I The dose was 2, 4, 6, 8 grains in should frequently,” he adds, on the twenty four hours, in two, dissection have been induced to three, or four takings.

pronounce the nonexistence of an

affection which had actually takea SEAT AND NATURE OF FEVER. place. The same remark is a An Inquiry into the Seat and Na- plicable to the cellular tissue and

ture of Fever, as deducible from mucous surfaces, affected with inthe Phenomena, Causes and Con- flammation.” Wanting this know. sequences of the Disease, the Ef- ledge, he remarks, he was oftez fects of Remedies, and the Ap- led into error respecting the in pearances on Dissection. By tensity and even the existence of HENRY CLUTTERBUCK, M.D., acute inflammation. The fact is

&c. Second Edition. London. well established and therefore the The former edition of this work objection that the brain often apappeared nearly twenty years pears healthy after death from feago, and though the antiphlogistic ver, which has been urged against or cooling plan of treatment had our author's theory, cannot be at that period more or less ob- maintained; and if morbid appear tained, and the author's doctrines ances do present themselves to in their full extent have been but the anatomist, it must not be in feebly supported; it is easy to ob- ferred that they caused the sympserve that they have considerably toms which were observed during influenced the practice of physi- life, but are to be received as cians, contributed much to dis- evidence only that disease has es. courage the indiscriminate use of isted in the part, or, in other cordial and tonic medicines, and words, of an effect. to establish a rational method of " This," as the author justly treatment in febrile diseases. observes, “ is clear, when we reThough few will go the length fer to cases of epilepsy, mania, or with our author to assert, that in other periodical affections of the every case of idiopathic fever the brain ; where alterations of cerebrain is inflamed, it cannot be de- bral structure are frequently nied that delirium, or some de- found, which, having once taken gree of mental alienation, indicat- place, must of necessity be per ing, at least, some functional de- manent, though the symptoms are rangement, or erethism, as it has of occasional occurrence only. been called, of this organ is usu- And the same conclusion may be ally present. How far does this drawn from the great similarity

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observed in the morbid appear- ther support nor discountenance ances, after different diseases of the author's hypothesis, nor indeed the brain; so that in fact it would does he seem to rely much on it, puzzle, I believe, the best anato- for he says, “I do not know how mist to indicate, from post mortem to explain the salutary effects of appearances merely, the disease blood letting in the cure of fever, under which the patient had la. now so generally admitted, withbored; or, on the other hand, to out referring to the supposed ippredict, with any tolerable cer- flammatory nature of the disease.” tainty or precision, what the ap We have reason to know that pearances would be after death, bloodletting as here recommendfrom any given set of symptoms ed, has been sufficiently successmanifested during life. The es- ful in the practice of Clutterbuck, sence of disease, in short, consists and that with some practitioners in something far more subtle and it has been improperly employed, fleeting than the gross changes and carried to a dangerous excess. that are to be detected by the While therefore we recommend knife of the anatomist.'

the work to the notice of the proPathological researches, ob- fession, we entreat 'our junior serves Dr. Good, rarely give friends to study it attentively, ere the student “any information con- they employ that general plan of cerning the elementary changes treatment which, prima facie, it that have taken place in the ani- might appear to inculcate. Dr. mal fluids; and may lead him, in Clutterbuck's ideas of fever have a thousand instances, to mistake been extensively circulated effects for causes, the results of through the medium of this joursymptoms or accidents for that of nal, which is our excuse for the idiopathy, even in morbid changes hasty view we have taken of the of structure,” implying, that as present erudite and clever perwe know nothing of the first link formance.-Lancet. in the chain of diseased action, that is, the state bordering on, INTELLIGENCE. and interchanging with health, so we cannot, in any rational manner, run through the series of An article has been published changes up to dissolution, or draw in several journals, giving the acany practical inference from what count of a remarkable cure of the may be found afterwards.

bite of a rattlesnake, by cupping It is true that the study of pa- with a common porter or black thological anatomy has sometimes bottle. The plan resorted to led to the neglect of symptomato- was, to fill the bottle half full of logy, and to the introduction of spirit of turpentine, made quite bolder plans of treatment than warm, and after scarifying the circumstances should appear to wound made by the snake, to apWarrant; but on the whole, it is ply the mouth of the bottle to it, the proudest distinction that mod- and then pour cold water on the ern medicine can boast of, and, bottle till perfectly cooled. It is more than anything else, a cause said, in the case above alluded to, of the present advanced state of that the patient was in the most surgery. Generally it will nei- excruciating agony, previous to


the bottle being applied, but soon, worth a trial in punctured wounds, became easy, and fell into a sound and in the bite of insects and poisonsleep. The next day he was able ous reptiles, when something better to walk about and work as usual. known and more to be relied on, is Spirituous liquors of any kind, 'or

not at band. even warm water, will do very well, as a substitute for spirit of turpentine.

M. Ude, the celebrated French The writer of this article thinks cook, has been engaged at the

Hotel of Mr. Crochford, in Lonany kind of spirit would do as well don, with a salary of £1200 a as spirit of turpentine. This we ap- year. He is fitting up a house prehend may be a great mistake. for his own family, in Albermarle The latter spirit is exceedingly ac- Street; near the scene of his futive and penetrating, and it may be, ture operations. if the above statement is true, that Fifty thousand dollars per annum the turpentine, wbich seems to have is certainly a handsome salary for a been applied to the wound, prevent- cook, and yet for a good cook in a ed the too frequent effect of the bite large establishment, it is nothing 100 of the rattlesnake. It might have much; for the cook of a great boards destroyed this animal poison by che- inghouse is the very life and zest of mically decomposing it. We throw the whole community. This stipend out this idea in the hope that those is a foundation for a good standing i who may have an opportunity of ob- society, and such a basis as every serving the effect of the turpentine scientific cook ought to stand og in accidents of this kind, may decide We wish to sew this profession dals whether it has any preventive or honored and duly estimated. This counteracting effect in these cases, art indeed, like every other, may be or not.

perverted to mischievous purposes, We have seen many punctured -but this is no argument agaiost its wounds of the feet, to which the Thus if the art of cooker spirit of turpentine was applied. should be made in the first instance The orifice of the puncture was en- to administer to the excesses of the larged. No accident followed in a rich and luxurious, and fill the upper single instance. Whether the tur- class, as it is called, in society, wit pentine acted as a preventive in any, gout, hypochondriasis and dyspepsia, or all of these instances, it is impos- it may afterward, assumiog ils more sible to say ; that it did so, in some legitimate office, descend to the midof these cases, considering that seve. dle and lower ranks to teach them ral of the punctures were deep and the important but much neglected painful at first, and made by rusty art of rightly preparing their daily nails, is only presumptive evidence, food. In these productive and pamore or less probable. The turpen- cific regions we have animals and tine is coming into frequent and good vegetables in abundance for the sususe, as a remedial substance, both tenance of man, but as for cooks, a externally and internally, and is well good culinary operator is a more


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