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mained at the bottom of the sock- one mouth into another, so as to et; notwithstanding the accident, answer the intended effect ; that I replaced the tooth in its socket is, that the transplanted tooth will after having plugged it, in the not become so firm and so useful hope that a callus might be form- as the one which it has replaced, ed, and a junction take place. and last as long till destroyed by The tooth was replaced for near- caries or accident.
The reasons ly a month before it became firm; wþich I give in support of this but no kind of inconvenience was opinion are those already advancexperienced, either by inflamma- ed, that the root of the tooth tion or pain. The tooth lasted in which is to replace the defective this situation full six years, when one, should be of the same length, it became troublesome and a lit- size and shape as the root of the tle loose ; I extracted the tooth in one which is to be replaced, and the course of the seventh year ; that the dentist is obliged to judge the broken piece of the root re- of this without seeing either. mained at the bottom of the sock- therefore believe that there are a et, which healed completely, and thousand chances to one against has never given trouble from that the success of the operation of day to this, though six or seven transplanting teeth from one mouth years have elapsed.
into another, if it is not entirely About eight and twenty years impracticable.-Phil. Med. Rec. since, I was sent for by Miss G., a young quaker lady from Vir
For the Medical Intelligencer. ginia, who was in great pain from ACCIDENTS NOT ALWAYS MISFORa large molaris of the upper jaw, and confined to her room. After Mr. Editor, I offer for the examining the tooth complained Intelligencer two cases of hydroof, I found it to be a very large cele cured by accidental causes. one with but a small cavity in the The first was a man who had lacentre of its crown. I proposed bored under the disease many the operation of partially extract. years, when having the manageing the tooth, replacing it, and to ment of a vicious horse, the aniplug it when it had become firm. mal in a rage seized his scrotum The late Dr. Kuhn attended the with his teeth, and made a laceyoung lady at the time. I inform- rated opening, from which the ed himn of my intention, and ex water was evacuated, and a radical plained to him how I should pro- cure was immediately effected. ceed ; the doctor having advised In the other instance, the pathe young lady to let me make tient had submitted to the operathe experiment, the operation was tion of tapping about twenty times performed. About two or three within fifteen years. About two weeks after, I filled the cavity months since, in attempting to with gold, and I never heard any climb a rail fence, he fell astride more complaint from it.- I might the upper rail in such a manner cite several other cases of the as to lacerate the scrotum, from same kind, which succeeded as which the water was gradually well ; but let these suffice. discharged in the course of the
My opinion therefore is, that ensuing night, and a radical cure teeth cannot be transplanted from appears to be the result.
ci It ap:
In these two instances, the cure The other gentlemen's exis undoubtedly to be ascribed to periments were made with pure the adhesive inflammation in con- saliya from the salivary duct of sequence of the injury received. the sheep and dog, and with the Plymouth, Aug. 25, 1827. J.T. impure saliva of man. In addi
tion to the substances mentioned PHYSIOLOGY.
above, they found osmazome and Digestion.-MM. Leuret and alkaline acetates. The saliva of Lassaigne on the one part, and the sheep contains also sulphocyaMessrs. Tiedemann and Gmelin on nate of soda, but no acetate. In the other, were competitors for a man, the alkali in all the alkaline prize of 3000 francs; offered by salts is not soda but potassa ; and the Academy of Medicine of Pa- there is also a sensible quantity ris, in 1823, for the best memoir of sulphocyanic acid. on the subject of digestion. The pears, therefore, that the animal commissioners for awarding the principles are nearly the same in prize, which was to be determin- all, but that the salts are different ed in 1825, consisted of MM. Ma- in each." gendie, Thenard, Gay Lussac, Cu The German and French phyvier, and Dumeril. These gen- siologists agree in the results of tlemen, thinking that neither of their experiments with saliva on the competitors had merited the aliments out of the body. It acprize, considered, nevertheless, celerates putrefaction, lubricates that both memoirs were possessed the alimentary bolus, brings sapid of great merit, and recommended bodies into contact with the organ that honorable mention should be of taste, and prepares the food for made of them by the academy, digestion by softening it. But and that each memoir should be Tiedemann and Gmelin,” says the entitled to 1500 francs, as com- Edinburgh Reviewer, likewise pensation for the expensive expe- conceive, that its aniinal princiriments which were made in the ples serve to assimilate unazotizcourse of their preparation. ed aliments, and as to the sulpho
These works are at variance in cyanate of potassa, they ask whesome results, and Messrs. Tiede- ther its object be not to destroy mann and Gmelin have published the contractility of the fibres of an indignant pamphlet, and scorn- the food. This question may be fully refuse to accept either the answered by another : is there any money or the praise of the acade- contractility to destroy in boiled my, both of which Messrs. L. and or roast meat ?" L. are said to have received with Functions of the Spleen.-MM. gratitude.
Leuret and Lassaigne, in their MM. Leuret and Lassaigne memoir on digestion, adopt the state, that the composition of sa- opinion, so long ago inculcated by Jiva is the same in all animals ; in Dr. Rush, that the spleen is a man, the dog, and the horse : it mere diverticulum for the blood, contains one per cent of solid and they say, during digestion. matter, consisting of free soda, There is an increased afflux of the muriates of soda and potassa, blood to the mucous alimentary carbonate and phosphate of lime, surfaces, when digestion is going a trace of albumen, and much mu- on; consequently more blood must
pass into the hepatic cireulation. by chlorine, and sometimes a good The meseraic veins must be much deal of phosphate and acetate of distended, and they are not very soda. extensible, unless the splenic vein Messrs. T. and G., reasoning ceases to contribute its usual quan- from the large quantity of azotiztity to the portal circulation ; but ed principles which it contains, if it discharges less, its minute ra. infer that its purpose may be to mifications, which are highly ex- animalize the unazotized nutritensile, will contain more, and ment of vegetable matters. The thus serve as a diverticulum, circumstance that the pancreas is while the digestive blood, if we much larger in herbivorous than may so speak, is finding its way in carnivorous animals, would through the liver. They also ob- seem to favor this opinion.-Edin. serve, that the spleen, examined Med. and Surg. Journ. in an animal that is fasting, has a Absorption.-Professor Regolo rosy, or vermilion tint, is bluer Lippi, of Florence, has made a after chymification has begun, but series of experiments on the ab. becomes of a deep bluish black, sorbing vessels, which enable him when the chyme has passed the to come to the following conclupylorus.
sions : Pancreatic Juice.-MM. Leuret 1., In man, and in animals which and Lassaigne have examined the nearly resemble his physical strucpancreatic juice in the sheep, dog, ture, absorption is probably effectand horse. M. Magendie had ed solely by the lymphatic system found but one drop to be procured, of vessels. in his experiment, in the course 2. Absorption seems never to of half an hour. Messrs. Tiede- be effected by means of veins, mann and Gmelin got 89 grains whether in the healthy or diseased from a sheep in five hours, and state, so long as life continues. 154 grains from a dog in four There are admitted by anatohours; while Messrs. L. and L. mists, four kinds of lymphatic obtained three ounces from the vessels. 1. The chyliferous ; 2. horse in half an hour. The latter Those arising from the mucous say, it is always alkaline, but the and serous membranes ; 3. The others inform us, that the first cellular and those which originate portions obtained are feebly acid throughout the whole body; 4. always, but what flows afterwards The cutaneous.
To these, prois faintly alkaline, which may be fessor Lippi would add a fifth owing to the operation.
kind, or those which he can deMessrs. Leuret and Lassaigne monstrate as arising from the arconsider its composition to be iden- teries. tical with that of the saliva. Lymphatic vessels arise from Messrs. Tiedemann and Gmelin the arterial system, from the sursay, that it differs from saliva in faces of membranes, and wherenever containing any sulphocyanic ver secretory vessels exist, or acid, free soda, or mucus; in be- effusions can take place. Veios ing acid ; in containing more solid arise, on the contrary, from the matter, especially albumen ; and arterial capillaries, and from the in containing, at least in the dog, lymphatic system. All lymphaa principle precipitated rose red tics or absorbent vessels do not,
therefore, go to the thoracic duct. columns, and also from the ante" I discovered and published, in rior fissures ; while the posterior 1824, that many lymphatic ves- origins are derived from the possels opened into the vena cava terior and lateral columns, and vena portæ.” Again". The When be completely or almost lymphatics which I discovered, entirely divided the posterior empty their contents into the vena roots of the lumbar and sacral cava, into its divisions, and into nerves, in lambs, kids, and frogs, the azygos ; and they are so nu- the power of extending the lower merous, that we may affirm, that extremity was absolutely destroythere is not a vein which does not ed on the corresponding side, communicate with lymphatic ves while the power of flexion was sels." He also asserts, that the preserved. The other limb was . junction of the lymphatics with unaffected. The sense of touch the vena cava, about the third was also wholly abolished in the Jumbar vertebra, is always to be injured limb, but unaffected in found in the natural state.
the sound one. The chyliferous absorbents do Hence, the physiologist connot all terminate even in the tho- cludes, that the posterior roots of racic duct ; this physiologist hay- the spinal nerves are destined to ing traced them to the emulgent communicate the power of exveins, and elsewhere.- Journ. des tending the limb, to give the sense Progres des Sci. Med.
of touch, and to convey painful Bellingeri on the Nerves.-C, impressions to the sensorium. F. Bellingeri, of Turin, has pub The division of a large proporlished two dissertations, one on tion of the anterior roots of the the Antagonism of the Nerves, lumbar and sacral nerves in lambs, the other consisting of Physiologi- and their complete division in cal experiments on the Spinal frogs, suddenly destroyed the Marrow. They are contained in power of flexion in the corresthe third volume of the Memoirs ponding extremity, leaving the ex. of the Royal Academy of Sciences tensor muscles unaffected, and not at Turin.
producing any sensible diminution Like Mr. Charles Bell, the Ita. of the touch or ability to feel lian writer describes the spinal pain. Whence, be naturally conmarrow as consisting of six longi- cludes, that the anterior roots do tudinal bands or bundles, two an, pot serve in the least degree the terior, two middle, and two pos- purposes of sensation, but preside terior. The anterior fissures or over the movements of the flexor divisions, with the lateral and pos. muscles of the limb, and that terior ones, separate these bun. there is a real antagonism between dles from each other. The cine- the anterior and posterior roots of itious matter of the spinal mar- the spinal nerves. It happened, ruy presents, when transversely during these researches, that ar divied, the form of the letter H. injury was done to the anterior The anterior and posterior roots columns of the spinal marrow of a of th spinal nerves have a triple lamb. After death, the kidneys origii The anterior are com- were found highly inflamed, as posed of filaments coming from well as the mesentery. The acini the alerior and lateral bundles or were thick and white, resembling
the serum of half coagulated milk, lumns between the first and second These appearances would favor the lumbar pair in lambs. The flexor inference, that inflammation of the muscles of the hind legs lost their anterior part of the spinal marrow power, while extension remained may produce symptomatic inflam- perfect, and only a slight diminumation of the kidneys and mesen- tion of sensibility was noticed. tery.
Hence, the anterior columns preBellingeri also ascertained, that side over the flexion of the limbs in when he'cut transversely across the quadrupeds, and have little or no posterior columns of the spinal mar- concern with sensation ; and finally, row in the lumbar regions, the ex- the anterior columns are for flextensor muscles of the leg lost all ion, the posterior for extension. their power. Sensation and touch Another most remarkable result were not in the least affected, but was, that incontinence of urine was some languor of the flexors was in- occasioned by the division of the duced. Now, when the posterior anterior columps, and lasted durroots were cut, both extension and ing life. They, therefore, give sensation were destroyed; while the origin to the nerves which occasion posterior columns being cut, abo- sphinctorial contraction, and thus sished the extensor power, but not there is a real antagonism of the sensation. This he explains on the sphinctorial nerves. fact of the triple origin of the spi When the anterior columns were nal nerves, from the posterior and divided, there was also a retention lateral columns of the spinal mare of feces so long as the animals row, and also from the posterior lived ; and after
death the rectum horns of the cineritious substance, was found full of hardened matters. whence these roots derive their in- He infers from this, that these cofluence over the touch. When this lumns give rise to nerves of sphinctriple origin is divided, as above torial relaxation of the rectum; mentioned, the double functions are and it is probable that the posterior destroyed. On the contrary, when occasion its contraction, so that the posterior columns only are di- there is also antagonism in this case. vided, the filaments alone arising Details are also given of experifrom them are destroyed, and ex- ments on the lateral columns. tension only ceases.
Transverse sections of both lateral The author of these experiments columns leave touch and motion in also states, that, when the posterior the abdominal extremities, they columns are divided, as above, the being only a little weaker. The urine is retained in the bladder animals passed no excrements; and twenty or thirty hours without be- two out of four retained their urine ing expelled, and then flows invo- till death, which occurred in twenluntarily. From this circumstance, tyfour hours. The conclusion he concludes, that the nerves which drawn, is, that the lateral columx preside over the relaxation of the do not influence sensation, or posphincter vesicæ muscle, originate tion, as to its direction, but only as from these columns.
to its force; and that they have He could not make any similar great influence on the funcims of inferences with desirable accuracy the rectum and bladder. as to the sphincter ani muscle.
Experiments on the latenl and He also divided the anterior co- posterior columns did not, ccord