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epidemic smallpox endanger the ditation, or in listless inactivity, life of the infant, or a necessity both of mind and body. The wise present itself for its immediate men of the early ages thought removal, to a situation where proper to pay as much attention to pure vaccine matter can with dif- the cultivation of the bodies of ficulty be procured; in such cases, their children, as to the cultivait would be the height of impru- tion of their intellect; while those dence to delay, for a moment, on of our day are so apprehensive any slight pretext, the employ- that their children will become ment of a preservative, the cer- fools and dunces, and are so anxtainty and innocent nature of ious that they should become prowhich are now. placed beyond digies, that they direct all their the possibility of doubt.
attention to cultivate their inIt has been remarked that vac- tellect; and in so doing, wholcination adds nothing to the dan- ly forget, or wilfully neglect, ger, nor in any degree interferes the cultivation of their physical with the process of dentition; and system. In our day, men are apt practitioners of eminence, of to think but little of strength of whom we may cite VALENTIN limbs, and vigor of body, so that and Husson, assure us, that the they but possess a sound mind and communication of the vaccine dis- good sense,—not thinking that it ease has had the effect of com- is the vigor and strength of the pletely removing crusta lactea, body that can alone insure a sound herpes, tinea capitis, convulsions, and vigorous mind. In ancient ophthalmia, and even scrofula. times, on the contrary, vigor and Hence, we find, there are few activity of body were qualities of circumstances which will warrant chief consideration. If a man's us in hesitating, for a moment, to limbs were small or his muscles place in security, by vaccination, weak, he was invariably an object every infant in the least danger of ridicule and contempt among of being exposed to the influence his associates. Even in our day, of the smallpox contagion.--N. we may in some measure observe American Med. and Surg. Journ. this contempt, not so much to
wards persons short of stature, as For the Medical Intelligencer. towards those of slender and puny THE HABITS AND SUFFERINGS OF Jimbs. For example, how are
LITERARY MEN.-N0. Ill. the French ridiculed for the lankIn ancient days the habits of ness of their frames, tailors for literary men were vastly differ- the smallness of their legs, and ent from what they now are. students generally for the smallThen a large portion of their time ness of their arms. was devoted to exercise, to in- and activity of body for which the creasing their muscular frame, to ancients were so remarkable rendering themselves powerful in were acquired by a constant rouaction, and robust in constitution. tine of daily exercise, and of exNow, it is different, What time ercise in all its forms. In fact, our literary men have to spare. the Gymnastic or athletic exerfrom study, instead of being de- cises were considered by most of voted to healthful recreation, is the ancients as a necessary branch usually spent either in silent me- of education. And it is among
the ancients that we must go to and why is not sawing and splitfind the rarest specimens of the ting wood as good and as wholeunion of intellectual vigor with ac- some an exercise as the feats of tivity. Yes ; in these days it may the Gymnasium?' We answerbe said with peculiar emphasis,
1. In the first place, exercise, men had iron franes and giant of whatever kind it may be, should minds. Their bodie: could en- be of such a nature as to delight dure almost every fatigue, and the mind at the same time that it could brave almost every hard- gives strength to the body. And ship. Their minds could grasp it should always be recollected, almost every object, the most particularly by parents and guarstupendous, the most grand, the dians, that exercise, however inmost intricate.
nocent, or gentle, or thorough it The ancient Greeks were alike may be, is of little or no use to distinguished for symmetry of give the exerciser health and form, for beauty of proportion, strength, if it be of such a nature for elegance of feature, for hard- as to be irksome to him, or if it ness of constitution, for strength be at all repugnant to his feelings; of frame, and for gigantic powers for we know, that even as the of mind. The moderns, on the mind sympathises with the body, contrary, are distinguished for un- so also does the body sympathise couthness of proportion, for bloat- with the mind. And it is for this ed or otherwise disfigured fea- reason, because the body sympatures, for shattered constitutions, thises with the mind, that a weak for lean and enervated bodies, and or sickly person, if he engages in for weak and powerless minds. an exercise disagreeable to him, The conclusion is obvious, and it will generally find it entirely useis unavoidable. The ancients less. It is for this reason also, that loved action, the moderns love dyspeptic and consumptive percase. The ancients did not con- sons, who of all others are usually sider it below their dignity, nei- most averse to exercise, when they ther did they consider it as at all perform a journey, or take some Judicrous, to engage in all the va- other exercise sickening to their riety of the exercises of the Pa- feelings, so often return as sick læstra. The moderns are too dig- as before they went, or more so. pified and too stately to condescend But
sick persons are perto make fools of themselves,' as suaded very much against their they may be pleased to term it, inclination to go to sea or take
by performing the ridiculous ex a journey, and yet return in ercise of a Gymnasium.' And what sound health. True ; but we is the consequence? The ancients maintain that in such cases the enjoyed health and strength of disinclination did not continue. body and mind; the moderns bave We maintain that the patient, neither.
though at first opposed to the exBut we are asked—What is ercise, as most sick persons are the nature and utility of Gymnas. opposed to all exercise, aftertic Exercises? Exercise we al- wards acquired a relish for it. low is necessary, but why is that And this, we maintain, was the of the Gymnasium better ihan any real cause, in the hands of God, other? Exercise is exercise of this recovery. Now we confi
dently affirm that it is to very selves so sore after exercising an few persons only that splitting hour, that they can scarcely walk and sawing wood afford any plea- about with any convenience, and sure,- for the task of learning to are obliged to obtain the assiststrike twice in the same place, ance of others while dressing, and or of learning to keep the saw find that they cannot without pain from breaking, and to keep it touch any part of their body, legs perpendicular is so tedious and or arms. I mention this circumperplexing, and discouraging and stance attending the exercises, in mortifying, that few have the order that persons need not be courage to renew the trial many alarmed when they perceive times.
these symptoms approaching, as 2. Allowing, as we must, that has been the case in some inthe exercise of splitting and saw- stances. They imagined that ing wood is good so far as it goes, their system was dangerously inand that some persons do actually jured, and they tormented their take pleasure and satisfaction in poor bodies with blisters, sticking the operation,-still we say that plasters and poultices, till, after even then it brings into action on a few days, when the soreness ly a certain set of muscles, -and naturally goes off, they found what is the consequence? It is, themselves fortunately cured of that these muscles are strength- this great evil which was threatened, while the others retain ening them with the most dire catheir former size and strength, or lamities. And then,—" Away I should perhaps say, weakness, with Gymastics ! I narrowly esand thereby the equilibrium be- caped with my life,—I don't put tween the different parts of the myself in jeopardy again.” Such body is destroyed. And, as was has been the style in which some before observed, and an instance persons have reasoned. Now the given in the case of the tailor, cause of their alarm is this, they better not exercise violently at are entirely ignorant of the cause all, than to exercise one part of of the soreness of which they the body violently and leave the complain. They do not underrest without exertion.
stand the manner in which the But to proceed to the utility of muscles of the human body opeGymnastic exercises. The utility rate. But the real consequences derived from Gymnastic exercises of this soreness are not so dreadis for the present time inost parti- ful as they imagine. cularly. But by exercising in Now, if we are asked why the early years the good effects will muscles of the legs, for instance, in a great measure probably last should be made sore by taking a through life. The first immediate few exercises in the Gymnasium, effect of the Gymnastic exercises when a man can walk four miles is to make the muscles, nay, if at one time without suffering any one after exercising might judge inconvenience though the same from his feelings, to make his muscles appear to be used, that Whole body extremely sore, so is, the muscles of the legs. We much so, in fact, that some per- answer, first, because many, nay, sons, particularly those whose the greater part of the muscles constitutions are weak, find them- used in the Gymnasium have ne
ver been called into action be- and enable them to endure much fore; and therefore the exerciser greater fatigue, and for a longer when he feels these uncommon time than they could before. sensations is alarmed and amazed, This shows how improper it is and puzzled to know why he has for literary men, whose habits never felt anything of the kind are well known to be often ruinbefore ; whereas the reason is ous to their health and peace, to obvious,-it is because he ne- trust for exercise and recreation ver before had an opportunity of entirely or chiefly to walking. feeling anything of the kind. For Walking, comparatively speaking, example: take the simple exer- fatigues the body without refreshcise of sinking on the legs in a ing the mind, exhausts the body crouching posture. Let any one without strengthening the limbs, not accustomed to it perform this and wastes the body without givexercise of sinking and rising, with ing health to the system. its variations of hopping, &c. for Some further remarks will be the space of one quarter of an reserved for a future number. hour, and it is a great chance if he is able to walk about the next day with any kind of ease. How
INTELLIGENCE. is this accounted for ? brought into action only a part of Retreat for the Insane. The anthe muscles of the legs,-nem- nual report of the visiting physibers which are probably exer- cians to the Connecticut Retreat cised more than any other. They for the Insane, located in Hartare daily used in walking and run- ford, presents some interesting ning, and often in other exercises. facts connected with the mode of True ; and the muscles that are treating the patients, their numused in walking, &c. are well ex- ber, those relieved, &c. ercised. But scarcely any of During the year ending in April, these muscles, namely, the walk- there were sixtytwo patients in ing muscles, are used at all in the the Retreat. Of these, twenty sinking or crouching posture just were old cases and five recent described. So that a different ones remaining at the close of the set of muscles must be used. previous year, and thirtyseven This very circumstance proves admitted during the year. In the the utility of Gymnastic exer- same period fortyfour patients cises, and at the same time shows have been discharged, of which how imperfect an exercise is four were old cases recovered, walking. In walking, one set of five much improved, five improvmuscles only are brought into ac- ed, and four stationary ; making tion, and if no other exercise be eighteen old cases discharged. Of taken, the remainder are suffered the recent cases discharged, twento become languid, feeble and tyfive were recovered and one weak. Whereas the athletic ex- much improved. Eighteen paercises of the Gymnasium, by tients remained in the Retreat. their great variety bring into No deaths occurred during the brisk action all those muscles year. While the records of othwhich are not used in walking, er lunatic asylums show that six and thereby strengthen the legs or eight only in a hundred of pa
tients are recovered, the report stitution, that patients, who had of this institution presents the flat- always been raving when confined tering result of twenty five out of without being told the reason, and twenty eight recent cases cured refractory when commanded ina proportion of 89 in the hundred. stead of being intreated, soon be
of the moral and medical man- came peaceable and docile. agement of the patients the com This kind of treatment of mittee are bound to give a brief course does not apply to idiots, detail, as the general plan of treat- or those laboring under low grades ment adopted at this institution is of imbecility, but it is applicable more or less original, and differs to every other class of mental in some material respects from diseases, whether maniacal or that pursued at any other hospital. melancholic.
In respect to the moral and intellectual treatment, the first bu Effects of Ardent Spirit.— Two siness of the physician, on the ad- persons near Red River, un Loumission of a patient, is, to gain his isiana, lately made a bet which entire confidence. With this view should drink the greatest quantity he is treated with the greatest of ardent spirit. A gallon of whiskindness however violent his con- key was procured, and they both duct may be; is allowed the liber- commenced, drinking by turns the ty which his case admits of, and is contents of a tumbler. The galmade to understand, if he is still lon in a few minutes was gone ; capable of reflection, that so far and the person who proposed the from having arrived at a mad- bet went for more! but on his house, where be is to be confined, return found the other lifeless. he has come to a pleasant and peaceful residence, where all Mr. Fuller, the teacher of kindness and attention will be Gymnastics, who has been exshown him, and where every ceedingly successful in establishmeans will be employed for the ing schools in this city and Philarecovery of his health. In case delphia, has recently gone to Cacoercion and confinement become nada, for the purpose of introducnecessary, it is impressed on his ing his excellent system there. mind that this is not done for the Mr. F. will return in the course purpose of punishment, but for of a couple of months, and resume his own safety and that of his his vocation here.-N.Y. Albion. keepers. In no case is deception on the patient employed or allow
Beer Pumps.--It is said that ed.-On the contrary, the great- three young men have recently est frankness, as well as kindness, died in New York, in consequence forms a part of the moral treat- of drinking beer and cider drawn ment. His case is explained to through leaden pipes and brass him, he is made to understand as pumps. The oxide of lead and verfar as possible, the reason why digris, formed by the liquors and the treatment to which he is sub- extracted by the action of drawjected has become necessary.
ing them, are deadly poisons. By this course of intellectual management, it has been found as Col. Charles Coit, of Norwich, a matter of experience at our In- Conn. being fully satisfied of the