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ON THE DISINFECTING AND MEDI- does this enable anatomists to CINAL CHLORURETS.
pursue their offensive avocations An Essay on the Use of the Chlo- without that disgusting odor which
rurets of Oxides of sodium and so frequently prevents these purof Lime, as powerful Disinfect- suits, but manufacturers of cating Agents, and of the Chloruret gut, curriers, tallowchandlers, of Oxide of Sodium, more espe- and all those artizans whose cially as a Remedy of considera- works are attended by the evoluble Éfficacy in the Treatment of tion of putrid effluvia, may now, Hospital Gangrene ; Phagede- at a very trifling expense, prosenic, Syphilitic, and sllcondition- cute their operations without the ed Ulcers ; Mortification ; and slightest inconvenience. In the various other Diseases. By most crowded city no evil need Thomas ALCOCK, Member of result, nor even need the existthe Royal College of Surgeons ence of such manufactories be in London, &c. 8vo. pp. 152. known. They who are acquaintLondon, 1827.
ed with the numerous contentions It must, we think, be confessed that have arisen from this source, by every unprejudiced person, the deterioration of property by that_of late years the labors of the erection of offensive works, the French chemists have been the loss and inconveniences arisfar more extensive, and more ing to the proprietors of such productive of results in the high- works, if compelled to remove est degree valuable to society, them, and yet the absolute necesthan the exertions of their En- sity of enforcing their removal glish competitors. Their exami- from densely populated towns, nation of drugs, and the ability will well appreciate the great with which in many instances advantages that may be derived they have extracted the active from M. Labarraque's labors. principle from the bulky mass by
Mr. Alcock, in the compilation which it is accompanied, have af now before us, has
very judiciousforded much greater facility than ly retained the French terms; before existed in administering and it would be very desirable the most powerful remedies that this should always be done. But if we were to select that From the contrary course having discovery which promises the been pursued, it is often exgreatest advantages to a civilized tremely difficult to know what people, we should unquestionably preparations are exactly meant. fix on the disinfecting power of
The preparations which have certain chlorurets. For not only been employed for decomposing
putrid effluvia, and thus destroy In both instances, the chloruing the offensive odor by which rets pass into the state of hydroputrefaction is always accompa- chlorates, or, in the old nomennied, are the chloruret of soda, orclature, into muriates. Now the oxide of sodium, and the chloruret hydrochlorate of lime is a deliof lime.
quescent, but the hydrochlorate The former, the chloruret of of soda is an efflorescent, salt. soda, may also be named chloride The consequences of this differof soda, which, considering the ence is, that the former, though soda as a compound of oxygen and for a moment it destroys the ofsodium, or oxide of sodium, are fensive odor, affords, by attractvery evidently synonymous terms. ing moisture, one of the conditions The preparation of this article necessary for putrefaction ; and has never been described, so far after a longer or shorter time, as we know, in any English che- the smell is reproduced. The mical work. Mr. Brande, who, latter, the hydrochlorate of soda, we believe, is the latest syste- "acts as a preservative by coamatic writer on chemistry, has gulating the principle which comonly mentioned the chloride of so mences putrefaction.” dium, or common salt. The The following are M. Labarchloride, or chloruret of oxide of raque's instructions for employing sodium, he seems to be unac- the chloruret of lime, in order to quainted with.
destroy the effluvia of putrid aniThe chloruret of lime is the mal bodies ; and from these, the preparation formerly called oxy- proper method of applying them muriate of lime, and since, by in other circumstances, and where Mr. Brande, designated as chlo- the putrifying masses
are far ride of calcium,or chloride of lime. more abundant, may readily be
The term chloride is therefore deduced. a synonym of chloruret, and both
“ Before approaching a corpse are employed to point out those in putrefaction, a tub should be preparations into which the chlo- procured in which may be put a rine enters, without losing its own load of water, 24 litres, about 49 peculiar properties, and without pints ; pour into this a flagon, half the formation of an acid.
a kilogramme = 1 lb. 1 oz. 10, With regard to the respective dr. avoirdupois, of the chloruret value of these two disinfecting of lime, and stir the mixture. agents, it appears from the expe Dip a sheet in the water riments of M. Labarraque, that contained in the tub, and unfold it the chloruret of lime, and chloru- so as to be able to withdraw it ret of oxide of sodium, are both with facility, and particularly so equally efficacious in destroying as to be enabled to extend it very putrid effiuvia at the moment ; quickly over the corpse. but the effects of the chloruret " To effect this, let two perof the oxide of sodium are much sons open the sheet and place it more permanent than those of the in the liquid, holding the ends on chloruret of lime. The reason the edges of the tub : let this be of this difference is easily expli- carried to the side of the body in cable by the difference in the na- putrefaction, and at the same inture of the resulting salts. stant let the wet sheet be drawn
out of the tub and laid over the ceive any part of the country body
where they may not be procured ci Soon afterwards the putrid with very little trouble and exodor ceases. "If blood, or any other fluid
" When a therapeutic agent proceeding from the dead body, comes into general use, it is inhas flown on the ground, pour on dispensable to regulate its mode this liquid one or two glassfuls of of preparation, that the substance the chlorureted water; stir with
may be identical every where. a broom, and the putrid odor will he desires that these formulæ disappear.
may produce this effect. The "This operation, however, first, the chloruret of oxide of soought not to be thus performed dium, --chlorure d'oxide de sodium, whenever the liquids spilled on is employed in topical and exterthe ground may become the sub- nal application to wounds and ulject of a chemical analysis : in cers affected with hospital ganthis case the greatest quantity possible should be carefully col grene, or of which the character lected; and it is when this has been chloruret of oxide of calcium,
is gangrenous; the other, the effected, that the disinfection of chlorure d'oxide de calcium, or the ground should be performed simply expressed, chloruret of in the manner above mentioned.
lime, serves for the disinfection “ If the infection has spread in of amphitheatres, of sick wards, the neighboring places, in the and of all places that become uncorridors, stairs, &c., the infect, healthy by the presence of putreed places are to be sprinkled fied animal matters. with one or two glasses of liquid chloruret of lime, and the fetid “ Chloruret of Oxide of Sodium. odor will cease.
" Pure carbonate of soda,* 2 1-2 ki“ Care must be taken to moist
logrammes. en frequently with the liquid con. Distilled water, 10 kilogrammes. tained in the tub the sheet which covers the corpse : the reproduc “ Mix, and assure yourself that tion of the putrid odor will thus the liquor marks twelve degrees be prevented.
by the areometer of Beauiné. If "As soon as the body has been the liquor be too concentrated, removed, the sheet which has which might happen if the salt served for the disinfection should has effloresced, add the necessary be washed in large quantities of quantity of water to bring it to water, dried and folded."
the degree indicated. If, on the To this, we have only to add contrary, the solution be too the testimony of our own expe- weak, a sufficient quantity of the rience.
carbonate of soda must be added. As our principal object in the " If the carbonate of soda conpresent article is to extend the stantly retained the same quantiknowledge of these preparations, ty of water, it would only be newe shall now insert the directions cessary to fix the precise doses ; of M. Labarraque for forming them. They are fortunately so * " The subcarbonate of the London simple, that we can scarcely con- Pharmacopæia.
but this salt is far from being at this purpose one part of the chloall times identical.
ruret is introduced into the ber“The liquor is put into a vessel thollimeter, * and a solution of indiof sufficient capacity, that about go is poured on it, prepared as onefourth may remain empty.
follows: “ We dispose on a sand bath, Bengal indigo powdered, 1 part. a glass balloon of four pints, with Concentrated sulphuric acid, 6 parts. a long neck and wide mouth, into which the following mixture is to Apply heat, and afterwards dilute be introduced :
with 993 parts of distilled water.
“ After the first, which is made Hydrochlorate of soda, common salt,
by feeling one's way, the second 576 grammes. Peroxide of manganese, in powder,* ought to be made briskly, by add
ing at once the whole quantity of 448 grammes.
the solution of sulphate of indigo, " To the opening of the balloon which the preceding proof bad reis luted a large bent tube, and an quired to arrive at a deep green. S tube, for the introduction of the In acting promptly the discoloradiluted acid. The first tube dips tion is more decided, as observed into a vessel containing a small by MM. Gay Lussac and Welter; quantity of water, and from this which obliges us to make a third same vessel a large bent tube proof, after having added some proceeds to, and dips into the parts of the sulphate of indigo to fagon or vessel containing the sa- the second, to arrive at the green line solution.
color, and in keeping account of “ The apparatus being conve- this addition in the last experiniently disposed, and the lutes ment, which is the most concluwell dried, the diluted acid, cold sive. and mixed some hours previously << If the solution of carbonate with the water, is poured through of soda be not sufficiently saturatthe Stube, in the following pro- ed with chlorine, a current of this portions :
gas should be again passed through Corcotrated sulphuric acid, 576 it, to bring it to the fixed point. grammes.
“ M. Labarraque adds, that he Water, 448 grammes.
“ The fire is applied under the of the vessel, or to withdraw, by a tube sand bath, and is directed gradu- passed through the safety tube, a portion ally, till the disengagement of the nation, before the apparatus be unluted. chlorine ceases.
If the tube conveying the chlorine does operation terminated, not pass sufficiently near to the bottom
of the alkaline solution, the upper part the apparatus is unluted, and the
may be fully impregnated, whilst the discoloring or bleeching power of lower portion of the liquid may not be of the product is examined. For the required strength. This remark has
been verified by Mr. Morson, who has
paid considerable attention to the prepa* “ The quantity of peroxide of man- rating of this chloruret; his apparatus is ganese would be too considerable if this furnished with stopcocks, by which a porsubstance were always found of the first tion of the preparation may be withdrawn quality in commerce. Its excess does for examination at any period during the not in any case seem to be hurtful.”
“It might save much inconvenience *" A simple graduated tube or meaeither to have a stop cock at the bottom sure will answer the purpose.”—ED.
has here entered into superfluous rives. This gas is disengaged details for the instructed apothe- from a mixture similar to that cary; but though minute for prac- employed to prepare the chlorutised chemists, these details have ret of oxide of sodium. Several appeared to M. L. indispensable apparatus are placed by the side in the preparation of a medica- of each other, according to need, ment which till very lately had always being careful that the not been employed in medicine. chlorine arrives slowly into each He recommends that the preced- of them, so that the combination ing process should be followed to may be made successively. This the letter, so as to obtain always condition is essential to the sucan identical product, and thereby cess of the operation. the same beneficial results ; for “ The hydrated lime, being it is known that in the preparation sufficiently charged with chlorine, of certain medicaments, the mode becomes moist, and on this phenoof preparing them modifies their menon we are aware that the external characters, and even operation draws near to a close. their virtues.*
" To assay its point of saturaChloruret of Oxide of Calcium.- tion, one part of the chloruret is Chloruret of Lime.
diffused in one hundred and thirty The process by which M. Labar- parts of water, and this solution raque makes this preparation is ought to destroy the color of four as follows:
parts and a half of sulphate of in“ Caustic lime is sprinkled digo. with a small quantity of water,
“Mr. L. observes, the chloroand allowed to slake completely. meter of the celebrated Gay LusThis damp powder is mixed with sac, described in another part of onetwentieth part of hydrochlo- this work, is much more exact ; rate of soda, and put into vessels and it is of this instrument we of earthen ware of an elongated ought to avail ourselves to exaform, into which the chlorine ar- mine this chloruret, if we wish to
employ it for degenerated burns,
as M. Lisfranc has done with • Mr. L. further adds, " I hope to be pardoned for this solicitude, when it is with this product at it is with all the
- For disinfections, the essenduce of the hands of men, nothing is per- tial point is to saturate the mixfect. Very clever chemists, thinking per- ture with chlorine, and the purity haps that advantageous modifications might be made in this process, have made of the bases is less necessary chlorurets which have not produced the chloruret for this purpose than for same effects as those which I had caused that which is employed on living to be tried. Nevertheless, I have not made any mystery respecting it, I have
beings. described the process with all the care of
" In considerable establishwhich I am capable; but it is impossiblements, such as hospitals, &c. that this description should supply the where daily disinfections may be of often performing the same operation required, we may make liquid --The author deems it simply an act of chloruret of lime, and the followjustice to Y. Labarraque to state, that he ing is the has found the chlorurets, obtained from
process : M. L. at different times, very uniform in
“Put into forty litres of water strength, and possessing the same medi- half a kilogramme of hydrochlocinal properties.'
rate of soda, and one and a half