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The tartarised antimony acts ing of that which has supervened. principally on the skin, and may Besides, in proportion as the sysbe usefully administered when tem is debilitated, its healing the surface is arid, and there is powers, on which the success of much tendency to feverish exa- all our means depend, are imcerbations. The dose given by paired. Dr. Philip is from oneeighth to • The frequent obscurity of the the tenth of a grain. Colchicum symptoms, by which the state of is said to have an effect very the digestive organs is ascertainanalogous to that of antimony. ed in such cases, may also be The circumstances under which ranked among the sources of danammonia may be exhibited are ger; for in consequence of it, the well understood ; nor do we per- attention of the practitioner is ofceive anything different in the di- ten confined to the symptoms in. rections of Dr. Philip from those dicating the inflammation of the of other authors.
brain, or lungs, not without surThe remarks on the influence prise that affections apparently if habitual indigestion on other dis- much less severe than those he eases are, as well might be antici- has been accustomed to see yield pated from Dr. Philip's experi- to his measures, should heré reence and powers of observation, sist them. This naturally induces of very high value. The great him to increase their power, Jiability of dyspeptic patients to which unfortunately generally chronic inflammation, and the lit- makes a greater impression on tle capability such patients have the strength than on the disease. of resisting its effects, must be The best chance of saving the known to all who observe while patient under such circumstances, they practise. With the ensuing is correcting, as quickly as we extract we conclude the present can, the increased derangement article, which we recommend to of the digestive organs, which is the attention of every practitioner supporting the new disease ; and of medicine, but particularly to it is of great consequence to efthose who regard bleeding and fect this by means as little debipurging as infallible remedies. litating as possible. The debility
They are rarely attacked, for previously induced on the nervous example, with the acute inflam- system in such cases is always a mation of the brain and lungs to principal source of the danger ; which the more robust are sub- and it is impossible to restore its ject ; but in them, with milder vigor while the causes which imsymptoms, these diseases are of- pair it continue. Thus it is, that ten equally or more dangerous, inflammation of the brain in those which arises from several causes; who have suffered from longprothe previous debility; the means tracted disorder of the digestive of relief being more circumscrib- organs, so generally proves fatal ; ed, for habitual dyspeptics, even and that the patient sometimes where they do not appear much sinks without the usual forerundebilitated, generally bear loss of ners of such a termination. blood ill; the continual irritation • Both diseases prey on the of the habitual disease, and the source of nervous power, which digestive organs generally partak- is essential to life in every part
of our frame; and death often The inflammation in the first spesuddenly closes the scene, when cies, catarrhal ophthalmia, which a common observer can see no is the most common of all forms of cause for the extreme loss of ophthalmia, in adults, is almost enstrength which the patient has tirely confined to the conjunctiva evidently sustained. There are and meibomian follicles. few cases in this country whose cretion of the membrane is increaschanges are so rapid, and which, ed, and becomes opake, thick, and after a certain period, become so puriform, though in many cases it unmanageable, as the combination remains translucid. The redness we are here considering.'-Lond. is chiefly in the conjunctiva lining Med. Rep. and Review.
the eyelids, in inild cases, while the
vessels on the white of the eye can OPHTHALMIA.
be moved in every direction, by Mr. Mackenzie, who is one of pressing the eyelid against the eyethe Surgeous to the Eye Infirmary ball with the finger, “ showing that of Glasgow, has published a paper they reside in the conjunctiva.” In on this subject, of which we shall severe cases chemosis takes place, give a short abstract. He divides and general antiphlogistic treatment the ophthalmia occurring in adults, is insufficient--the cornea may from atmospheric causes, into the burst, and vision be destroyed, if catarrhal, rheumatic, and catarrho- local means are neglected. Mr. rheumatic. These are German M. attributes this accident more to distinctions, too little attended to, mechanical pressure of the distendMr. M. thinks, in this country, and ed conjunctiva of the eyelids and essentially necessary for the proper eyeball
, than to excessive inflamtreatment of the disease. a 'The mation in the cornea itself. In this appropriate treatment of the rheu- species, the patient uniformly commatic ophthalmia is not at all plains of a feeling of sand in the adapted to the catarrhal ; while eye, which may, therefore be rethe remedies which, in a few days, garded as diagnostic. There is subdue the catarrhal, will only ex- usually freedom from headache, asperate the rheumatic.”'
which is the reverse in the rheuThe catarrhal genus affects the matic species, this last being acconjunctiva--the rheumatic affects companied by violent circumorbital the “ fibrous sclerotica and surround- pain, aggravated in the night. ing fibrous membranes"—the ca The exciting causes are atmostarrhorheumatic affects both the pheric transitions, and especially conjunctiva and the sclerotica, the exposure to the night air, to cold symptoms being a union of those and to wet. The nature of the accompanying both. We fear Mr. causes renders the disease someM. will have some difficulty in times epidemic. If neglected or persuading the routine practitioners improperly treated, it may contiof this country to adopt his minute nue for many weeks, and cause classification. Thus in conjuncti- much febrile excitement, as well vitis, as a genus, there are four spe- as local distress. The conjunctiva cies--the atmospherica--contagio- may become rough, and by its fricsa-leucorrhoica--gonorrhoica. tion over the cornea cause nebulæ Mr. Mackenzie. Med. 'and Phys.
or eyen opacity
The discharge Journal, No. 4.
becomes puriform, and in this state
will communicate conjunctivitis to able time. For this purpose, the others by actual contact, and in a eyelid ought neither to be held still more severe and dangerous everted till the bleeding ceases, nor form than the original disease. Mr. allowed to fall back into continued M. thinks it probable that the contact with the eyeball, in either Egyptian ophthalmia among our sol- of which cases it will soon cease ; diers was at first “ atmospheric but the eyelid ought to be alterpuromucous conjunctivitis, but that nately everted and permitted to reit afterwards degenerated into a turn to its natural position, by which contagious, perhaps infectious dis- means the divided vessels are reease.
filled, and thus a continual flow of Several examples of this change blood is produced. of character in the discharge are “A brisk dose of calomel and given ; indeed, direct experiments jalap may be ordered, with occaby Guillié, proving the contagious sional doses of neutral salts. property of the matter.
“ 4. Determining to the skin is The catarrhal ophthalmia yields also useful ; which may be done by readily, in general, to very simple the warm pediluvium at bedtime, treatment—" chiefly of a local and and by small doses of Spiritus Minstimulating kind.” Violent gene- dereri, or of any other mild diaphoral remedies, Mr. M. thinks, are retic, in combination with diluent absurd, and worse than useless. drinks. We shall give the indications of “5. In severe cases, a blister treatment in Mr. M.'s own words, to the back of the neck will be as we cannot abridge them without found useful, or blisters behind the injury to the author's sentiments.
“1. I very rarely find it neces 66. Even weak solutions of acesary to take away blood in catarrh- tate of lead, or of sulphate of zinc, al ophthalmia, either from a vein are prejudicial in this disease, agor by leeches. When there is more gravating the sensations as if sand than usual constitutional irritation, were in the eye, increasing the redthe taking away of from twelve to ness, and leading to opacities and twenty ounces of blood from the ulcers of the cornea. arm, will no doubt prove useful ; “7. On the contrary, the feelbut this will rarely be necessary, if ing of sand is uniformly relieved, the disease has not been neglected and the inflammation abated, by the for a number of days, or mistreated. use of the solution of the nitrate of
Scarification of the con- silver. The solution which I emjunctiva of the eyelids is necessary ploy contains from two to four only in cases in which there is some grains of the nitrate in one ounce of degree of chemosis, and a distinctly distilled water. A large drop is to puriform discharge. In such cases be applied to the eye once aday, it proves a valuable means of cure. by means of a camelhair pencil. One or two deep incisions being The instant that it touches the eye, made along the imer surface of the salt is decomposed, and the silthe upper or lower eyelid, a very ver precipitated over the conjuncconsiderable discharge of blood will tiva in the state of inuriate. I have immediately take place; and, if the sometimes alarmed other practieyelid be properly managed, blood tioners, by proposing to drop on the will continue to flow for a consider- surface of an eye highly vascular,
affected with a feeling as if broken
66 10. The inside of the upper pieces
of glass were rolling under eyelid ought daily to be inspected. the eyelids, and evidently secreting If there is any tendency to a rough purulent matter, a solution of lunar and sarcomatous state of the concaustic ; and I have been not a lit- junctiva, it ought to be touched tle amused and pleased at their with the solid sulphate of copper.” surprise, when next day they have On this plan, our author has found all the symptoms much abat- treated a number of cases of caed by the use of this application. tarrhal ophthalmia, and with uni.
56'8. As a collyrium, I am in form success. In no case, if treatthe habit of using a solution of one ed before ulceration took place, did grain of corrosive sublimate in eight ulcer or opacity succeed. On the ounces of water.
This being other hand, he has seen many cases made milkwarm, is used thrice a which had been much aggravated, day for fomenting the eyelids, by by trusting to general treatmentmeans of a linen rag. In mild cases, especially to bleeding or by the a few drops are thus allowed to use of acetate of lead, or sulphate flow in on the eye ; but, in severe of zinc, as local applications. He cases, in which the discharge is has been led to attribute to these copious and puriform, this colly- salts the detachment of the conrium must be injected over the junctival layer of the corneawhole surface of the conjunctiva, whereas, such superficial ulceraand especially into the upper fold tions, treated with the solution of of this membrane, by means of a nitrate of silver, have uniformly syringe ; so that the whole morbid healed without opacity. secretion is removed, and the dis An analogous mode of treatment eased membrane immediately touch- is to be followed in the different ed by the solution.
species of puromucous conjunctivi"9. At bedtime, about the size tis. But these are more severe and of a large pinhead of red precipi- more dangerous diseases than the tate ointment, melted on the end of catarrhal. Mr. M. defers any furthe finger, is to be smeared along ther remarks on these till a future the edges of the eyelids. This oint- opportunity. In the mean time he ment is prepared by levigating 12 has introduced a number of highly grains of red precipitate till they interesting cases, in illustration of become an orangecolored impalpa- the principles of treatment which ble powder, to which one ounce of are laid down in this paper. For fresh butter is to be added. I have these we must refer the reader to occasionally seen this ointment pre- the Journal of our contemporary pared so carelessly, that crystalline already indicated.---Medico Chiscales of red precipitate were evi- rurgical Review. dent in it to the naked
The red precipitate ought to be careful CURE FOR THE AGUE. ly levigated till it loses the red co Sir,—Your correspondent W. lor, and becomes orange. Added A. being desirous of ascertaining to the quantity of unctuous sub- a cure for ague, which he says is stance above mentioned, it forms a very prevalent in Herts and goldencolored ointment which keeps Bucks, -I am happy to have an for a great length of time, and is by opportunity to inform him, through far the best of all eyesalves. the medium of your excellent
publication, that the sulphate of ples in the saliva of the dog are quinine, in doses of grains three chiefly mucus and salivary mattimes a day, is an undoubted speci- ter, with a little ozmazome; the fic for this disease. It has cured saline substances are chiefly alme in four instances of the most kaline acetates and phosphates, inveterate attacks, when all other and the carbonate and phosphate remedies failed. It is a very ex- of lime; and the alkali is almost pensive medicine, being, I under- entirely soda. In the sheep the stand, prepared, in France from saliva contains a much larger prospirit of wine, which is very portion of phosphate of soda, which cheap there, compared to the indeed appears to form the prinprice of this article in this coun- cipal part of the solid contents ; try, united with bark. This sub- and it likewise contains the Suljects the article to a heavy im- phocyanate of soda, and no aceport duty, which governmeut tate. In man the impure saliva ought to take off for the benefit contains a proportion of alkaline of the community, the poorer phosphate intermediate between classes in Essex, Kent, Lincoln- that in the dog and that in the shire, and other counties being sheep. The alkali in all the alsubject to this dreadful ma- kaline salts is not soda but potass; lady every year at intervals. I and, as in the sheep, there is here hope you will excuse my writing also a sensible quantity of Sulphoyou só fully, and shall feel much cyanic acid. It appears, thereobliged by an early insertion. fore, that the animal principles I am, sir,
are nearly the same in all, but Your obedient servant, that the salts are different in
Peter Mellish. each.—Journ. of Foreign Med. P.S. A dozen doses took the shivering fits away from me in four days, at three draughts a day. BOSTON, TUESDAY, JULY 3, 1827. Lond. Mech. Magazine.
GYMNASTICS AND SWIMMING.
Dr. Francis LIEBER has arrived in
Boston to take charge of the gym.
to open a swimming school. This
CHEMICAL CHARACTER OF THE