Ecology and Behaviour of the African Buffalo: Social Inequality and Decision Making

Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 1996 - 293 Seiten
Over the past 30 years or so, research effort in behaviour and ecology has progressed from simple documentation of the habits or habitats of differ ent species to asking more searching questions about the adaptiveness of the patterns of behaviour observed; moved from documenting simply what occurs, to trying to understand why. Increasingly, studies of behav iour or ecology explore the function of particular responses or patterns of behaviour in individuals or populations - looking for the adaptiveness that has led to the adoption of such patterns either at a proximate level (what environmental circumstances have favoured the adoption of some particular strategy or response from within the animal's repertoire at that specific time) or at an evolutionary level (speculating upon what pres sures have led to the inclusion of a particular pattern of behaviour within the repertoire in the first place). Many common principles have been established - common to a wide diversity of animal groups, yet showing some precise relationship between a given aspect of behaviour or population dynamics and some particular ecological factor. In particular, tremendous advances have been made in understanding the foraging behaviour of animals - and the 'decision rules' by which they seek and select from the various resources on offer - and patterns of social organization and behaviour: the adap tiveness of different social structures, group sizes or reproductive tactics.
 

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Inhalt

Distribution of resources in time and space
1
12 ECOLOGY OF THE LANDSCAPE
4
13 WATER REQUIREMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF WATER
7
14 WAXING AND WANING OF FOOD RESOURCES
11
15 BUFFALO DIET COMPOSITION
16
16 GRASS AND SEDGE PRODUCTION
20
17 GRASS AND SEDGE CONSUMPTION
24
18 FOOD QUALITY
29
THE EFFECTS OF POACHING
151
Competition for food
154
62 WILDEBEEST AND ZEBRA GRAZING ACTIVITY
155
63 ELEPHANT FEEDING ACTIVITY
157
64 SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN ADAPTATION BETWEEN THE FOUR SPECIES
159
MINOR COMPETITORS WITH BUFFALO
166
THE MAJOR COMPETITOR
174
Patch selection predators and grazing by rule of thumb
178

Food for the buffalo
34
22 FOOD INTAKE AND SWARD DENSITY
42
23 BUFFALO FEEDING ACTIVITY
45
24 BUFFALO AS MIXED FEEDERS?
48
25 ARE BUFFALO TIMELIMITED OR RESOURCELIMITED?
52
Social organization of buffalo cows
56
32 FITNESS AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY
58
33 THE BUFFALO HERD AS A DISCRETE UNIT
72
34 FUSIONFISSION SOCIETY
77
Social organization of buffalo bulls
84
42 BULL MOVEMENTS BETWEEN SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS
89
43 DOMINANCE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ADULT BULLS
97
44 REENTRANT CONSECUTIVE POLYGYNY
100
Population dynamics catastrophes and stability
106
52 DIFFERENT CAUSES OF DEATH
111
53 RISK SEX AND AGE
114
54 ANNUAL MORTALITY
120
55 RINDERPEST
122
56 THE RINDERPEST OUTBREAK OF 1959
128
57 CATASTROPHIC DISEASES
131
58 RISK OF DISEASE AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY
133
59 THE MANYARA CENSUSES
138
510 FUNCTIONAL STABILITY
141
511 COMPENSATION
146
512 CONDITION AND REPRODUCTION
148
72 VIGILANCE AND PREDATOR DETECTION
186
73 BUFFALO IGNORE PREDATION RISK WHEN DECIDING WHERE TO GRAZE
192
74 PATCH SELECTION AND REGRAZING
198
75 CHANGING PATCH UTILIZATION
203
76 PREVENTING WRONG DECISIONS
207
77 COGNITION INTELLIGENCE AND DECISIONMAKING
210
78 COLLECTING INFORMATION
214
Selecting grazing grounds a case of voting
218
INDIVIDUAL JUDGEMENT
219
83 FIRST EVIDENCE FOR COMMUNAL DECISIONTAKING
221
84 ORIENTATIONS OF BUFFALO WHEN GRAZING OR RESTING
224
85 WHICH OF THE SEXES OR AGE CLASSES SHOW VOTING BEHAVIOUR?
226
86 VOTING
229
87 ELECTION OR CONSENSUS?
231
88 POOLED EXPERT OPINION
232
SOCIALITY IN OPTIMAL FORM
235
The effects of ecology on social organization
237
92 INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
240
93 BUFFALO OF MANYARA AS COMPARED WITH THOSE OF THE SERENGETI
244
94 SOCIAL INEQUALITY
253
95 THE EVOLUTION OF SOCIALITY AND INFORMATION SHARING
256
Protein and energy requirements
261
References
266
Index
287
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