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known, he availed himself of that work as his chief guide, with respect to the principal objects of natural history ; without being a mere copyist in every minute detail :' proposing at the fame time to offer such original remarks as he thought could not fail of proving acceptable io his readers.
The work is drawn up in the form of letters, in which the Author profeffes to have included most of the observations and remarks of Mr. Bowles in the course of his various journeys, from the year 1752 down to the present time; which were read with great applause by the Spaniards, and bought up with such eagerness, that in 1778 no copies were to be found.' -Mr. Dillon's design has been not merely to translate Mr. Bowles's work, or even regularly to abridge it, but to clear up its obscurities; lop off its redundancies, or what he considered as such ; and to methodise the whole, by dividing it into two tours : Mr. Bowles not having, as he himself avows, confined himself to any order or method in the relation of his travels.
Mr. Dillon has likewise blended with the text the observations of another Spanish traveller, Don Antonio Ponz, as well as of some other writers ;--and there are, I fatter myself," he observes, fome parts of this book, which cannot, in any reipect, be confidered as borrowed from Mr. Bowles's work. In those parts, the historian and the antiquary may probably meet with such detached pieces as have hitherto escaped their observation.' – Mr. D. obferves, likewise, that he has invariably, throughout the whole performance, prefixed the name of Mr. Bowles at the head of each letter, any part of which contained matter borrowed from him. Not having the French translation of Mr. Bowles's work at hand, we cannot pronounce whether the Author has invariably adhered to this plan. We suspect, however, that he has not always strictly attended to this rule; and that the Reader will be unable to discover, in several parts of this performance, whether it is Mr. Dillon or Mr. Bowles that is speaking.
In the two numbers of our Review above referred to, we dwelt fo largely on Mr. Bowles's work, which is professedly the fubstratum of the present, that little more need to be added respecting the performance now before us. We shall, however, give a short specimen of it; and as we before confined our obfervations to matters relating to natural history or chemistry, we thall select a subject of a more general and popular kind, from the Author's 16th and 17th Letters; where he describes that mountainous country, the Lordship, as it is called, of Biscay, and the simple manners of its inhabitants, which so nearly refemble those of mountaineers in general, or more particularly, as the Author observes, those of the ancient Irish; so as to strengthen the opinion that the latter are descended from them.
. It has been observed,' says the Author, that the inhabitants of mountains are strongly attached to their country, which probably arises from the division of lands, in which, generally speaking, all have an interest. In this, the Biscayners exceed all other states, looking with fondness on their hills, as the most delightful scenes in the world, and their people as the most respectable, descended from the Aborigines of Spain. This prepoffeffion excites them to the most extraordinary labour, and to execute things far beyond what could be expected, in so small and rugged a country, where they have few branches of commerce.
• The manners of the Biscayners, and the ancient Irish, are so similar on many occasions, as to encourage the notion of the Irish being descended from them. Both men and women are extremely fond of pilgrimages, repairing from great distances to the churches of their patrons, or tutelary faints, singing and dancing till they almost drop down with fatigue. The Irish do the same at their patrons. The Guizones of Biscay, and the Boulamkeighs of Ireland are nearly alike : at all these assemblies, chey knock out one another's brains, on the most trivial provocation, without malice or rancour, and without using a knife or a dagger. In both countries the common people are passionate, ealily provoked if their family is slighied, or their descent called in question, The Chacoli of Biscay, or the Shebeen of Ireland *, makes them equally frantic. In Ireland the poor eat out of one dish with their fingers, and fit in their smoaky caba: bins without chimneys, as well as the Biscayners. The brogue is also the hoe of Biscay; the women tie a kercher round their heads, wear red petticoats, go barefoot, in all which they resemble the Biscayners; and with them have an equal good opinion of their ancient descent; the poor Biscayner, though haughty, is laborious and active, an example worthy to be imitated by the Irish.'
· The head of the family,' says the Author elsewhere,' is called Pariente Mayor, and is greatly respected by all the colla- : teral branches : fome' of these are of such high antiquity, as to be thought to have dwelled there before the establishment of Christianity in that country, fince their ancestors were the founders of the churches, had the patronage of them, and were known so far back as four centuries ago to have, even then, been time immemorial in receipt of the tythes. Others, with out any patronage, are deemed equally ancient; many are so far reduced as to be obliged to cultivate their estates with their own
* Mr. Dillon, or Mr. Bowles, for we know nor which of them is now speaking-hould have explained these two terms, for the benefit of such of their Readers as are not Irishmen or Biliayuers,
hands, yet will not yield to the others in nobility and descent ; alleging that, though some branches have been more enriched by fortunate everits, yet they are all equally sprung from one common ancestor. Their names have undoubtedly passed, in a lineal fucceffion, from a more ancient date than the ages of chivalry, the establishment of coat armour, or of archives and records; to which they pay little attention, as of no importance to illustrate their quality ; the poffesfion of one of these houses, or the constant tradition of being descended from a former posa feffor, being more than sufficient to ennoble their blood : many: fuch having shined in the annals of Spain, by the noblest deeds, which have immortalized their names more than their ancient descent. There have settled in different parts of the kingdom, while the head of the family has continued at home, in a state of fimplicity, ploughing his fields, and inspiring his children with sentiments suitable to the heroical ages. The daughters are brought up in a different manner from most other parts of the world; here the most opulent do not disdain the management of household affairs, and every branch of domestic oeconomy, with a noble fimplicity, that seems to recal those glorious ages of which Homer has sung, . Whoever looks for innocence, health, and content, will find it [them) among the inhabitants of Biscay; and if they are not the richest, they may be well deemed the happiest of mankind.
It is pleasing to behold with what affability the rich demean themselves towards those who are less so than themselves';' being obliged to this condescension from the natural fpirit, and pride, of the people, added to their education and notions of freedom. Unaccustomed to brook the least scorn, or to comply, with that submissive behaviour so unusual from the poor to the rich, in more refined" and opulent kingdoms; yet the common proverb of Caftile, Pobreza' no es vileza, “ Poverty is not a blemish,” has no sway here ; for such are their notions of labour and industry, that their spirit makes them consider it as an indignity to beg; and though the women are generally charitable, which cannot fail to attract mendicants, yet these are most commonly ftrangers.”
The King of Spain, we are further told, affumes no other title over these free people, than that of Lord of Biscay. They admit of no Bishops, nor custom-houses in their provinces. Person's only proving themselves to have originally belonged to this Lordship, or to be descended from such in the male line' lawfully begotten, are entitled to claim public certificates, termed Cartas Executorias, expressive of their being Hidalgos de fangre, or “ Gentlemen of blood.” To them Dona Rodriguez, the Duenna in Don Quixote, alludes, when, speaking of her husband, the says, r sobre todo Hidalgo, como el Rey, porque era
montanes." He was as well born as the King, because he Came from the mountains,"
As the work of Mr. Bowles has not been translated into our language, the present performance will be undoubtedly acceptable to those who wish to become acquainted with a country, which Mr. Bowles very juftly calls a Virgin Land.' It is true, that Mr. Dillon has omitted some parts of that work, particularly those relative to Platina, the Mexican mines, and other miscellaneous matter : but perhaps he may be thought to have made amends for these omiffions by his own original ohservations, as well as by the remarks which he has extracted from Ponz, and other Writers. We should add, that the performance is embellished with some well-executed plates, and a map of Spain.
Art. XII. The Citizen's Monitor : fhewing the Neceffity of a salutary
Police, executed by resolute and judicious Magiftrates, affitted by the pious Labours of zealous Clergymen, for the Preservation of the Lives and Properties of the People, and the happy Existence of the State. With Obfervations on the late Tumulos, &c. By Jonas Hanway, Esq; 4to. 48. Boards. Dodlley, 1780. HIS volume being the republication of a series of letters
published in 1975, under the title of The Defects of Police the cause of Immorality, &c. * it may be sufficient, in general, to refer the Reader of this Article to what was observed on its first appearance; the only obvious addition being the previous Advertisement, suggested by the late disturbances in the me. tropolis; when a wild enthufiaft in flamed the populace, on account of the lenity shewn in mitigating the laws against persons profeffing the Roman Catholic religion.
As we honour the motives of this benevolent citizen, who labours so affiduously in the public cause, it is painful to hint any remarks that may seem to discredit the objects of his patri, otic attention. But-in sad truth, Mr. H. is a man of lo many words, that bis good thoughts are sometimes unprofitably diffi. pated; he bewilders himself, and never knows where or when to finish. Out of the labyrinth two obvious truths may be collected, to which, we believe, no man of reflection can refuse his affent. That our penal laws being too fanguinary, are too often broke through by the lenity of the courts of justice, or by royal mercy; so that their energy is destroyed. And that our prifons are too close and indiscriminate in the allociation of offend. ers, so that they are rendered academies of iniquity. The quera cion is, what are the remedies of these evils ? If the public
* See M, Rey. Vol. LIII. p. 216. Rev. Jan, 1781.
will but find money, Mr. H. will find schemes in plenty, in the detail of which he is insufferably tedious; but which are impracticable, without impofing new burdens on a nation already fufficiently loaded, and continually loading. The correction of old institutions is more feasible than regulations altogether novel, complicated, and expensive: and out of the abundance of Mr. H.'s benevolent hints, some may be selected and adopted that will not too violently alter the established course of judicial proceedings.
Mr. H. laments fo repeatedly the neglect of a pious instruction of the people, and their general inattention to the ordinances of religion, particularly of receiving the sacrament, that he is apprehensive his plan may be thought to smell too much of the Tabernacle. There are instances enough in all countries and ages to justify complaints of such a nature, and good people enough, it may be hoped, even at present, to check the pen of indiscriminate censure. Mankind catch prevailing humours by a kind of contagion, insomuch that religion itself is subject to fashion. When piety is in vogue, the danger is of its excess : and about the middle of the last century the nation was torn to pieces by over much righteousness. It will avail little for Mr. H. or any one else, to interpofe - Not so; for had the people been actuated by the true spirit of genuine piety, no fuch excesses would have ensued ;' for when once the popular turn is to be religious, they soon outstrip their teachers, rush into extravagancies beyond the barriers of law, and overthrow all the checks of government ! Profligate as the present age may be, the metropolis now retains the scars of wounds given by the sudden start of a religious apprehenfion. It will avail as little to plead, that these outrages were not committed by the Protestant Association, but by a fet of abandoned miscreants, who sheltered their lawless purposes under the occafion ;' for the Association furnished the occasion, and a like advantage is always taken of such favourable opportunities. If Mr. H. thinks there is too little regard to piety in the general mass of the people, and wishes to have a more zealous attention to religion infused into thein, he might be right, could he regulate the degree of their zeal by any kind of political thermometer not hitherto known : but the fermentation of religious notions in ignorant brains is always to be dreaded'; because no worldly confiderations whatever can check what men once conceive to be the will of the Almighty, and their duty, to secure their own eternal interests ! It might be a curious problem to exercise political ingenuity, to determine which is most injurious to society, for a people to have too little or too much regard to religion? We have no leisure for such a discussion ourselves, and shall only throw out a loose hint, that in the