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others against doing the same. He computes the resistance of the canes, in a mill worked by four mules, at about nineteen thousand. pounds weight, and remarks that after half an hour's work, the mules are all on a sweat, and obliged to be changed every two hours; and that such a mill, in order to be equal to a good one. that

goes by water, ought to do double the work in the same. time..... He much doubts the success of one to go by fire that was made in London some years since, and sent to famaica. Art. 21.

Astronomical Observations on the Periodical Star in the Whales Neck (a). By Mr. William Herschel of Bath.

These Observations verify what we have been told concerning this star. Mr. H. also observes, that of the two stars in the Whale marked Alpha, and Beta, the latter is considerably larger than the former; and affords a proof of the change in the (apparent) magnitude of the fixed stars; as we can hardly suppose Bayer should have made a mistake in the magnitude of the two first stars of this constellation. Art. 24. The principal Properties of the Engine for turning Ovals,

in Wood, or Metal, and of the Instrument for drawing Ovals upon Paper, demonstrated. By the Rev. Mr. Ludlam, Vicar of Norton, near Leicester.

At p. 380. I. 17. for h. read b. And the whole might have been done without introducing Algebra in the last leaf, for even the maximum angle, made by the two tangents of the ellipfis and its circumscribing circle at their common ordinate rightly applied, admits of an elegant geometrical determination, but Mr. L. has neither given the investigation nor demonftration, but only the bare assertion, that it is so and so. No not even in the addenda in the last page of the Vol. though a demoaftration may be made out from thence. Art. 25. Of Çubic Equations, and infinite Series. By Charles

Hucion, LL. D. FR. S. This is the Paper mentioned by Baron Maseres in Art. 5. The infinite series that express the roots of these equations, are found by applying Newton's binomial Theorem, to evolve the surds in Cardan's furmuiæ. And the series here lumined are such as arise from the expansion of cubic roots, and consequentiy have their sums expressed by compound cubical furd quantities, of which there are a great variety. Art. 29. Istronomical Observations relating to the Mountains of

the Moon. By Mr. Herschel, of Ba: h. The telescope used in these Observations was a Newtonian reAlector, of u feet 8 inches focal length, to which a micrometer was adapted, contisting of two parallel hairs, one of which was moveable by means of a fine screw. The value of the parts shewn by the Index, was determined by a trigonometrical observation of a known object at a known distance, and was verilied by feve

ral

ral trials. The magnifying power used was 222 times, and was
also determined by experiment. By these'observations, no moun-
tain that Mr. Herschel tried in the moon, was so high as two
miles ; though the observations appear to be faithfully related,
and well chofen ; which is contrary to Galileo, Hevelinus, and
all other astronomers fince their time.
Art. 32. An Investigation of the Principles of progreffive and ro-

tatory mation. By the Rev. St. Vince, A. M. of Sidney Col-
lege, Cambridge.

This seems to be the production of a very young man, unskilled and inexperienced in these matters, who, when time has ripened his judgment, may alter his opinion ; for he appears to have blamed Meff. J. and D. Bernoulli very unjustly, since he has done nothing but what they had done before, in the most simple and satisfactory manner. He says that they have assumed in their investigations, principles not more self-evident than the propositions they are intended to demonstrate ; and what must we say then to his first proposition, where the demonstration of what he calls the property of the lever, affumed as a principle; and that of the point he has determined, being the centre of percuffion, or oscillation, are far more difficult than his propofition itself; and this justifies them for investigating these things first, and making that the foundation of their theory of the spontaneous centre of rotation; he has moreover borrowed the idea of a body being reduced to a plane in his oth propofition from M. J. Bernoulli. As to the 8th proposition, there can be such motion as that which is there described, communicated to a streight lever by impulse of a body striking it; but by means of a ftring fastened at D. and pulling it in the direction 'DF.; and the lines DF, DH, FH must represent the absolute velocity of D, at that instant in those directions respectively, and not such velocities as are the measure of forces, properly so called, as Mr. V. seems to represent the matter ; if they do, the whole resolution will be false.

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Art. XII. Continuation of the Account of Mr. Gibbon's History of

the Decline and Fall of the Ron:an Empire, N the twenty-second chapter of this History, we have an

account of the death of Constantius, of Julian's being declared Emperor by the legions of Gaol, and of his civil adminiftration. The twenty-third chapter contains a view of the motives, the counsels, and the actions of Julian, as far as they are connected with the history of religion ; and in the twentyfourth we have an account of his successful expedition against the Persians, his passage of the Tigris, his retreat, and death.

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This part of Mr. Gibbon's History is extremely curious and interesting. It requires no small ability to do justice to such a

character as that of Julián, one of the most fingular, surely, that ever appeared in the world. The manner in which it is treated by our Historian, does great honour, in our opinion, to his im-, partiality. We cannot resist the temptation of laying part of what he says before our readers.

• In the thirty-second year of his age, Julian acquired the undisputed poffeflion of the Roman empire. Philosophy had initructed him to compare the advantages of action and retirement; but the elevation of his birth, and the accidents of bis life never allowed him the freedom of choice. He might perhaps fincerely have preferred the groves of the academy, and the society of Athens; but he was contrained, at first by the will, and afterwards by the injustice, of Conftantius, to expose his person and fame to the dangers of Imperial greatness; and to make himself accountable to the world, and to poiterity, for the happiness of millions. Julian recollected with terror the obe servation of his master Plato, that the government of our flocks and herds is always committed to beings of a superior species; and that the conduct of nations requires and deserves the celestial powers of the Gods or of the Genii. From this principle he justly concluded, that the man who presumes to reign, should aspire to the perfection of the divine nature; that he should purify his foul from her mortal and terreftrial part; that he should extinguish his appetites, enlighten his understanding, regulate his paflions, and fubdue the wild beast, which, according to the lively metaphor of Aristotle, feldom_fails to ascend the chrone of a despot. The throne of Julian, which the death of Conftantius fixed on an independent basis, was the seat of reason, of virtue, and perhaps of vanity. He despised the honours, renounced the pleasures, and discharged with inces. fant diligence the duties, of his exalted station; and there were few among his subjects who would have consented to relieve him from the weight of the diadem, had they been obliged to submit their time and their actions to the rigorous laws which their philofophic emperor imposed on himself. One of his most intimate friends, who bad often fhared the frugal fimplicity of his table, has remarked, that his light and sparing diet (which was usually of the vegetable kind) left his mind and body always free and active, for the various and important business of an author, a pontiff, a magistrate, a general, and a prince. In one and the same day, he gave audience to several ambassadors, and wrote, or dicta:ed, a great number of letters to his generals, his civil magistrates, his private friends, and the different cities of his dominions. He listened to the memorials which had been received, considered the subject of the petia, tions, and fignified his intentions more rapidly than they could be taken in short-hand by the diligence of his secretaries. He possessed foch flexibility of thought, and such firmness of attention, that he could employ his hand to write, his ear to liften, and his voice to dictate; and pursue at once three several trains of ideas, without hesitation, and without error. While his ministers reposed, the prince flew with agility from one labour to another, and, after a hatty

dinner,

dinner, retired into his library, till the public bufiness, which he had appointed for the evening, summoned him to interrupt the prosecution of his studies. The supper of the emperor was still less subftantial than the former meal; his sleep was never clouded by the fumes of indigestion; and except in the short interval of a marriage, which was the effect of policy rather than love, the chalte Julian never shared his bed with a female companion. He was foon awakened by the entrance of fresh secrecaries, who had nept the preceding day; and his servants were obliged to wait alternately, while their indefatigable mafter allowed himself scarcely any other refreshment than the change of occupations. The predeceffors of Julian, his uncle, his brother, and his cousin, indulged their puerile tuite for the games of the circus, under the specious pretence of complying with the inclinations of the people ; and they frequently remained the greatest part of the day, as idle spectators, and as a part of the splendid spectacle, till the ordinary round of twentyfour races was completely finished. On solemn festivals, Julian, who felt and professed an unfathionable dilike to these frivolous amusements, condescended to appear in the circus; and after bestow. ing a careless glance on five or fix of the races, he hallily withdrew, with the impatience of a philosopher, who considered every moment as loft, that was not devoted to the advantage of the public, or the improvement of his own mind. By this avarice of time, he seemed to protract the short duration of his reign; and if the dates were less securely ascertained, we should refuse to believe, that only fixteen months elapsed between the death of Conftantius and the departure of his succeffor for the Persian war. The actions of Julian can only be preserved by the care of the historian; but the portion of his voluminous writings, which is ftill extant, remains as a monument of the application, as well as of the genius, of the emperor. The Misopogon, the Cæsars, several of his orations, and his elaborate work again it the Chriltian religion, were composed in the long nights of the two winters, the former of which he passed ac Con:tantinople, and the latter at Antioch.

• The reformation of the Imperial court was one of the first and most necessary acts of the government of Julian. Soon after his entrance into the palace of Constantinople, he had occasion for the service of a barber. An officer, magnificently dressed, immediately presented himself.

" It is a barber,” exclaimed the prince, with affected surprise, “that I want, and not a receiver-general of the finances.” He questioned the man concerning the profits of his employment; and was informed, that besides a large salary, and fome valuable perquisites, he enjoyed a daily allowance for twenty fervants, and as many horses. A thousand barbers, a thousand cup-bearers, a tboulard cocks, were dittributed in the several offices of luxury; and the number of eunuchs could be compared only with the insects of a summer's day. The monarch who resigned to his subjects the fuperiority of merit and .virtue, was distinguished by the oppressive m gnincence of bis dress his table, his buildings, and his train. The ita ely palaces ereced by Coritantine and his sons, were decorated with many costly marbles, ard ornaments of mafly gold. The most exquisite dainties were procured,:1 gratify

their pride, rather than their tafte; birds of the most diftant cli, mates, fish from the most' remote seas, fruits out of their natural feason, winter roses, and summer snows. The domestic croud of the palace surpassed the expence of the legions; yet the smallest part of this costly multitude was subservient to the use, or even to the fplendor, of the throne. The monarch was disgraced, and the people was injured, by the creation and sale of an infinite number of obscure, and even titular employments; and the most worthless of mankind might purchase the privilege of being maintained, without the necessity of labour, from the public revenue. The waste of an enormous household, the encrease of fees and perquisites, which were soon claimed as a lawful debt, and the bribes which they ex, torted from those who feared their enmity, or solicited their favour, fuddenly enriched these baughty menials. They abused their fortune, without considering their past, or their future, condition ; and their rapine and venality could be equalled only by the extravagance of their dislipations. Their, filken robes were embroidered wicka gold, their tables were served with delicacy and profugon; the houses which they built for their own use, would have covered the farm of an ancient consul; and the most honourable citizens were obliged to dismount from their horses, and respectfully to salute an eunuch 'whom they met on the public highway. The luxury of the palace excited the contempt and indignation of Julian, who usually flepo on the ground, who yielded with reluctance to the indespersable cails of nature; and whó placed his vanity, not in emulating, but in despising the pomp of royalty. By the total extirpation of a mischief which was magnified even beyond its real extent, he was impatient to relieve the distress, and to appease the murmurs, of the people; who support with less une afines the weight of taxes, if they are convinced that the fruits of their industry are appropriated to the fervice of the late. But in the execution of this falutary work, Julian is accused of proceeding with too much halte and inconsiderate severity. By a fingle edict, he reduced the palace of Conftantinople to an immenfe desert, and dismissed with ignominy the whole train of flaves and dependents, without providing any just, or at least benevolent, excepcions, for the age, the services, or the poverty, of the faithful domestics of the Imperial family. Such indeed was the temper of Julian, who feldom recollected the fundamental maxim or Aristotle, that true virtue is placed at an equal distance between the opposite vices. The fplendid and effeminate dress of the Afiatics, the curls and paint, the collars and bracelets, which'had appeared fo ndiculous in the person of Contantine, were confiftently rejected by his philofophic fucceffor. But with the foppe. ries, Julian affected to rencunce the decencies of dress; and seemed to value himself for his negieći uishe laws of cleanliness. In a satirical performance, which was designed for the public eye, the emperor descants with pleasure, and even with pride, on the length of his nails, and the inky blackness of his hands; proteits, that although the greatest part of his body was covered with hair, the use of the razor was confined to his head alone; and celebrates, with viûble

complacency,

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