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diately with the bark; for while the difease continues, there is no certainty, by any other method, to guard against the alarming and fatal symptoms, which frequently and unexpectedly come on.'
The propriety of this practice appears to be justified by the success attending it, in numerous cases, which are minutely related in the firft part of this volume. After defcribing the case of a youth, who appears to have owed his recovery from a fever, attended with the worst symptoms, to the practice here recommended, the Author adds, that its novelty, and the fuccess attending it in this case, as well as in several others which occurred soon after he came to reside ac Newcaftle, attracted the attention of the faculty at that place. The use of the bark, before this period, had been limited to that state of contitrued fever in, which fymptoms of putrescency appear. The inged nious and candid gentlemen, with whom I attended patients, tied this method of practice in similar cales : its credit was foon established; and I believe it is now adopted by every phyfician in this town.' *... In one particular case, we find a patient taking no less than an ounce and fix drachms of the powder of the bark in fix hours.
The successful cases which the Author has given are twentyeight in number. He purposely selected the most dangerous, that it might appear what confidence ought to be placed on the bark, in the cure of continued fevers. He afterwards takes particular notice of the cases which terminated unfortunately, giving an account of the proportional number of patients who recovered, to those who died. In this evaluation, he confines himself to the cases of fevers which came under his care at the Dispensary; not because his success had been greater there than in private practice; but because the numbers of the patients and the events could be more precisely ascertained.
From this state it appears, that 203 patients, labouring under continued fevers, had fallen under his care, from October 1, 1777, to October 1, 1779; of whom 196 have been discharged perfectly, cured, fox died, and one was dismisfed for irregularity.
In the fecond part of this performance, the Author treats fully of the scarlet fever, attended with ulcerated sore throat, as it appeared at Newcastle in 1778; first describing this epidemic, as it came under his own observation; and then comparing it with the scarlet fever of Authors, and the angina maligna. He next treats of the cure; and then exbibits a variety of casess, in which the scarlet fever was attended either with mild ulcerations of the throat, or with gangrenous ulcers, or was followed by dropfical swellings. On this fubject we shall content ourselves with abridging some of his conclusions from the whole of his observations and practice respecting this disease,
The scarlet fever, he obferves, is a contagious disease, and almost always is attended with a sore throat ; which is sometimes erysipelatous, sometimes ulcerated, and sometimes of a putrid and gangrenous nature. On the ift, 2d, 3d, or 4th day, a red eruption appears upon the skin; and after continuing for three, four, or more days, goes off in branny or thick broad fcales; and after the cessation of fever, the disease often terminates in a dropsy.
The most important distinctions in practice, relative to this disorder, are, to ascertain whether the disease is of an inflammatory nature; or whether it is attended with a disposition to putrefaction in the throat, or in the system in general.
The mild species of scarlet fever, described by Sydenham, requires little more than a proper attention to regimen. When the disorder is attended with erysipelatous inflammation, or with a mild ulcerated sore throat, antimonial emetics are proper, together with an antiphlogistic regimen, and detergent gargles ; but, in the latter case, as soon as the action of the veflèls is abated, the principal dependence is to be placed in the bark; which ought, from the beginning, to be prescribed in large doses, and affilted with an antiseptic cordial regimen, when the disease is attended with gangrenous ulcers in the throat, and a disposition to putrefaction in the system.
Here, as in the preceding part, the Author relates the success of his practice in this disorder. Of thirty-six patients whom he attended in private practice, thirty-two were restored to health, and four died. In the Dispensary, out of ninety-five, eightyone recovered, thirteen died, and one was discharged for irregu. larity,
In bis Appendix, the Author recommends an improvement in the annual reports of hospitals, with a view to the important information which the faculty, and confequently the public, may derive from accurate and satisfactory returns of the fick ; and gives five specimens of tables adapted to that purpose. The art of medicine would doubtless, in time, be greatly improved, if a scheme of this kind were prosecuted in the numerous charitable inftitutions established in this kingdom.
ART. IV. The Works of the Right Reverend Father in God, Thomas
Wilson, D. D. Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man. With his Life, compiled from authentic Papers.' By C. Cruiwell. 4to, 2 Vols. 21. 12 s. 6 d. Dilly, &c. 17812 HE works of this venerable Prelate, which have al.
A fort Instruction for the better understanding the Lord's Supper, &c. Knowledge and Practice of Christianity made easy to the
meanest Capacity; or, An Eflay towards an Instruction for the Indians.' And The History of the Ife of Man, first published in Gibson's second edition of Camden's Britannia.
The two former of these performances bave been well received and esteemed. To these are added in the present collection, a treatise entitled Parochialia, which, as his Editor informs us, has been long known to the clergy of his own diocese; Sacra privata; Maxims of Piety." and Christianity; Short Obfervations for reading the historical Books of the Old Testament; Form of Prayer for the Herring-filhery ; Form of Excommunication
j Form of receiving Penitents; Inftructions for an academic Youth; Catechetical Instructions. - There, with some other matters, and the Life of the Author, compose the first volume, The second volume consists of fermons, chiefly, if not altogether, on practical subjects.
The Memoirs of his Life acquaint us, that he was born in the year 1663, at Burton, in the county of Chester. That he received the rudiments of his education at the county-town, and from thence was removed to the university of Dublin. His allowance at the university was twenty pounds a year ; a sum, it is observed, small as it may now appear, was in those days fufficient for a sober youth in so cheap a country as Ireland.
His first intention was to have applied to the study of physic, but from this he was diverted by Archdeacon Hewetson, by whose advice he dedicated himself to the church. He continued at college till the year 1686, when, on the 29th of June, he was ordained deacon. • The ordination was held for him alone, on the day of the confecration of the church of Kildare, in the presence of a very numerous congregation; and our pious divine ever after kept the anniversary of it holy, and poured forth his heart to God in a particular prayer on the occasion.'
The exact time of Mr. Wilson's leaving Dublin is not known; but on account of the political and religious disputes of those days, it was sooner than he intended.
On the roth of December in the same year, he was licensed to the curacy of New Church in Winwick, of which Dr. Sherlock *, his maternal uncle, was Rector.' His ftipend was no more than thirty pounds a year ; but being an excellent conomift, and having the advantage of living with his uncle, this small income was not only sufficient to supply his own wants, but it enabled him to supply the wants of others; and for this purpose he fet apart one-tenth of his income.'
• Author of a book entitled, The practical Christian, or devout Penitent ; of whith several editions have been printed. To the fixtb is prefixed a fort Account of his Life, written by Bithop Wilson.
In 1692, he was appointed domestic chaplain to William Earl of Derby, and tutor to bis fon James Lord Strange, with a salary of thirty pounds a year. He was soon after elected master of the alms-house at Latham, which brought him in twenty pounds a year more. Having now an income far beyond his expectations, or his wishes, except as it increased his ability to do good, he now set apart one fifth of his income for pious uses, and particularly for the poor.
In fhort, as his income increased, he increased the portion of it which was allotted to the purposes of charity. At first he fet apart a tenth, then a fifth, afterwards a third, and lastly, when he became a Bishop, he dedicated (as we suppose all other Bifhops do) the full half of his revenues to pious and charitable ufes.
He had not been long in the service of Lord Derby, before he was offered the valuable living of Buddelworth in Yorkshire, which he refused to accept, as being inconfiftent with the refolves of his confcience againft non-residence, Lord Derby choosing still to retain him as chaplain, and tutor to his son.
In 1697 he was promoted, not without some degree of compulsion on the part of his patron, to the bishopric of the Idle of Man; a preferment which he held fifty-eight years.
In 1698, he married Mary, daughter of Thomas Patten, Esq; of Warrington. By this Lady, who survived her marriage about fix years, he had four children, 'none of whom are living except Dr. Wilson, Prebendary of Westminster.
"The annual receipts of the bifhopric did not exceed three hundred pounds in money. Some necessaries in his house, as fpices, sugar, wine, books, &c. must be paid for with money ; distreffed or shipwrecked mariners, and some other poor objects, required to be relieved with money; but the poor of the iftand were fed and clothed, and the houfe in general supplied from his demesnes, by exchange, without money. The poor, who could weave or fpin, found the beft market at Bifhop'scourt, where they bartered the produce of their labour for corn. Taylors and Poemakers were kept in the house conftantly employed, to make into garments or shoes that cloth or leather which his corn had purchased'; and the aged and infirm were fupplied according to their feveral wants. Mr. Moore of Douglafs informed the
editor, that he was once witnefs to a pleasing and fingular instance of the Bishop's attention to some aged poor of the island. As he was diftributing spectacles to some whose eyesight failed them, Mr. Moore expressed his furprise, as he well knew not one of them could read a letter. * No matter," said the Bishop with a smile, “ they will find use enough for them; these spectacles will help them to thread
a needle, to mend their clothes, or, if need be, to keep them felves free from vermin.'
The year 1720 brings us to a remarkable epocha in the life of this zealous and worthy Bishop. This part of his hiftorý will be best related in the Biographer's own words.
• The fuspended person alluded to in the Bishop's charge of June the 9th, 1720, was no less a person than Mrs. Horn, wife of Capt. Horn, Governor of the island. In the year 1719, the accused Mrs. Puller, a widow woman of fair character, of fornication with Sir James Pool; and from this story, to please Mrs. Horn, Archdeacon Horrobin refused Mrs. Puller the facrament. Uneasy under this restriction, she had recourse to the mode pointed out by the Constitutions of the Church, to prove her innocence ; namely, by oath, which she and Sir James Pool took before the Bishop, with compurgators of the best character ; and no evidence being produced to prove their guilt, they were by the Bishop cleared of the charge; and Mrs. Horn was fentenced to ask pardon of the parties whom she had fo unjustly traduced. This fhe refused to do; and treated the Bishop and his authority, as well as the ecclefiaftical constitutions of the iland, with contempt. For this indecent disrespect to the laws of the church, the ecclefiaftical censure was pronounced, which banished her from the facrament till atonement was made. The Archdeacon, who was Chaplain to the Governor, out of pique to the Bishop, or from fome unworthy motive, received her at the communion, contrary to the cuftom and orders of the church. An insult to himself the Bishop would have forgiven, but difobedience to the Church and its laws he could not allow of. He confidered it as the oblation of wrath, rather than the bond of peace, and at last fufpended the Archdeacon. The Archdeacon, in a rage, instead of applying to the Archbifhop of York, as metropolitan, and consequently the proper judge to appeal to in matters relating to the church, threw himself on the civil power ; and the Governor, under pretence that the Bishop had acted illegally and extrajudicially, fined him fifty pounds, and his two vicars-general, who had been officially concerned in the suspension, twenty pounds each. This fine they all refufed to pay, as an arbitrary and unjust impofition: upon which the Governor sent a party of soldiers, and they were, on the 29th of June 1722, committed to the prison of Castle Rushin, where they were kept closely confined, and no perfons admitted within the walls to fee or converse with them.'-The Bishop was confined in this prison two months, and released at the end of that time upon his petition to the King and Council.
Though the good Bihop's application of the fulmen ecclefiaNicum might poffibly be neither prudent nor juftifiable, yet the