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PR EFACE.

It has been Mr. Loudon's custom to preface each Volume of the Magazine of Natural History with an Address to the Contributors and Subscribers; and the adoption of such a course might naturally be expected from the present Conductor, upon the occasion of bringing to a close the First Volume of the New Series.

Prior, however, to the commencement of another year, it is hardly possible to form any decided estimate of the opinion which the Subscribers at large entertain of the general character of the Magazine under the existing arrangements; and, until all uncertainty upon this point is removed, it would, perhaps, be premature to discuss the present condition, or anticipate the future success, of the work.

The Editor, however, feels bound to acknowledge the support afforded to this Periodical, at a period when the attempt to carry it on promised to be attended with considerable difficulty, from the withdrawal in 1836 of a large number of the Contributors, and the establishment of a Journal devoted to Zoology and Botany, by parties in no way dependent on their literary labours.

A large proportion of the contents of the present Volume has been communicated by individuals of established reputation as Naturalists, while the entire number of writers amounts to nearly one hundred; and in no instance whatever has the slightest remuneration been given to any one Contributor, either for translations or original articles.

The circulation of the English scientific journals is so limited, that, taken in the aggregate, the sum realised by their sale falls short of the actual cost of printing and publishing; a result consequent upon their multiplicity, and perhaps still more upon the very general establishment of museums and public libraries; these institutions affording parties the means of consulting the pages of periodicals, without being obliged to have recourse to individual subscription.

The Magazine of Natural History is very generally admitted to

have done much towards exciting an interest in the pursuits con

nected with the investigation of natural objects; and, so long as

circumstances admit of the present Editor's carrying it on, if it con

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tinue to receive from various Contributors in future as much support as it has done during the past year, he will persevere in so doing, at least, while there is no actual loss upon its publication.

In pledging himself to this line of proceeding, the Editor feels that he may fairly call upon those who derive interest from the perusal of the work, to second his efforts, by exerting themselves to promote its circulation.

The proposed reduction to forty-eight pages, instead of fifty-six, has not been carried into effect; but, on the contrary, small type has been introduced, so as considerably to increase the amount of matter in the present Volume.

28. Stamford Street, Nov. 26, 1837.

CONTENTS.

With References to the several Articles contributed by each.

Bowman, J. E., F.L.S.
On the Longevity of the Yew, as ascertained from actual Sections

of its Trunk; and on the Origin of its frequent Occurrence in

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