On the Classification and Geographical Distribution of the Mammalia: Being the Lecture on Sir Robert Reade's Foundation, Delivered Before the University of Cambridge in the Senate House, May 10, 1859. To which is Added an Appendix "On the Gorilla" and "On the Extinction and Transmutation of Species"
John W. Parker and Son, 1859 - 103 Seiten
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according adapted affinity Africa animal anthropoid apes appears applied approach associated base bones brain called canines cause changes characteristics characters chimpanzee compared comparison complete cranium Cuvier digits distinct divided division elephant equal evidence existence extent extinct foot fossil genera genus gibbons give gorilla greater hair head higher History hoofed human important incisors indicate kind known larger length less limbs lower jaw male Mammalia Mammals modifications molars muscles natural nearer negro never observation orang organs pair period placenta position premolars present primary processes prominent proportion Quadrumana quadrupeds races reference regard relation relative remarkable respect rest ridge Ruminants shape short siamang single skull smaller sole species structure surface teeth third tion toes tooth tree Troglodytes true trunk upper usually varieties vertebræ World young
Seite 56 - ... species has to maintain against the surrounding agencies that are ever tending to dissolve the vital bond and subjugate the living matter to the ordinary chemical and physical forces.
Seite 49 - I have already argued, his psychological powers, in association with his extraordinarily developed brain, entitle the group which he represents to equivalent rank with the other primary divisions of the class Mammalia founded on cerebral characters. In this primary group Man forms but one genus, Homo, and that genus but one order, called BIMANA, on account of the opposable thumb being restricted to the upper pair of limbs. The...
Seite 26 - The superficial grey matter of the cerebrum, through the number and depth of the convolutions, attains its maximum of extent in Man. Peculiar mental powers are associated with this highest form of brain, and their consequences wonderfully illustrate the value of the cerebral character...
Seite 60 - Vertebrata, but the sum of the animal species at each successive geological period has been distinct and peculiar to such period. Not that the extinction of such forms or species was sudden or simultaneous: the evidences so interpreted have been but local Over the wider field of life at any given epoch, the change has been gradual ; and, as it would seem, obedient to some general, continuously operative, but as yet, ill-comprehended, law.
Seite 60 - Organic remains, traced from their earliest known graves, are succeeded, one series by another, to the present period, and never re-appear when once lost sight of in the ascending search. As well might we expect a living Ichthyosaur in the Pacific, as a fossil whale in the Lias : the rule governs as strongly in the retrospect as the prospect. A nd not only as respects the Vertebrata, but the sum of the animal species at each successive geological period has been distinct and peculiar to such period.
Seite 17 - Mammalia ; and the homologous teeth are determined, like other parts, by their relative position, by their connexions, and by their development. Those teeth which are implanted in the premaxillary bones, and in the corresponding part of the lower jaw, are called 'incisors,' whatever be their shape or size. The tooth in the maxillary bone, which is situated at or near to the suture with the premaxillary, is the
Seite 60 - In regard to animal life, and its assigned work on this planet, there has, however, plainly been an ascent and progress in the main. " Although the Mammalia, in regard to the plenary development of the characteristic orders, belong to the Tertiary division of geological time, just as ' Echini are most common in the superior strata; Ammonites in those beneath, and Product!
Seite 41 - The molars, nearly always six in number on each side of the upper and lower jaws, have their crown marked with two double crescents, the convexity of which is turned inwards in the upper and outwards in the lower teeth.
Seite 55 - ... the degree of incongruity between the generic forms of the mammalia which then existed in Europe, and any that actually exist on the great natural continent of which Europe now forms part. It would seem, indeed, that the further we penetrate into time for the recovery of extinct mammalia, the further we must go into space to find their existing analogues.