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trict, Jebal Hesma; but Robinson says that ritis, in the Syntagma Commentt., Part I. p. 194; though there is a sandy tract, el-Hismalı, with but especially, Sketches of Idumea and its present mountains around it, on the east of Akabah, it Inhabitants, by Dr. E. Robinson, in the Amer does not constitute a separate division.

Bið. Repository for April, 1833, p. 247; and The whole of this region is at present occupied the Bib. Researches of the same writer, vol. ii. by various tribes of Bedouin Arabs. The chief p. 551.-N. M. tribe in the Jehal is the Hejaya, with a branch of ILLYRICUM (ʻIXXupików), a country lying the Kaabinel, while in esh-Sherah they are all of the numerous and powerful tribe of the nearly to that which is at present called Dal.

to the north-west of Macedonia, and answering Haweitat, with a few independent allies. The matia; by which name indeed the southern part Bedouins in Idumæa have of late years been par- of Illyricum itself was known, and whither St. tially subject to the Pacha of Egypt, paying an annual tribute, which, in the case of the Beni (2 Tim. iv. 10). Paul himself preached this

Paul informs Timothy that Titus had gone Sukhr, is one camel for two tents. The fellaliin, Gospel in Illyricum, which was at that time or peasants, are half Bedouin, iubabiting the few villages, but dwelling also in tents; they tvo

a province of the Roman Empire (Rom. xv.

19). pay tribute to the Egyptian government, and furnish supplies of grain,

IMMANUEL (XpY; Sept. "Eupanovha; Among the localities connected with Edom or EMMANUEL. This word, meaning 'God ritk which are mentioned in Scripture may be noticed us,' occurs in the celebrated verse of Isaiah (vii. Dinhabah, Bozrah, Theman, Maon (now Maan), 14), · Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a Kadest-barnea (which Robinson identifies with son, and shall call his name IMMANUEL.' In el-Weibeh in the Wady el-Jeib), Zephath (which forty-three MSS. and thirty-nine printed editions, he supposes to be the pass of Es-Sufah), Elath, the word is given in the separate form SX 1999; and Ezion-geber, &c.; but the most celebrated place in all the region was the chief city, Selah but, as Dr. Henderson remarks, in the orthoor Petra, for a description of which the reader is graphy of all compound names, the MSS. and referred to the latter head [Petra):

editions widely differ.' In the name itself there is Could the scene of the book of Job he with variously interpreted. From the manner in which

no difficulty; but the verse, as a whole, has been certainty fixed in Idumæa, we should then pos- the word God, and even Jehovah, is used in the sess much curious and valuable information respecting both the country and people soon after composition of Hebrew names, there is no such peit had been colonized by the descendants of culiarity in that of Immanuel as in itself requires

us to understand that he who bore it must be in Esau (See Mason Gond, Wemyss, and others upon Job). But all that we lear directly of fact God. Indeed, it is used as a proper name the ancient Edomites from the liistorical books of among the Jews at this day. This high sense has, Scripture represents them as not, indeed, neglect the application of the whole verse, hy the Evan

however, been assigned to it in consequence of ing agriculture or trade (Num. xx. 17), yet, on the whole, as a warlike and predatory race, who, Even if this reference did not exist, the history

gelist Matthew (i. 23), to our Divine Saviour. according to the prediction of their progenitor Isaac, • lived by their sword.' The situation of of the Nativity would irresistibly lead us to iba

conclusion that the verse—whatever may have the country afforded peculiar facilities for commerce, which seems to have been

prosecuted from

been its intermediate signification—had an ulti

mate reference to Christ. a very early period. • Bordering,' says Volney, upan Arabia on the east and south, and Egypt thus neatly summed up by Dr. Henderson, in his

The state of opinion on this point has been on the south-west, and forming, from north to south, the most commodious channel of commu

vote on the text :- This verse has long been a nication between Jerusalem and her dependencies subject of dispute between Jews and professedly on the Red Sea, through the continuous valleys While the former reject its application to the of El-Ghor and El-Araba, Idumæa may be said Messiah altogether, the earlier rabbins explainto have long formed the emporium of the commerce of the East. The era of its greatest pros. ing it of the queen of Ahaz and the birth of his perity was after the Nabathæans bad become

son Hezekiah; and the later, as Kimchi and masters of the country and founded the kingdom Abarbanel, of the prophet's own wife, the great of Arabia Petræa, of which the renowned metro. body of Christian interpreters have held it io be polis was Petra. The religion of the early Edom directly and exelusively in prophecy of our ites was, perhaps, comparatively pure; but in borne out by the inspired testimony of the Evan

Saviour, and have considered themselves fully process of time they embraced idolatry: in 2 Chron. xxv. 20, we read of the gods of Edom, gelist Matthew. Others, however, have departed one of whom, according to Josephus (Antiq. xv.

from this construction of the passage, and have 7. 9), was called Kotzé. With respect to the invented or adopted various hypotheses in support striking fulfilment of the prophetic denunciations of such dissent. Grotius, Faber, Isenbiehl, Hezel, upon Eclom, we veed only refer the reader to the Bolten, Fritsche, Pluschke, Gesenius, and Kitzig. well-known work of Keith, who frequently errs, suppose either the then present or a future wife however, in straining the sense of prophecy be of Isaiah to be the hoby almah (rendered yond its legitimate import, as well as in seeking “virgin"), reserred to. Eichhorn, Paulus, Hensler, out too literally minute an accomplishment. On and Ammon, are of opinion that the prophet has Idumæa generally, see C. B. Michaelis, Diss. de nothing more in view than an ideal virgin, and Antiquiss. Idumaor. Hist. in Pott and Ruperti's that both she and ber son are merely imaginary Sylloge Comment. Thcologic. Part VI. p. 121; personages, introduced for the purpose of prophetic J. D. Michaelis, Comment, de Troglodytis Sei- illustration. Bauer, Cube, Steudel, and some others, think that the prophet pointed to a young

The word which describes the various ingrediwoman in the presence of the king and his ents as being tempered together ' literally means courtiers. A fourth class, among whom are 6 salted' (nboo memullach). The Chaldee and Richard Simon, Lowth, Koppe, Dathe,

Williams, Greek versions, however, have set the example of Von Meyer, Olshausen, and Dr. J. Pye Smith, rendering it by mixed" or tempered, as if their admit the hypothesis of a double sense : one, in idea was that the different ingredients were to be which the words apply primarily to some female mixed together, just as salt is mixed with any living in the time of the prophet, and her giving substance over which it is sprinkled. Ainsworth birth to a son according to the ordinary laws of contends for the literal meaning, inasmuch as the nature; or, as Dathe holds, to some virgin, who law (Lev. ii. 13) expressly says, With all thine at that time should miraculously conceive; and offerings thou shalt offer salt. In support of this the other, in which they received a secondary he cites Maimonides, who affirms that there was and plenary fulfilment in the miraculous concep- not any thing offered on the altar without salt, tion and birth of Jesus Christ.'

except the wine of the drink oflering, and the INCENSE, a perfume which gives forth its blood, and the wood; and of the incense he mys, fragrance by burning, and, in particular, that still more expressly, that they added to it a cab perfume which was bumt upon the altar of in- of salt.' In accordance with this, it is supposed, cense (Altar; CENSER). Indeed, the burning our Saviour says, ' Every sacrifice shall be salted of incense seems to have been considered among with salt' (Mark ix. 49). Ainsworth further rethe Hebrews so much of an act of worship or marks : * If our speech is to be always with grace, sacred offering, that we read not of any other seasoned with salt, as the apostle teaches (Col. use of incense than this among them. Nor iv. 6), bow much more should our incense, our amoug the Egyptians do we discover any trace prayers unto God, be therewith seasoned ?' It is, of burnt perfume but in sacerdotal use; but however, difficult to see how so anomalous a subin the Persian sculptures we see incense burnt stance as salt could well be combined in the before the king. The prohibition of the Hebrews preparation; and if it was used, as we incline to make any perfume for private use to smell to think

that it was, it was probably added in the to '-like that prepared for the altar, merely im- act of offering. plies, we apprehend, that the sacred incense had The above reference to Maimonides reminds us a peculiarly rich fragrance before being burnt, of the reason which he assigns, in the More Newhich was forbidden to be imitated in common vochim, for the use of incense in the Jewish perfumes.

ritual service: To prevent the stench which The incense is denoted by the words hope would otherwise have been occasioned by the miktar (Exod. xxx. 1); 79p kitter (Jer. xliv. number of beasts every day slaughtered in the 21); and nitop kituroth (Exod. xxx. 1 ; xxxi. sanctuary, God ordained that incense should be 11; Ezek. xvi. '18); all of which are equally burned in it every morning and evening, and from the root up, which, in Pihel, signifies gené- thereby rendered the odour of the sanctuary and of rally to raise an odour by burning; and in the the vestments of those that ministered exceedingly verlal form it is applied not only to the offering grateful; which has occasioned the saying of oir of incense but also of sacrifices, the smoke or ellu- rabbins, That the odour of the incense extended rium of which is regarded as an acceptable or sweet to Jericho. This, therefore, is another of the preodour to God. Indeed, the word which denotes cepts conducing to the reverence and veneration an incense of spices in Exod. xxx. I describes which ought to be entertained for the sanctuary : an incense of fat in Ps. Ixvi. 15.

for if the perfume thereof had not been pleasant, The ingredients of the sacred incense are enume- but the contrary, it would have produced conrated with great precision in Exod. xxx. 34, 35: tempt instead of veneration, since a grateful • Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte (903 netaph), odour. pleases and attracts, while an unpleasarit and onycha (nbry shecheleph), and galbanum

one disgusts and repels.'

This is very well; and no doubt the use of (nugaba chelbenah); these sweet spices with pure incense

, which we always find in religions where frankincense (17335 lebonah): of each shall worship is rendered by sacrifice, had its origin in there be a like weight. And thou shalt make of some such considerations. But we are not to lose it a perfume, a confection after the art of the sight of the symbolical meaning of this grateful apothecary, tempered together, pure and holy.' offered at the time when the people were in the

offering. It was a symbol of prayer. It was For an explanation of these various ingredients we must refer to their several Hebrew james in posture and act of prayer; and their orisons were the present work. The further directions are supposed to be presented to God by the priest

, and

to ascend to Him in the smoke and odour of that that this precious compound should be made or broken up into minute particles, and that it fragrant offering. This beautiful idea of the inshould be deposited, as a very holy thing, in the cxli. 2; Mal. 1. 11; Zech. xiv. 16 ; Acts x. 4;

cense frequently occurs in Scripture (comp. Ps. tabernacle • before the testimony' (or ark). As the ingredients are so minutely specified," there Rev. v. 8: viii. 4). Vas nothing to prevent wealthy persons from

INCHANTMENTS. [WITCHCRAFT.] having a similar perfume for private use: this, INDIA (1777; Sept. 'Ivouch).

This name therefore, was forbidden under pain of excom- occurs only in Esther i. 1; viii. 9, where the Permunication : • Ye shall not make to yourselves sian king is described as reigning • from India according to the composition thereof it shall unto Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and be unto thee holy for the Lord. Whosoever shall twenty provinces. It is found again, however, in make like unto that, to smell thereto, shall eren the Apocrypha, where India is mentioned among be cut off from his people '(ver. 37, 38).

the countries which the Romans took from Anti. ochus and gave to Eumenes (1 Macc. viii. 8). It from these regions the attention of Europeans, is also with some reason conceived that in Acts ii. and left them in an obscurity wbich hitherto has 9, we should read 'Ivõlav, India, and not 'lovdalar, been little disturbed, although the current of Judæa. If this could be admitted, an interesting events seems likely ere long to lead to our better subject of inquiry would arise ; for these dwellers knowledge. in India—that is, Jews of India—are described From this it appears that the India of Scripture as being present in Jerusalem at the Passover. included no part of the present India, seeing that it There is much to say in favour of this reading, was confined to the territories possessed by the Perbut more in favour of Idumwa ; for the name of sians and the Syrian Greeks, that never extended that country, ’ldovualav, might, much more easily beyond the Indus, which, since the time of Nadir than that of India, 'lvdíay, have been accidentally, Shah, has been regarded as the western boundary or rather carelessly, corrupted into 'lovdalay: and, of India. Something of India beyond the Indus at the same time, the name of Idumæa would became known through the conquering march of come better into the list than that of India, seeing Alexander, and still more through that of Seleuthat the enumeration is manifestly taken from cus Nicator, who penetrated to the banks of the east to west; which allows Idumæa with great Ganges ; but the notions thus obtained are not propriety to follow Mesopotamia, but forbids India embraced in the Scriptural notices, which, both to do so. Whichever may be right, Judæa can- in the canonical and the Apocryphal text, are not but be wrong; and, indeed, on the face of the confined to Persian India. (See Heeren's Histolist, we cannot but see the superfluousness of the rical Researches, i. c. 1, § 3, on Persian India; information, that the people of Judæa were presen and Rennel's Geog. of Herodotus). in their own city at the Passover.

INHERITANCE. The laws and ohservances It is evident on the face of the above intima- which determine the acquisition and regulate the tions, and indeed from all ancient history, that the devolution of property, are among the influences country known as India in ancient times extended which affect the vital interests of states; and it is more to the west, and did not reach so far to the therefore of high consequence to ascertain the east-that is, was not known so far to the east- nature and bearing of the laws and observances as the India of the moderns. When we read of relating to this subject, which come to us with ancient India, we must clearly not understand the sanction of the Bible. We may also premise the whole of Hindostan, but chiefly the northern that, in a condition of society such as that in parts of it, or the countries between the Indus and which we now live, wherein the two diverging the Ganges; although it is not necessary to assert tendencies which favour immense accumulations that the rest of that peninsula, particularly its on the one hand, and lead to poverty and pauwestern coast, was then altogether unknown. It perism on the other, are daily becoming more was from this quarter that the Persians and Greeks and more decided, disturbing, and baneful, there (to whom we are indebted for the earliest accounts seems to be required on the part of those who of India) invaded the country; and this was con- take Scripture as their guide, a careful study of sequently the region which first became generally the foundations of human society, and of the known. The countries bordering on the Ganges laws of property, as they are developed in the continued to be involved in obscurity, the great divine records which contain the revealed will of Kingdom of the Prasians excepted, which, situated God. nearly above the modern Bengal, was dimly dis- That will, in truth, as it is the source of all cernible. The nearer we approach the Indus, the created things, and specially of the earth and more clear becomes our knowledge of the ancient its intelligent denizen, man, so is it the original geography of the country; and it follows that the foundation of property, and of the laws by which districts of which at the present day we know the its inheritance should be regulated. God, as the least, were anciently best known. Besides, the Creator of the earth, gave it to man to be held, western and northern boundaries were not the cultivated, and enjoyed (Gen. i. 28, sq.; Ps. same as at present. To the west, India was not cxv. 16; Eccles. v. 9). The primitive records then bounded by the river Indus, but by a chain are too brief and fragmentary to supply us with of mountains which, under the name of Koh any details respecting the earliest distribution (whence the Grecian appellation of the Indian or transmission of landed property ; but from Caucasus), extended from Bactria to Makran, or the passages to which reference has been made, Gedrosia, enclosing the kingdoms of Candahar the important fact appears to be established and Cabul, the modern kingdom of Eastern Persia, beyond a question, that the origin of property is to or Afghanistan. These districts anciently formed be found, not in the achievements of violence, the part of India, as well as, further to the south, the success of the sword, or any imaginary implied less perfectly known countries of the Arabi and contract, but in the will and the gift of the comHaurs (the Arabitæ and Oritæ of Arrian, vi. 21), mon Creator and bountiful Father of the human bordering on Gedrosia. This western boundary race. It is equally clear that the gift was made, continued at all times the same, and was removed not to any favoured portion of our race, but to to the Indus only in consequence of the victories the race itself—to man as represented by our of Nadir Shah.

great primogenitor, to whom the use of the divine Towards the north, ancient India overpassed gift was first graciously vouchsafed. The indinot less its present limit. It comprehended the vidual appropriation of portions of the earth, and whole of the mountainous region above Cashmir, the transmission of the parts thus appropriated, Badakshan, Belur Land, the western boundary in other words, the consuetudinary laws of promountains of Little Bucharia, or Little Thibei, perty, would be determined in each instance by and even the desert of Cobi, so far as it was the peculiar circumstances in which an indivi. known. The discovery of a passage by sea to dual, a family, or a clan, might find itself placed the coasts of India has contributed to withdraw in relation to the world and its other inhabitants ; por is it now, in the absence of written evidence, male line. Hence too the rise of the rights of possible to ascertain, and it is useless, if not worse, primogeniture. In the early condition of society to attempt to conjecture, what these laws were. which is called patriarchal, landed property had This, however, is certain, that if in any case its origin, indeed, but could not be held of first they inflicted injury, if they aided the aggran- importance by those who led a wandering life, disement of the few, and tended to the depression shifting continually, as convenience suggested, of the many, they thereby became unjust, and not from one spot to another. Cattle were then the only lost their divine sanction, but, by opposing chief property (Gen. xxiv. 35). But land, if held, the very purposes for which the earth was given to was held on a freehold tenure; nor could any man, and operating contravention of the divine other tenure have come into existence till more will, they were disowned and condemned of God, complex and artificial relations arose, resulting, in the tenure of the property was forfeited, and a all probability, from the increase of population recurrence to first principles and a re-distribution and the relative insufficiency of food." When became due alike to the original donor, and to Joseph went down into Egypt, be appears to have those whom He had intended impartially to be found the freehold tenure prevailing, which, hownefit,

ever, he converted into a tenancy at will, or, at The enforcement of these principles has, in any rate, into a conditional tenancy. Other indifferent periods of human history, been made by timations are found in Genesis which confirm the seen hand of God, in those terrible providen- the general statements which have just been tial visitations which upturn the very foundations made. Daughters do not appear to have had any of society and reconstruct the social frame. The inheritance. If there are any exceptions to this Deluge was a kind of revocation of the divine rule, they only serve to prove it. Thus Job (the gift; the Creator took back into his own hands took so called is undoubtedly very old, so that the earth which men had filled with injustice there is no impropriety in citing it in this conand riolence. The trust, however, was, after that nection) is recorded (xlii. 15) to have given his terrible punishment, once more committed to daughters an inheritance conjointly with their man, to be held, not for himself, but for God, brothers-a record which of itself proves the sinand to be so used and improved as to further gularity of the proceeding, and establishes our the divine will by furthering human good. And, position that inheritance generally followed the whatever conduct may have been pursued, at any male line. How highly the privileges conferred period, at variance with the divine purpose, yet it by primogeniture were valued, may be learnt from is in trust, not in absolute possession, it is for the history of Jacob and Esau. In the patriarchal God's purposes, not our own, that the earth at age doubtless these rights were very great. The large, and every portion of the earth, has been eldest son, as being by nature the first fitted for and is still held." In truth, man is the tenant, command, assumed influence and control, under nor the proprietor, of the earth. It is the tem- his father, over the family and its dependents ; porary use, not the permanent possession of it and when the father was removed by death, he that he enjoys. The lord of ten thousand broad readily, and as if by an act of Providence, took acres, equally with the poor penniless squatter, is his father's place. Thus he succeeded to the proa sojourner and pilgrim in the land, as all his perty in succeeding to the headship of the family, fathers were, and is bound, not less than the the clan, or the tribe. At first the eldest son most other, to remember, not only that property bas probably took exclusive possession of his father's its duties as well as its rights, but also that property and power; and when, subsequently, a its best titles are held by a momentary tenure, division became customary, he would still retain revocable at the will of an omnipotent power

, the largest share-a double portion, if not more and subject to unerring scrutiny, in regard both (Gen. xxvii. 25, 29, 49). "That in the days to their origin and their use, in a court where of Abraham other sons partook with the eldest, the persons of men are not respected, where justice and that too though they were sons of concubines, is laid to the line, and judgment to the plummet clear from the story of Hagar's expulsion :(Isa. xviii. 17);

• Cast out (said Sarah) this bondwoman and her The impression which the original gift of the son; for the son of this bondwoman shall not be Earth was calculated to make on men, the Great heir with my son, even with Isaac'(Gen. xxi. 10). Donor was pleased, in the case of Palestine, to The few notices left us in Genesis of the transfer render, for his own wise purposes, more decided of property from hand to hand are interesting, and emphatic by an express re-donation to the and bear a remarkable similarity to what takes patriarch Abraham (Gen. xiii. 14, sq.). Many place in Eastern countries even at this day (Gen. years, however, elapsed before the promise was xxi. 22, sq.; xxiii. 9, sq.). The purchase of fulfilled. Meanwhile the notices which we have the Cave of Machpelah as a family buryingregarding the state of property in the patriarchal place for Abraham, detailed in the last passage, ages, are few and not very definite. The products serves to show the safety of property at that early of the earth, however, were at an early period ac- period, and the facility with which an inheritance cumulated and held as property. Violence in- was transmitted even to sous' sons (comp. Gen. vaded the possession; opposing violence recovered xlix. 29). That it was customary, during the the goods. War soon sprang out of the passions father's lifetime, to make a disposition of property, of the human heart. The necessity of civil go is evident from Gen. xxiv. 33, where it is said vertiment was felt. Consuetudinary laws ac- that Abraham had given all he had to Isaac. This cordingly developed themselves. The head of statement is further confirmed by ch. xxv. 5, 6, the family was supremne. His will was law. The where it is added that Abraham gave to the sons physical superiority which he possessed gave him of his concubines .gifts, sending them away from this dominion. The same influence would secure Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward unto its transmission in the male rather than the fe. the east country.' Sometimes, however, so far

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were the children of unmarried females from of the children of Israel. The observances and being dismissed with a gift, that they shared, practices, too, which we have noticed as prevailing with what we should term the legitimate children, among the patriarchs would, no doubt, have great in the father's property and rights. Thus Dan influence on the laws which the Jewish legislator and Naphtali were sons of Bilhah, Rachel's maid, originated or sanctioned. The land of Canaan whom she gave to her husband, failing to bear was divided among the twelve tribes descended children herself. So Gad and Asher were, under through Isaac and Jacob from Abraham. The similar circunistances, sons of Zilpah, Leah's division was made by lot for an inheritance maid (Gen. xxx. 2-14). In the event of the among the families of the sons of Israel, accordeldest son's dying in the father's lifetime, the ing to the tribes, and to the number and size of next son took his place; and if the eldest son left families in each tribe. The tribe of Levi, . howa widow, the next son made her his wife (Gen. ever, bad no inheritance; but forty-eight cities with xxxviii. 7, sq.), the offspring of which union was their suburbs were assigned to the Levites, each reckoned to the first-born and deceased son. tribe giving according to the number of cities Should the second likewise die, the third son that fell to its share (Num. xxxiii. 50; xxxiv. 1; took his place (Gen. xxxviii. 11). While the Xxxv. 1). The inheritance thus acquired was rights of the first-born were generally established never to leave the tribe to which it belonged; and recognised, yet were they sometimes set aside every tribe was to keep strictly to its own inheritin favour of a younger child. The blessing of ance. An heiress, in consequence, was not allowed the father or the grandsire seems to have been an to marry out of her own tribe, lest property should act essential in the devolution of power and pro- pass by her marriage into another tribe (Num. perty-in its effects not unlike wills and testa- xxxvi. 6-9). This restriction led to the marriage ments with us; and instances are not wanting in of heiresses with their near relations : thus the which this (so to term it) testamentary bequest daughters of Zelophehad 'were married unto their set aside consuetudinary laws, and gave prece- father's brother's sons, and their inheritance redence to a younger son (Gen. xlviii. 15, sq.). mained in the tribe of the family of their father' Special claims on the parental regards were ac- (ver. 11, 12; comp. Joseph. Antiq. iv. 7. 5). In knowledged and rewarded by special gifts, as in general cases the inheritance went to sons, the the case of Jacob's donation to Joseph (Gen. first-born receiving a double portion, 'for he is xlviii. 22). In a similar manner, bad conduct the beginning of his father's strength. If a man on the part of the eldest son (as well as of others) had two wives, one beloved, the other hated, and subjected him, if not to the loss of his rights of if the first-born were the son of her who was property, yet to the evil influence of his father's hated, he nevertheless was to enjoy the right of dying malediction (Gen. xlix. 3); while the good the first-born' (Deut. xxi. 15). If a man left no and favoured, though younger, son was led by sons, the inheritance passed to his daughters ; if the paternal blessing to anticipate, and probably there was no daughter, it went to his brothers; in also to reap, the richest inheritance of individual case there were no brothers, it was given to his and social happiness (Gen. xlix. 8-22).

father's brothers; if his father had no brothers, The original promise made to Abraham of the it came into possession of the nearest kinsman land of Palestine was solemnly repeated to Isaac (Num. xxvii. 8). The land was Jehovah's, and (Gen. xxvi. 3), the reason assigned being, be- could not therefore be permanently alienated. cause . Abraham obeyed my voice and kept my Every fiftieth year, whatever land had been sold charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my returned to its former owner. The value and laws;' while it is expressly declared that the price of land naturally rose or fell in proportion earlier inhabitants of the country were dispose to the number of years there were to elapse prior bessed and destined to extermination for the to the ensuing fiftieth or jubilee-year. If he who greatness of their iniquity. The possession of sold the land, or a kinsman, could redeem the the promised land was embraced by Isaac in his land before the year of jubilee, it was to be dying benediction to Jacob (Gen. xxviii. 3, 4), to restored to him on his paying to the purchaser whom God vouchsafed (Gen. xxviii. 15; see also the value of the produce of the years remaining xxxv. 10, 11) to give a renewed assurance of the till the jubilee. Houses in villages or unwalled destined inheritance. That this donation, how- towns might not be sold for ever; they were reever, was held to be dependent for the time and stored at the jubilee, and might at any time be manner of its fulfilment on the divine will, ap- redeemed. If a man sold a dwelling-house situpears from Gen. xxxiii. 18, where Jacob, on ated in a walled city, he had the option of recoming into the land of Canaan, bought for an deeming it within the space of a full year after it hundred pieces of money "a parcel of a field, at had been sold; but if it remained unredeemed, it the hand of the children of Hamor.' Delayed belonged to the purchaser, and did not return to though the execution of the promise was, con- him who sold it even at the jubilee (Lev. xxv. 6. fidence never deserted the family of Abraham, so 23). The Levites were not allowed to sell the that Joseph, dying in the land of Egypt, assured land in the suburbs of their cities, though they his brothers that they would be visited of God might dispose of the cities themselves, which, and placed in possession of Canaan, enjoining on however, were redeemable at any time, and must them, in this conviction, that, when conducted return at the jubilee to their original possessors to their possession, they should carry his bones (Lev. xxvii. 16). with them out of Egypt (Gen. 1. 25).

The regulations which the laws of Moses esta. A promise thus given, thus repeated, and thus blished rendered wills, or a testamentary dispobelieved, easily, and indeed unavoidably, became sition of (at least) landed property, almost, if no. the fundamental principle of that settlement of suite, unnecessary; we accordingly find no proproperty which Moses made when at length he vision for anything of the kind. Some difficulty bad effected the divine will in the redemption may lrave been now and then occasioned when

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