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Seir worship. Thus idols are called Dibeben, had found an asylum in Egypt, with having

On the the inane ( Ler. xix. -i); Diban, vanities—the tà turned to serve the gods of that country. ustala of Acts xiv. 15- (Jer. ii. 5); 118, nothing tivity, they appear, for the first time in their his

restoration of the Jews after the Babylonian capIsa. Ixvi. 3); 2'39pe', abominations (1 Kings tory, to have been permanently impressed with a xi. 5); D'Soba, stercore (Ezek. vi. 4); and their sense of the degree to which their former idolatries worship is called whoredom, which is expressed had been an insult to God, and a degradation of oy the derivatives of 7737.

their own understanding-an advance in the culThe early existence of idolatry is evinced by ture of the nation which may in part be ascribed Josh. xxiv. 2, where it is stated that Abram and to the influence of the Persian abhorrence of ais immediate ancestors dwelling in Mesopotamia images, as well as to the effects of the exile as a

served other gods. The terms in Gen. xxxi. chastisement. In this state they continued until 53, and particularly tire plural form of the verb Antiochus Epiphanes made the last and fruitless seem to show that some members of Terah's attempt to establish the Greek idolatry in Pales family had each different gods. From Josh. xxiv. tine (i Macc. i.). 14, and Ezek, xx. 8, we learn that the Israelites, The particular forms of idolatry into which during their sojourn in Egypt, were seduced to the Israelites fell are described under the names worship the idols of that country; although we of the different gods which they worshipped (Ashpiszess ne particular account of their transgression. TORETY, BAA, &c.]: the general features of their In Amos v. 25, and Acts vii. 42, it is stated that idolatry require a brief notice here. According they committed idolatry in their journey through to Movers (Die Phönizier, i. 148), the religion of the wilderness ; and in Num. xxv. 1, sq., that all the idolatrous Syro-Arabian natioris was a they worshipped the Moabite idol Baal-peor at deification of the powers and laws of nature, an Shittim. Alter the Israelites lad obtained pos- adoration of those objects in which these powers session of the promised land, we find that they are considered to abide, and by which they act. were continually tempted to adopt the idolatries The deity is thus the invisible power in nature of the Canaanite nations with which they came itself, that power which manifests itself as the in contact. The book of Judges enumerates generator, sustainer, and destroyer of its works. several successive relapses into this sin. The This view admits of two modifications: either the gods which they served during this period were separate powers of nature are regarded as so many Baal and Ashtoreth, and their modifications; and different gods, and the objects by which these Syria, Sidon, Moab, Ammon, and Philistia, are powers are manifested—as the sun, moon, &c.tiamei in Judg. x. 6, as the sources from which are regarded as their images and supporters; or they derived their idolatries. Then Samuel ap- the power of nature is considered to be one and {vars to have exercised a beneficial influence in indivisible, and only to differ as to the forms meaning the people from this folly (1 Sam. vii.); under which it manifests itself. Both views coand the worship of the Lord acquired a gradually exist in almost all religions. The most simple Inic teasing held on the nation until the time of and ancient notion, however, is that which conSulomon, who was induced in his old age to per- ceives the deity to be in human form, as male out the establishment of idolatry at Jerusalem. and female, and wbich considers the male sex to On the division of the nation, the kingdom of be the type of its active, generative, and deIsrael (besides adhering to the sin of Jeroboam to structive power; while that passive power of nathe last) was specially devoted to the worship of ture whose function is to conceive and bring Baal, which Ahab had renewed and carried to an forth, is embodied under the female form. The unprecedented height; and although the energetic human form and the diversity of sex lead natumeasures adopted by Jebu, and afterwards by the rally to the different ages of life, to the old man pret Jehoiada, to suppress this idolatry, may and the youth, the matron and the virgin-acfrave been the cause why there is no later expreso cording to the modifications of the conception; Oention of Baal, yet it is evident from 2 Kings and the myths which represent the influences, the Xili. 6, and xvii. 10, that the worship of Asherah changes, the laws, and the relations of these nacontinued until the deportation of the ten tribes. tural powers under the sacred histories of such This event also introduced the peculiar idolatries gous, constitute a harmonious development of of the Assyrian colonists into Samaria. In the such a religious system. Lingdom of Judah, on the other hand, idolatry Those who saw the deity manifested by, or niinuel during the two succeeding reigns; was conceived him as resident in, any natural objects, simpressed for a time by Asa (1 Kings xv. 12); could not fail to regard the sun and moon as the Wis revived in consequence of Joram marrying potent rulers of day and night, and the sources of into the family of Ahab; was continued by Ahaz; those influences on which all animated nature received a check from Hezekiah; broke out again depends. Hence star-worship forms a prominent mure violently under Manasseh ; until Josiah feature in all the false religions mentioned in the tra le the most vigorous attempt to suppress it. Bible. Of this character chietly were the Egyptian, But pen Josiah's efforts to restore the worship of the Canaanite, the Chaldæan, and the Persian rethe Lord were ineffectual; for the later prophets, ligions. The Persian form of astrolatry, however, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, still continue deserves to be distinguished from the others; for uuter reproofs against idolatry. Nor did the it allowed no images nor temples of the god, but rappure of Jerusalem under Jehoiachim awaken worshipped him in his purest symbol, fire. It is This peculiarly sensual people ; for Ezekiel (viii.) understood that this form is alluded to in most shows that those who were left in Jerusalem under of those passages which mention the worship of the goveniment of Zedekiah had given themselves the sun, moon, and heavenly host, by incense, on up to many kinds of idolatry; and Jeremiah heights (2 Kings xxiii. 5, 12; Jer. xix. 13). The (ilir.) charges those inhabitants of Judah who other form of astrolatry, in which the idea of the sun, moon, and planets, is blended with the wor. was afterwards more formally and permanently ship of the god in the form of an idol, and with imposed on him on account of bis unworthy disthe addition of a mythology (as may be seen in posal of his birth-right for a mess of red lentiles the relations of Baal and his cognates to the sun) (Gen. xxv. 30). The region whiclı came to bear easily degenerates into lasciviousness and cruel his name, is the mountainois tract on the east rites,

side of the great valleys El Ghor and El Araba, The images of the gols, the standard terins for extendirg between the Dead Sea and the Elanitie which are ijayo, ssy, and oby, were, as to Gulf of the Red Sea. Some bave conjectured material, of stone, wood, silver, and gold. The that the latter sea was called • Redd, because it

washed the shore of. Edom;' but it never lears in two , as being hewn or Hebrew the name of Yam-Ldom: it is uniformly carved; those of metal had a trunk or stock of designated Yam-Suph, i. e..the Sea of Madre wood, and were covered with plates of silver or gold (Jer. x. 4); or were cast (12DD). The pores. Into tris district Esau removed during his

father's life-time, and his posterity gradually obgeneral rites of idolatrous worship consist in tained possession of it as the country which Gerb burning incense; in offering bloodless sacrifices, had assigned for their muheritance in the prophetic as the dough-cakes (D!!)) and libations in Jer: blessing pronounced by his father Isaac (Geir. vii. 18, and the raisin-cakes (D'asy Wux) xxvii. 39, 40; xxxii. 3; Deut. ii. 5-12, 22). in Hos! iii. 1; in sacrificing sictims (1 Kings Previously to their occupation of the country, ir xviii. 20), and especially in human sacrifices was called 7yin 77, Mount Scir, a designation (Moi.ocu). These offerings were made on high indeed which it nerer entirely fost. The worst places, hills, and roofs of houses, or in shady seir means hairy (being thrus synonymous wiris groves and valleys. Some forms of idolatrous Exau), and, when applied to a country, may simon worship had libidinous orgies [AshtORKTH). nify rugged, mountainous, and so says Josep louis Divinations, cracles (2 Kings i. 2), and rabdo- (Antiq. 1. 20. 3): • Esaur named the country mancy (Hos. iv. 12) form a part of many of these

« Roughness" from his own hairy rougimess. false religions. The priesthood was generally a

But in Gen. xxxvi, 20, we read of an individual numerous body; and where persons of both sexes

of the name of Seir, who had before this inhabited were attached to the service of any god (like the the land, and from whom it may have receive! D'N7p and nwmp of Ashtoreth), that service its first appellation. Part of the region is still was infamously immoral. It is remarkable that called Esh-Sherah, in which some find a trace of the Pentateuch makes no mention of any temple Seir, but the two words have no etymological of idols; afterwards we read often of such.- relation : the former wants the y, a letter which

J. N.

is never dropped, and it signifies a tract, a pus IDUMÆA. ldovuata is the Greek form of the session,' and sometimes a mountañi.' Hebrew name Edom, or, according to Josephus The first mention made of Mount Svir in Scrip: (Antiq. ii. 1. 1), it is only a more agreeable mode ture is in Gen. xiv. 6, wtrere Chedorlaomer and of pronouncing what would otherwise be 'Awua his confederates are said to have smitten the (comp. Jerome on Ezek. xxv. 12). In the Sep Horim in their Mount Seir.' Among the earliese tuagint we sometimes meet with 'Ejáu, but more human habitations were caves, either formed by generally with '18ovuala (the people being called nature or easily excavatedl, and for the construe'Isovuaiol), which is the uniforin orthography in tion of these the mountains of Edou affordleit the Apocrypha as well as in Mark iii. 8, the only peculiar facilities. Hence the designation giver passage in the New Testament where it occurs. to the Aboriginal inhabitants-- Horim, Our Authorized Version has in three or four dwellers (from 777, a cave'), an epithet of similar places substituted for Edom • Idumea,' which is import with the Greek Troglodytes. Even in the the name employed by the writers of Greece days of Jerome the whole of the southern part of and Rome, though it is to be noted that tlrey, Idumæa, from Eleutheropolis to Petra and Aila. as well as Josephus, include under tirat name was full of caverns used as dwellings, on account the south of Palestine, and sometime3 Pales- of the sun's excessive heat' (Jerome on Orauliah, tine itself, because a large portion of that coun- ver. Y); and there is reason to believe that the try came into possession of thre Edomites of later possessors of the country in every age occupiert times.

similar habitations, many traces of wliich are yel The Hebrew OTX Edom, as the name of the seen in and near Petra, the renowned metropolis. people is masculine (Num. xx. 22); as the name We are informed in Deut. ii. 12, that the of the country, feminine (Jer. xlix. 17). We children of Esau succeeded (mary. inherited the often meet with the phrase Eretz - Edom, the Horim when they had destroyed them from beLand of Edom,' and once with the poetic form fore them, and dwelt in their stead, as Israel Sedeh-Edom, the Field of Edom' (Judg. v. 4). did unto the land of his possession, which Jens The inhabitants are sometimes styled Beni-Edom, hovah gave unto them.' From this it may be "the Children of Edom,' and poetically Bath- inferred, that the extirpation of the Horim by Edom, 'the Daughter of Edom' (Lam. iv. 21, the Esauites was, like that of the Canaanites by 22). A single person was called 278 Adomi. Israel, very gradual and slow. Some think this • an Exdomite' (Deut. xxiii. 8), of which the femi- supposition is confirmed by the genealogical nine plural n97% Adomith occurs in 1 Kings tables preserved in the 36th chapter of Genesis xi. l.' The name was derived from Isaac's son (comp. I Chron. 1.), where we have, along with a Edom, otherwise called Esant, the elder twin- list of the chiefs of Edom, a similar catalogne of brother of Jacob (Esaul. It signifies red, and Horite chieftains, who are presumed to have been seems first to have been suggested by his appear their contemporaries. But for the chronology (1 ance at his birth, when · he came out all red' these ancient documents we possess no data whal. 3. e. covered with red hair, Gen. xxv. 25), and soever, au very precarious, therefore, must be

e. Cave

any deductions that are drawn from them. This acquired more or less authority over all the tribes. much, however, we there learn of the political con- This oligarchy appears gradually to have changed stitution of the Seirite Aborigines, that, like the into a monarchy, as happened too among the Esauites and Israelites, they were divided into Israelites; for in addition to the above inentioned tribes, and these tribes were sub-divided into Jists, both of Horite and Esauite leaders, we have, families — the very polity which still obtains at Gen. xxxvi. 31, a catalogue of eight kings among the Arabs by whom Idumæa is now (Bela, Jobab, Husham, Hadad, Sanlah, Saul, peopled. Each tribe had its own Alluf-a term Baal-hanan, Hadar or Hadad) who reigned in which is unhappily rendered in the English Ver. the land of Edom before there reigned any king sion by · Duke'--for though that has, no doubt, over the children of Israel. It is not necessary the radical meaning of the Latin dux, a leader,' to suppose that this was said by Moses prophetiit now only suggests the idea of a feudal title of cally: it is one of those passages which may nobility. Of these chiefs of the Horites seven are have been inserted by Ezra when finally arranging enumerated, viz., Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, the canon, inasmuch as it occurs also in the first Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. The only one of book of Chronicles, of which he is the reputed these who is spoken of as related to the other is compiler. The period when this change to regal Anah, the son of Zibeon. The primitive and government took place in Idumæa can only be pastoral character of the people is incidentally matter of conjecture. In the Song of Moses brought out by the circumstance that this Anah, (Exod. xv. 15) it is said that at the tidings of though a chieftain's son, was in the habit of tend- Israel's triumphant passage of the Red Sea the ing his father's asses. It was when thus employed rulers or princes (Alluf) of Edom trembled with that he found in the wilderness eth-ha-yemim, ren- aflright, but when, some forty years afterwards, dered in the English Version by the mules,' but application had to be made by the Israelites for meaning more probably the hot springs ;' and leave to traverse the land of Edom, it was to the thus interpreted, the passage seems to be an inti- king (Moiek) that the request was addressed mation that he was the first to discover the faculty (Num. xx. 14). The road by which it was with which asses and other animals are endowed, sought to penetrate the country was termed the of snuffing the moisture of the air, and thus king's highway' (ver. 17), supposed by Robinson sometimes leading to the opportune discovery to be the Wady el-Ghuweir, for it is almost the of hidden waters in the desert. There is in the only valley that affords a direct and easy passage country to the south-east of the Dead Sea (which through those mountains. From a comparison of formed part of the Seirite possessions), a place, these incidents it may be inferred that the change Kallirhoë, celebrated among the Greeks and in the form of government took place during the Romans for its warm baths, and which has been wanderings of the Israelites in the desert, unless risited by modem travellers (Josephus, De Boll. we suppose, with Rosenmüller, that it was only Jud. i. 33. 5; Pliny, Hist. Nat. v. 5. 17; Legh's Hus north-eastern part of Edom which was now Trarels).

subject to a monarch, the rest of the country reEsau first married into two Canaanitish families maining under the sway of its former chieftains. of the Hittite and Hivite tribes (Gen. xxvi. 34; But whether the regal power at this period emxxxvi. 2; in one or other of wbich places, bow. braced the whole territory or not, perlaps it did ever, the text seems corrupt); but anxious to pro- not supplant the aicient constitution, but was pitiate his offended parents, he next formed a rather grafted on it, like the authority of the matrimonial alliance with one of the race of Judges in Israel, and of Saul, the brst king, Abraliam, viz., Mahalath, otherwise called Bashe which did not materialiy interfere with the gomath, daughter of Ishmael, and sister of Ne- vernment that previously existed. It further apbaioth, whose descendants, the Nabathæans, by a pears, from the list of Idumæan kings, that the singular coincidence, obtained in after times pos- monarchy was not hereditary, but elective (for no session of the land of Edom (Gen. xxviii. 9). one is spoken of as the son or relative of his preEsan's first-born (by Adah or Bashemath, of the decessor); or probably that chieftain was acknowdaughters of Heth) was Eliphaz, whose son ledged as sovereign who was best able to vindiTeman gave name to a district of the country cate his claim by force of arms. Every succes(Gen. xxxvi. 11, 34; 1 Chron. i. 45; Ezek, xxv. sive king appears to have selected his own seat of 13; Obad. verse 9). The Temanites were re- government: the places mentioned as having eunowned for their wisdom (Jer. xlix. 7, 20; Baruch joyed that distinction are Dinhabah, Avith, Pagu 11. 22, 23). The chief speaker in the book of or Pai. Even foreigners were not excluded from Job is another Eliphaz, a Temanite, -which is the throne, for the successor of Samlah of Masreone of the circumstances that have led many to kah was Saul, or Sbaul, of Rechoboth, on the place the scene of that story in the land of Edom river.' The word • Rechoboth' means, literally, (JOB). The name of Teman was preserved to streets, and was a not uncommon name given to ibe days of Eusebius in that of Thaiman, a small towns; but the emphatic addition of the river, town five Roman miles from Petra. Another son points evidently to the Euphrates, and between of the first-mentioned Eliphaz was Amalek, who Rakkah and Anah, on that river, there are still is not to be confounded, however, with the father the remaius of a place called by the Arabs Raof the Amalekites, one of the doomed nations of chabath-Malik-Ibri Tauk. In the age of SoloCanaan, of whom we hear so early as the age of mon we read of one Hadad, who was of the Abraham (Gen. xiv. 7).

king's seed in Edom (1 Kings xi. 14); from which As a molen Arab sheikh is often found to ex- some have conjectured that by that period there rrcise influence far beyond the sphere of his here- was a royal dynasty of one particular family; but dítary domain, so in the list of the Edomite emirs all that the expression may imply is, that he was preserved by Moses we have perhaps only the a blood-relation of the last king of the country

ne of the more distinguished in lividuals who Hadad was the name of one of the carly sore

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reigns who smote Midian in the field of Moab' 17). About the same period Rezin, king of Syria, (Gen. xxxvi. 35).

expelled the Jews from Elath, which (according to The unbrotherly feud which arose between the correct reading of 2 Kings xvi. 6) was theniceEsau and Jacob was prolonged for ages between forth occupied by the Edomites. In our versior. their posterity. The Israelites, indeed, were com- it is said, 'the Syrians dwelt in Elath;' but the mander not to abhor an Edomite, for he was Keri, or marginal Masoretic reading, instead of their brother' (Deut. xxiii. 7); but a variety of Dank, Aramæans, has D'O178, Edomites, the circumstances occurred to provoke and perpetuate letter 7 being substituted for 7; and this is folthe hostility. The first time they were brought into lowed by many MSS., as well as by the Sept. and direct collision was when the Edomites, though Vulgate, and best accords with historical fact. entreated by their brother Israel,' refused the But then, to make both clauses of the verse to latter a passage through their territories; and they correspond, we must, with Le Clerc and Houbihad consequently to make a retrograde and toil- gant, read the whole thus : • At that time Rezin, some march to the Gulf of Elath, whence they king of Aram, recovered Elath to Edom, and had to compass the land of Edom' by the moun- drove the Jews from Elath; and the Edomites tain desert on the east. We do not again hear of came to Elath, and continued there unto this the Edomites till the days of Saul, who warred day.' Now was fulfilled the other part of Isaac's against them with partial success (1 Sam. xiv. prediction, viz. that, in course of time, Esau 47); but their entire subjugation was reserved should take his brother's yoke from off his neck for David, who first signally vanquished them in (Gen. xxvii. 40). It appears from various incithe Valley of Salt (supposed to be in the Ghôr, dental expressions in the later prophets, that the beside Usdum, the Mountain of Salt); and, Edomites employed their recovered power in the finally, placed garrisons in all their comtry (2 enlargement of their territory in all directions. Sam. viii. 14; i Chron. xviii. 11-13; 1 Kings xi. They spread as far south as Dedan in Arabia, and 15. Comp. the inscription of Ps. lx. and v.

northward to Bozrah in the Hhauran; though it 9. 9; cvüi. 9, 10, where the strong city' may

is doubtful if the Bozrah of Scripture unay not lenote Selah or Petra). Then were fulfilled the have been a place in Idumæa Proper (Isa. xxxiv. prophecies in Gen. xxv. 23 and xxvi. 40, that 6; lxii. 1; Jer. xlix. 7, 8-20 ; Ezek. xxv. 13; the elder should serve the younger;' and also Amos i. 12). When the Chaldæans invaded the prediction of Balaam (Num. xxiv. 18), that Judah, under Nebuchadnezzar, the Edomites beEdom and Seir should be for possessions to Israel.

came their willing auxiliaries, and triumphed Solomon created a naval station at Ezion-geber, with fiendish malignity over the ruin of their at the head of the Gulf of Elath, the modern kinsmen the Jews, of whose desolated land they Akaba (1 Kings ix. 26 ; 2 Chron. viri. 18). To- hoped to obtain a large portion to themselves wards the close of his reign an attempt was made (Obad. verses 10-16; Ezek. xxv. 12-14; xxxv. to restore the independence of the country by one 3-10; xxxvi. 5; Lament. iv. 21). By this cirHadad, an Idumæan prince, who, when a child, cumstance the hereditary hatred of the Jews was had been carried into Egypt at the time of David's rekindled in greater fury than ever, and hence invasion, and had there married the sister of Tah- the many dire denunciations of the daughter of panhes the queen (1 Kings xi. 14-23) (Hadad). Edom,' to be met with in the Hebrew prophets If Edom then succeeded in shaking off the yoke, (Ps. cxxxvii. 7-9; Obad. passim ; Jer. xlix. 7; it was only for a season, since in the days of Jeho Ezek. xxv. and xxxv.). From the language of shaphat, the fourth Jewish monarch from Solomon, Malachi (i: 2, 3), and also from the accounts preit is said, there was no king in Edom; a deputy served by Josephus (Antig. x. 9.7), it would seem was king;' i. e. he acted as viceroy for the king of that the Edomites did not wholly escape the ChalJudah. For that the latter was still master of the dæan scourge ; but instead of being carried captive, country is evident from the fact of his having like the Jews, they not only retained possession of fittel out, like Solomon, a fleet at Ezion-geber their own territory, but became masters of the south (1 Kings xxii. 47, 48; 2 Chron. xx. 36, 37). It of Judah, as far as Hebron (1 Macc. v. 6), comp. was, no doubt, his deputy (called king) who with Ezek. xxxv. 10; xxxvi. 5). Here, however, joined the confederates of Judah and Israel in they were, in course of time, successfully attheir attack upon Moab (2 Kings iii. 9, 12, 26). tacked by the Maccabees, and about B.c. 125, Yet there seems to have been a partial revolt of were finally subdued by John Hyrcanus, whó the Edomites, or at least of the mountaineers of compelled them to submit to circumcision and Seir, even in the reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. other Jewish rites, with a view to incorporate xx. 22); and under his successor, Jehoram, they them with the nation (1 Macc. v. 3, 65; 2 Mace. wholly rebelled, and made a king over them- x. 16; xii. 32; Joseph. Antiq. xiii. 9. 1; 15. 4). selves' (2 Kings viii. 20, 22; 2 Chron. xxi. 8, 10). The amalgamation, however, of the two races From its being added that, notwithstanding the seems never to have been elected, for we aftertemporary suppression of the rebellion, Edom warus hear of Antipater, an Idumæan by birth, revolted from under the hand of Judah unto this being made by Cæsar procurator of all Judæa; olay,' it is probable that the Jewish dominion and his son, commonly called Herod the Great, was never completely restored. Amaziah, indeed, was, at the time of Christ's birth, king of Judæa, invaded the country, and having taken the chief including Idunæa; and hence Roman writers city, Selah or Petra, he, in memorial of the con- often speak of all Palestine under that name quest, changed its name to Joktheel (9. d. sub- (Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 1. 3; 8.5; xv. 7. 9; xvii. dued of God); and his successor, Uzziah, re 11. 4). Not long before the siege of Jerusalem tained possession of Elath (2 Kings xiv. 7; 2 by Titus, 20,000 Idumæans were called in to the Chron. xxv. 11-14; xxvi. 3). But in the reign defence of the city by the Zealots; but both parof Ahaz, hordes of Edomites made incursions into ties gave themselves up to rapine and murder Judah, and carried away captives (2 Chron. xxviii. (Joseph. De Bell. Jud. iv. 4. 5; 6.1; vii. 8. 1).

This is the last mention made of the Edomites Laborde and Linant found access from the south; in history. The author of a work on Job, once and since then it has been visited and described ascribed to Origen, says that their name and lan. by so many that the names of its localities have guage had perished, and that, like the Ammonites become familiar as household words. and Moabites, they had all become Arabs. In The limit of the wanderings of the Israelites in the second century Ptolemy limits the name the desert was the brook Zered, after crossing Idumæa to the country west of the Jordan. which they found themselves in the territory of

Moab (Deut. ii. 13-18). This brook is supposed to be identical with the Wady-el-Ahsy, which, rising near the Castle el-Ahsy, on the route to Mecca of the Syrian caravan upon the high eastern desert, penetrates through the whole chain of mountains to near the south-east corner of the Dead Sea. It was thus the southern border of Moab and the northern of Edom, whence the latter region extended southwards as far as to Elath on the Red Sea. The valley which runs between the two seas consists first of El-Ghor, which is comparatively low, but gradually rises into the more elevated plain of El-Arabah to the south. The country lying cast of this great valley is the land of Idumæa. It is a mountain tract, consisting at the base of low hills of lime. stone or argillaceous rock, then lofty mountains of porplıyry forming the body of the mountain; above these, sandstone broken up into irregular ridges and grotesque groups of cliffs; and again farther back, and higher than all, long elevated ridges of limestone without precipices. East of all these stretches off indefinitely the high plateau of the great eastern desert. Robinson and Smith estimated the height of the porphyry cliffs at about 2000 feet above the Arabal; the elevation of Wady Mûsa above the same is, perhaps, 2000

or 2200 feet, while the limestone ridges further 350. (Ravine in Idumæa.]

back probably do not fall short of 3000 feet.

The whole breadth of the mountainous tract But while, during the captivity of the Jews in between the Arabah and the eastern desert Babylon, the Edomites had thus been extending does not exceed fifteen or twenty geographical their territory to the north-west, they were them- miles. Of these mountains the most remarkselves supplanted in the southern part of their able is Mount Hor, near the Wady Mûsa. native region by the Nabathæans, the descendants (Hor, Mount]. While the mountains on the of Ishmael's eldest son, and to the article Ne- west of the Arabah, though less elevated, are BAIOTH, we must refer the reader for the subse- wholly barren, those of Idumæa seem to enjoy a quent history of the land of Edom.

sufficiency of rain, and are covered with tufts of

herbs and occasional trees. The wadys, too, are From the era of the Crusades down to the pre- full of trees and shrubs and flowers, while the sent century the land of Esau was, to Europeans, eastern and higher parts are extensively cultia terra incognita. Its situation was laid down vated, and yield good crops. Hence Robinson on the best maps more than a hundred miles from thinks its appearance fulfils the promise made to the true position, and as if lying in a direction Esau (Gen. xxvii. 39), “ Thy dwelling shall be where it is now known there is nothing but a vast the fatness of the earth and of the dew of heaven expanse of desert. Volney had his attention from above.' Yet many critics are of opinion drawn towards it, when at Gaza, by the vague (e. g. Vater, De Wette, Geddes, Von Bohlen) reports of the Arabs, and in 1807 the unfortunate that 'Ovo should there be rendered from, Seetzen penetrated a certain way into the country, i. e. far away from, or destitute of, the fatness and heard of the wonders of the Wady Mûsa; of the earth, &c.; and it is immediately added, but the first modern traveller who passed through ‘for thou shalt live by thy sword ;' and it does the land of Edom' was Burckhardt, in the year not appear that Idumæa was ever particularly 1812. And it has been well remarked by Dr. noted for its fertility. This mountainous region Robinson (Amer. Bib. Reposit. vol. iii. p. 250), is at present divided into two districts. The that had he accomplished nothing but his re- northern bears the name of Jebál, i. e. “The searches in these regions, his journey would have Mountain,' the Gebal of the Hebrews (Ps. leen worth all the labour and cost expended on Ixxxiii. 8), and the Gebalene of the Greeks and it, although his discoveries thus shed their Romans. Commencing at Wady el-Ahsy, it strongest light upon subjects which were not terminates, according to Burckhardt, at Wady comprehendeil in the plan or purpose either of el-Ghuweir, the largest place in it being Tutileh, himself or his employers.' BurckBjardt entered perhaps the Tophel of Deut. i. 1. The southern Idumæa from the north, and in the year 1818 he district is esh. Sherah, extending as far as was followed in the same direction by Messrs. Akabah, and including Shobak, Wady Mûsa, Legli, Bankes, Irby and Mangles. In 1828 Maan, &c. Burckhardt mentions a third die

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