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Newton, that all symmetrical beauty must conform to the law of harmonics. It must not be supposed, however, that because Mr. Hay has analysed the principles of symmetrical beauty, he professes to give rules which will infallibly enable the artist to produce the beautiful. He professes to have done nothing more than the natural philosopher, who, listening to a piece of music, immediately analyses its notes, and shows the exceedingly simple elements from the multiform combinations of which the ravishing melody arises, and the exceedingly simple laws of counterpoint to which all harmony must adapt itself. In the present little treatise he has shown how these harmonic laws are exemplified in the structure of the temple of Theseus in Greek architecture, and of Lincoln Cathedral in Gothic architecture. Every fresh illustration of his theory thus adds to its authority, by proving even to redundance its universality. The full significance of his discovery we are not sure that Mr. Hay himself has ascertained; and perhaps it will be many years before it takes root in the public mind, and becomes a mature and fruitful principle of art. But that day will come sooner or later; the adherents to his doctrines are continually increasing; and we trust that his ears will not then be deaf to the sound of human praise when he will receive his due with universal acclamation, and his name will be mentioned as one of the greatest of discoverers, the modern Pythagoras.
The Southern Cross and Southern Crown: or, The Gospel in New-Zealand. By Miss Tucker. London: Nisbet. 1855. WE are free to confess a warm feeling towards lady-authorship. There is a delicacy of handling, and there are touches of grace, which ladies cannot fail to impart to their works, if they are fit to write at all, and choose appropriate subjects. None can be more appropriate than the history of Christianity in its ameliorating influence upon society; and although the history of the Gospel in New-Zealand must have its revolting passages, yet these may be safely left in the hands of a female, herself a Christian. The little volume before us is just what is wanted in reference to every branch of foreign Missions,-a brief description of the country, and of the habits and condition of the people formerly, with an honest statement, not only of the introduction, but of the present real state, of religion. New-Zealand exhibits one of the highest triumphs of Missionary labour. Existing formerly in the lowest line of human degradation, infamy, and wretchedness, it is a "saved nation." This beautiful little volume has much of the same character with Miss Farmer's "Tonga and the Friendly Isles," except that Miss Farmer does ample justice to the zealous labourers of other denominations; and this Miss Tucker fails to do. The Church Mission was established in 1815, and the Wesleyan Mission only eight years after, in another part of the principal island. On reading the title-page, we certainly expected to find some notices of all the labourers in this field; and when we found what was Miss Tucker's principal object, we yet supposed that some notice would be given of as arduous and successful efforts as ever marked the progress of modern Missions. But there is no notice whatever of other agents. Yes; we correct ourselves. We are told, on an early page, that the
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Wesleyan settlement was destroyed, and that the Mission families were forced to flee; and, in another place, at the close of the volume, the fact is recognised, that Missionaries were sent out by the Methodists. This is true. And it is true that they have in this important colony 17 Central Stations, 104 Chapels, 20 Missionaries, 322 Local Preachers, and upwards of 4,000 members, and 10,000 hearers; a Training Institution for Day-Schools, with 130 inmates; and at least one printingpress. Surely the fact of their existence and success might have been noticed. Whoever has read the narrative of the life and labours of the Rev. Samuel Leigh, the father of the Methodist Missions in NewZealand, will perceive that a very different spirit actuated both him and the Rev. Mr. Marsden. These men delighted to honour each other as the anointed servants of the same Master. As a record of the successes of the Church-of-England Missionaries, which have been great, the volume is a desirable record, and does credit to the fair authoress.
Twenty-Seven Sermons, preached in St. George's Church, Barnsley, Yorkshire. By the Rev. W. J. Brock, B.A., Curate. London: Longmans.
ANOTHER Volume of Sermons! Into how many libraries will it find entrance? How many individuals will read it through? And what amount of benefit will the actual readers derive from the perusal? Such queries instinctively arise upon our seeing a new volume of sermons. Perhaps no department of literature is so amply and so well supplied; perhaps no class of books is so difficult to push in the market; and yet new volumes are constantly issuing from the press. And this need excite neither wonder nor regret. There will always be parties who think, or who may be persuaded by partial friends to think, that a volume of well selected sermons by themselves, if not demanded by the public, may yet be very desirable and very acceptable. And there will always be persons who, from attachment to the author, from preference of such reading, or from the hope of deriving spiritual advantage, will peruse the volume; and thus benefit is likely to accrue, if only the sermons possess the requisite qualities for doing good. Besides, many hearers may be glad to possess such a memento of a beloved Minister; and many an earnest, loving Minister may adopt, with great propriety, the words of Peter, as the motto of his book: Moreover I will endeavour that ye may be able after my decease to have these things always in remembrance."
We have been greatly gratified by these Sermons of Mr. Brock, and cordially recommend them to the notice of our readers, assuring them that the time spent in their perusal will be amply repaid. The volume is just such an one as many a retired Christian, who loves to cultivate an unobtrusive piety, to ponder divine truth, and to drink in its sweet and holy spirit, will rejoice to possess; and be thankful to us for directing his attention to it.
The Sermons are very instructive, their subjects well chosen and replete with interest, and their tendency highly practical and stimulating. In style they are plain, and easy to be understood, without ever becoming bold, or low, or feeble. The author may be aptly
designated "a son of consolation;" and seems to have learnt much in the school of sanctified afflictions and sorrows. From his own experience, we should judge, he can testify to the value of Christian patience, and to the blessedness of filial submission and faith in God.
A large portion of the volume is a most instructive and profitable comment upon the words of Paul to the persecuted Hebrews: "Now no chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous ; nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them which are exercised" (disciplined) "thereby ;" and is preeminently "to edification, and exhortation, and comfort" of the people of God.
We quote a specimen from his Sermon on "The Sympathy of Christ" with His followers, in temptation, and leave the volume, with the hope that it will obtain a wide circulation.
"Hitherto we have spoken only of those sorrows which come upon the Christian in common with other men. But there are other trials -such as the trials of temptation-which are peculiar to the Christian; and it is perhaps to these that the text has a specific, though not an exclusive, reference. Of temptation, in its strictest sense, the careless sinner knows nothing: he is the willing servant of Satan, doing whatever he is bidden, and needs not the wily arts of temptation to allure him to obedience. But the Christian is called upon to resist the devil, steadfast in the faith; and has to contend against all the specious arts which his great enemy can contrive to effect his destruction. So subtle is the tempter, that he watches every opportunity, and adapts his temptations to the peculiar circumstances in which the Christian may be placed. At one time he will come like an angel of light, as one who would advise us for good, while, in reality, he is plotting the deeds of darkness for the ruin of our souls. At another time he will seek to fill our hearts with spiritual pride, and cause us to trip on the stumbling-stone of religious indifference. If he can but make us satisfied with our spiritual state, if he can persuade us that we have arrived at a higher state of grace than some of our fellow Christians, he knows that another step in advance of his dark designs will speedily follow. At another time he will adopt the very reverse of this policy, and endeavour to discourage us by pointing out our short-comings in the Christian life: You had better give up your profession altogether,' he will say, 'than live in this self-deception and religious mockery.' Thus he will seek to frighten the timid Christian into the net which he has prepared for his destruction. Or he will throw the fire-brands of dissension among Christians, and cause them to look coldly upon each other, instead of loving one another as brethren. Or he will point to some erring brother, and say, Here is a specimen of your flaming professors; better to serve God less ostentatiously than mingle with such vile traducers of the holy faith they profess!' Or he will not scruple to enter the house of God, and draw off your minds from heavenly things, and then reproach you for your wandering thoughts. At other times he will go about as a roaring lion, and stir up the storm of persecution against the Christian believer. He will set at variance members of the same family, so that a man's foes shall be those of his own household. Such are some of the various machinations which Satan employs for the overthrow
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of our faith, that he may allure our feet into the by-paths of sin. Let us, dear brethren, give earnest heed to watchfulness and prayer, that, being not ignorant of Satan's devices, we may continue steadfast in the faith, and stand fast in the evil day."
The Irish Industrial Exhibition of 1853: a Catalogue of its Contents, with Critical Dissertations, Statistical Information, and Accounts of Manufacturing Processes in different Departments. Edited by John Sproule, assisted by eminent Literary and Scientific Men. Dublin: James M'Glashan. 1854.
In looking over this magnificent volume, one is struck with its singular riches as a source of education. Suppose a boy who had learned arithmetic and a little mathematics, but was totally ignorant of the products of nature, the laws of science, or the arts of life, to fall in with this book, and never expect to see another. It would lead him to an acquaintance with the earth, its embedded metals, and its products for food and fabric; with the machines which man uses to form these to his use; with the endless fabrics which result; with the processes of their manufacture; with the arts of architecture, engineering, sculpture, painting, and music; with the countries where certain productions or arts flourish; and with many a name which has taken its place among the mighty. Having stored his mind out of this one book, he comes into the world, meets with reading and educated men, and, instead of finding himself, as he expected, behind them all, finds that, for either range or accuracy of information, few can compete with him.
Consisting of more than five hundred pages of large octavo, closely printed, the volume contains a great mass of matter. Every class of subject is handled by men competent to it, and adorned by copious illustration. The editor, Mr. Sproule, has contributed many of the most important articles, and always with an accomplished hand. The book is a worthy literary memorial of the most beautiful and the most hopeful scene in the civil history of modern Ireland. Would that men were equally susceptible of attraction by the mental show and permanent insight here offered to them, as by the bewitching display in Merrion-square! It was pleasant and easy there to go and see the wonders of nature and art, set in a casket of rare beauty, and enlivened by crowds of cheerful faces. But it would be far more profitable, would leave more solid fruits of enjoyment, more pregnant seeds of improvement, to sit down with Mr. Sproule, Professor Sullivan, and their collaborateurs, and clearly learn what those objects were, whence they came, how they stood related one to another, and all to man. Such a book ought not to be regarded as a mere souvenir of the Exhibition. If installed in every family library in Ireland, and made the study of the young, it would not merely recall the pleasures of the Exhibition to such as had seen them; but would train many men for practical life, by giving them large views and solid information as to the bearings of art, science, and industry, at once on the designs of Providence, and the true happiness of nations.
We hail the book as a symptom of that progress on which Ireland now seems fairly started. Its style of getting up is no less creditable than its literature; and its illustrations are admirably executed. May the studies and pursuits to which such works tend, thoroughly supplant the ignorance and idleness on which demagogues rejoice to play!
The Ethics of the Sabbath. By David Pirret. Edinburgh: Constable and Co. London: Hamilton, Adams, and Co.
THE main subject of the discussion contained in this volume is, the obligation of the Sabbath; and the argument in proof of such obligation is drawn, not from the statements of Scripture, or from the results of experience, but from the dictates of reason and conscience. It is not that the author thinks lightly either of the Scriptural or the historical argument. On the contrary, he very properly holds that the word of God will ever remain the great bulwark of the Sabbath; and that, as the most direct, intelligible, and conclusive, the Bible argument must ever stand high above all others. He also attaches great importance to the historical argument, from expediency. But he has selected the argument from reason and conscience, as being one which has been in a great measure overlooked. It being first assumed that "man is a religious being, and that he is bound to exercise and cultivate his religious affections," the argument is presented under the following heads-the worship of God demands the appropriation of time, of a set time,-of an entire day, and, from us, of a seventh day; and, being philosophical, rather than popular, it is especially addressed to those whom the arguments from Scripture and experience have failed to satisfy. Two chapters are added, on Sabbath worship and Sabbath recreation, which are particularly adapted to the present crisis. The argument is well sustained; and the entire work, for its intrinsic value, and its appropriateness to the times, has our cordial recommendation.
The Collected Works of Dugald Stewart, F.R.S. Edited by
Sir William Hamilton. Vols. II.-VI.
THESE handsome volumes have reached us since we first commended the work to our readers; and, while they fully sustain the promise of its first instalment, seem even to increase in literary interest and importance. The Philosophy of the Human Mind is comprised in the second, third, and fourth volumes. More diffuse than the Disser. tation, this work is, nevertheless, superior in elegance and entertainment. Neither profound nor accurate, as a philosophy, it abounds in graceful details and felicitous distinctions. The fifth volume contains the author's Philosophical Essays, admirable in themselves, and serving as pleasant episodes to relieve the more serious attention demanded for his great inquiries. In the sixth volume is commenced the author's last production, which is also his most valuable,-namely, the Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers of Man. It is worthy