Abbildungen der Seite

part only an imperfect idea of been collecting practical knowthe importance and utility of ledge, he has never met with fumigating baths. They may any remedy, during nineteen be made not only a prepara- years. so deserving of his aptive to the efficacious employ- probation, and so generally efment of medicine, but also ficacious. His experience has may be used as a medium for taught him, that it is not to its introduction into the hu- local diseases only that it is man body. When it is con- applicable, but that it is sersidered how extensive is the viceable more particularly surface of the human body, with respect to those diseases how numerous are its pores, the most inveterate, which and how capable they are of length of time has forced us receiving and imbibing bene- to denominate constitutional. ficial influences in an imper- Nay, even those called the ceptible and invisible way ; hereditary, it has very frequentthey being, in fact, so many ly been known completely to minute inlets into the interior eradicate. of the system, how deeply is The class of medicines callit to be regretted that so long ed Alteratives it would seem a succession of centuries have almost to supersede, but he been suffered to pass away, trusts this assertion may not without any extensive and im- be received with an empirical portant use having been made interpretation. of their capabilities and Sulphureous fumigations are powers !

so little known in this country, This active, penetrating, that to descant, or particularand pleasant mode of adminis- ly dwell

, on their uses and gentering medicines in the ga- eral effects, might by some be seous form, is obvious; and, as construed into enthusiasm; and it is now become usual to ad- thus afford a convenient cause minister aqueous vapor in the for the illiberal to decry it. first instance, by means of the Facts and time prove the same apparatus, and thereby truth or falsehood of all asserto dislodge all obstructing par- tions. Only seven or eight ticles on the surface, the me- years have elapsed since fumidicines come in immediate con- gations were first used with tact with the open pores of much advantage ; and this pethe skin, and its efficacy is riod has served to present to soon developed

the world numerous facts, deThe writer does not hesi- clarative of the beneficial eftate, indeed, to affirm, that, fects of this new method; and, during the whole time he has as its powers become more



developed, conviction of the yet I do maintain that they are very greatness of its value and high nearly so ; and that Nature, indulrank as a remedy, will be im- gent but just to all her children, pre

serves, by an admirable code of laws, pressed on the minds of all the most surprising equilibrium in persons who are engaged in the balance of enjoyment of her gifts. the management, or interested A slight sketch of the extremes will in the result.

enable every man of reflection and

observation to fill up the outline. (To be continued.)

The epicure sits down at seven or

eight o'clock in the evening to a OF CIVIC LIFE, &c. sumptuous repast ; but under every

cover lies some source of derangeConcluded from p. 381.

ment to the digestive organs, which Balance of Enjoyment in Food. more than counterbalances the voWalking one evening in the vicinity luptuous sensations of the palate. of Grosvenor Square, I came oppo. The halfstarved beggar, on the other site to an area, from whence issued hand, has little more than the disathe most profuse and savory odors greeable cravings of hunger to conof everything which could at once tend with—cravings which produce stimulate and gratify the human pal- but few, and ward off numerous disate. Ao immense dinner was pass. eases.

True it is, that he may envy ing from the kitchen to the banquet. the rich man's lot, and be disconing room; and leaning over the iron tented with his own; but the rich railings was a halfstarved and half- man has little cause for exultation naked wretch, apparently inhaling here; for independently of the train the rich steam from below, and so- of afflictions that result from luxury, liciting charity from the passenger the latter itself “ fades on the appeat the same time. A tall aod bene- tite," and, after a short time, either volent looking gentleman stopped at ceases to afford pleasure, or destroys this moment, and seemed to cuntem- the capacity of enjoying it! plate the scene. Putting a small From these two extremes the piece of money into the beggar's shades blend imperceptibly, till they hand, he lifted up his eyes to Hea- unite and form a picture of that ven, and ejaculated in a low voice comparatively happy medium of raw

O how unequally are the gifts and tional and philosophical temperance enjoyment of Nature distributed in in food, which, while it rejects not this world !" I could not undeceive the bounties and delicacies of nature, this gentleman at the time ; but keeps a steady check on the licenshould these pages ever meet bis tious appetite, and suffers not the eye, he will probably acknowledge digestive organs to be goaded to unthat he took but a partial view of natural exertions by the compound the affair.

qualities and redundant quantities of Whatever support the doctrine of the necessaries of life. a future state of rewards and punishments may derive from the triumph ON THE PERIODS BEST ADAPTED FOR of vice and the oppression of virtue MEALS, AND ON THE INTERVALS WHICH here, the belief in a future state of existence neither requires por derives It is not extraordinary that a dissupport from the apparent inequality crepancy of opioion should exist on among mankind, in respect to happi- a question which involves so many ness or enjoyment. Though I shall Auctuating circumstances. Controdot attempt to prove that all ranks versy on this, as on many other subare precisely on a par on this point, jects of diet, has engendered a disbe


lief in its importance; and this scep- mach during the long interval wbich ticism has given a plausible pretext may occur between the conventional for indulgeace on the one hand, and periods of repast. But to the dysprotracted fasting on the otber, as peptic patient, in search of health, the wishes or habits of mankind may such indulgences are rarely to be have rendered these most agreeable. permitted ; onless, indeed, the cirIt will therefore be difficult to con- cumstances under which be is placed vince the public of the necessity of teave him no option between long those regulations which are so essen- fasting and supplementary refection. tial for the maintenance of health or I am more anxious to impress this for the cure of disease. We have been precept on the minds of invalids, as told that the best time for dining is, the anxiety of friends, and the popu

* for a rich man, when he can get an lar errors which exist on the subject appetite, and for a poor one, when he of diet, are too apt to establish the can get food.But appetite in health mischievous belief, that " a little and is regulated by babit, and in disease often” will be more likely to restore it acts but as an imperfect monitor. the languid stomacb to its healthy Certain general-principles, therefore, tone than moderate meals at more deduced from observation and expe- protracted intervals. The specious rience, must be laid down for our aphorism of Dr. Temple, that "the guidance ; and these again in their stomach of an invalid is like a schoolapplication must be modified and boy, always at mischief unless it be adapted to the circumstances of eve- employed,” has occasioned more dysry particular case.

peptic disease than that respectable All physicians concur in advocat- physician could ever have cured, had ing the importance of regularity, his practice been as successful as that both as it regards the number of of Esculapius, and his life as long as meals and the periods at which they that of an antediluvian. The theory

are taken. Those who have weak on wbich this objection rests has alS

stomacbs will, by such a system, oot ready been explained. The natural f

only digest more food, but will be d,

process of digestion is thus disturbless liable to those affections which ed, and the healthy action of the stoar arise from its imperfect assimilation, mach, as evinced by the return of oti because, as Dr. Darwin has justly moderate appetite, is entirely preion

observed, they have, in such a case, rented. In answer to this question,

both the stimulas of the aliment they the patient will sometimes tell you, -cce

take, and the periodical habit, to as- that frequent refreshment is essential -the

sist the process. The periods of to bis comfort; that a sensation of fi

hunger and thirst are undoubtedly faintness obliges him to fly to such a urs

catenated with certain portions of resource, in order to rescue himself itatil

time, or degrees of exbaustior, or from the distress which it contains. "em

other diurnal habits of life; and if This, in general, is an artificial want, hol

the pain of hunger be not relieved created by habit, and must be cured me, by taking food at the usual time, it by restoring the patient to regular tion is liable to cease till the next period meals, which is to be effected by jarg of time, or other babits recur. As gradually lengthening the intervals

these periods must vary in every in- of eating. But, since no general rule mp: dividual, according to the powers of is without its exceptions, so it may lon

digestion, the degree of exercise ta- je obseryed, that there are cases of oma ken, and the quality of the food, it disease, in which the stomach is un

frequently becomes necessary, in ci- able to bear any considerable quanious vilized life, to have recourse to ip. tity of aliment at one time, whence

termediate meals, or luncheons, in or- it becomes necessary to repeat it at th rider to support the powers of the sto. short intervals, in order to afford a Woel





es w

iry p orna

sufficient proportion of nutriment; further occasion for such assistants, but as the patient acquires strength, as be carried with bim superior such a system should be gradually cooks ;-a long morning's journey to abaodoned.

create an appetite for his dioner, and Bnt, though the advantage of reg. a frugal dipner to give a relish to ular meals at stated periods is desir. his supper. able, it has been much disputed how I shall now consider the nature of many should be allowed in the day: the different meals, and the periods some physicians have considered one, at which they can be taken with others two, three, op even five ne- the greatest advantage ; repeating, cessary. It is, perhaps, impossible however, that all general rules must to lay down a general rule that shall be modified in their application acapply to every particular case. la cording to particular circumstances. some persons, the food rarely re BREAKFAST. This is, perhaps, the mains longer than three hours in the most natural, and not the least imstomach; in others four, five, or even portant of our meals; for, since masix hours. It is evident, that the ny hours must bave ictervened since repetition of the meals ought to be the last meal, the stomach ought to regulated by this circumstance, al- be in a condition to receive a fresh ways avoiding the extremes of long supply of aliment. As the food in fasting and repletion. Some nations the body has, during the night, have been satisfied with one meal a been digested, we might presume, day; but the stomach would thus be that a person in the morning ought oppressed with too large a quantity, to feel an appetite op rising. This, and in the interval would suffer from however, is not always the fact; the the want of some nourishment in it. the gastric juice does not appear to Such a plan, therefore, is neither be secreted in any quantity during calculated for persons of robust sleep, while the muscular energies health, and who are engaged in much of the stomach, though invigorated bodily exertion, and consequently re- by repose, are not immediately callquire large supplies, nor for those of ed into action: it is therefore advisea weak habit, who are not able eith- able to allow an interval to pass beer to take or digest sach a quantity fore we commence the meal of of aliment in a single meal as wilt breakfast. We seem to depart more be sufficient to supply the waste of from the custom of our bardy ancesthe body during the twentyfour tors, with regard to breakfast, than hours. Celsus recommends the any other meal. A maid of honor healthy to take food rather twice in in the court of Elizabeth breakfasted the day than once; and Sanctorius on beef, and drank ale after it; while says, that “the body becomes more the sportsman, and even the day laheavy and uneasy after six pounds borer of the present day frequently taken at one meal, than after eight: breakfast on tea. The periods of taken at three ; and that he who their meals, however, were so genemakes but one meal in the day, let rally different from those of modern bim eat much or little, is pursuing a times, that we cannot establish any system that must ultimately injure useful comparison between them, him." In my opinion, an invalid without taking into consideration the may safely take three frugal meals ; collateral circumstances which must or, op some occasions, even four, have influenced their operation." provided a certain quantity of exer- The solidity of our breakfast should cise be insisted on. It is reported, be regulated by the labor and exerthat when Alexander the Great turn- cise to be taken, and to the time of ed away his cooks, on proceeding on dining. Where the dinner hour is a march, be observed that he had no late, we should recommend a more

nutritious meal, in order to supersede tion. A person who has not strong the necessity of a luncheon, or what powers of digestion, is frequently the French call un déjeuner a la four. distressed by the usual association of chette. At the same time it must be tea with bread and butter, or, what remembered, that dyspeptic invalids is more injurious, with hot buttered are frequently incommoded by such toast, or muffin; the oily part of a repast, if it be copious. Heartburn which is separated by the heat of is a common effect of a heavy break- the liquid, and remains in the stofast, especially if it be accompanied mach, producing, op its upper oriwith much diluting liquid; and a fice, an irritation which produces the question has consequently arisen as sensation of heartburn. On such octo the propriety of taking much flu- casions I always recommend dry id on these occasions. Some have toast, without any addition. New recommended a dry breakfast, as pe. bread, or spongy rolls, should be culiarly wholesome; and we have carefully avoided. Tea, to many been told, that the celebrated Mar- persons, is, a beverage which concus Antoninus made a rule to eat a tains too little outriment : ) bave hard biscuit the moment he got up. therefore found barleywater, or a thin I think it will not be difficult to show gruel, a very useful substitute. A the reasons why liquids are essen- gentleman some time since applied tially necessary at this meal. To to me, in consequence of an acidity say nothing of the instinctive desire which constantly tormented him dur. which we all feel for them, it is evi- ing the interval between breakfast dent that there is a certain acrimony and dinner, but at no other period of and rankness in all our secretions at the day: be had tried the effects of this time; the breath has frequently milk, tea, coffee, and cocoa, but uni. a peculiar taint in the morning, which formly without success. I advised is pot perceptible at subsequent pe. him to eat toasted bread, with a slice riods of the day. This may be ex. of the lean part of cold mutton, and plained by the loss which the fluids to drink a large cup of warm barleyof the body have sustained by pers- water, for the purpose of dilution. piration, as well as by the quality of Since the adoption of this plap he newly elaborated matter introduced has entirely lost his complaint, and into the circulation during sleep. continues to enjoy bis morning diverThe experimeols of Sanctorius have sions without molestation. Hard fully demonstrated the superior eggs, though they require a long power of sleep in promoting the period for tbeir digestion, are not perspiration; insomuch, that a per- generally offensive to the stomach ; son sleeping healthfully, and witb- they may therefore be taken with out any unnatural means to promote propriety, whenever, from necessity it, will, in a given space of time, or choice, the dinner is appointed at perspire insensibly twice as much as

a late season. when awake. This fact is sufficient DINNER. Among the Romans this to prove the necessity of a liquid was rather considered as a refreshbreakfast. Every physician, in the ment to prevent faiotoess, tban as a course of his practice, must have meal to convey nourishment. It been consulted on the propriety of consisted principally of some light taking meat, tea, or coffee, at break- repast, without animal food or wine ; fast. I shall, therefore, offer to the but in modern times it is considered profession the results of my expe- the principal meal, at which every rience on this subject; and I am en- species of luxurious gratification is couraged in this duty by a convic- indulged in. With regard to the tion of the advantages which have proper period at which invalids arisen from my views of the ques. should dine. physicians entertain but

« ZurückWeiter »