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carried forwards with increased force functions are repewed. and rapidity, and the functions are understand, also, what art is capable performed in consequence with more of doing, towards accelerating recoenergy. This increase of action is very in these cases. So long as the soon followed by enlargement of the increase of action in the arteries of arteries, which thus will occupy, in the brain continues, means may be consequence, greater space within employed that are calculated to dithe skull. But this additional space minish increased action ; such as can only be obtained by compression bloodletting, local or general, togeof the veins, and consequent squeez- ther with counterirritation, by purging of the blood out of them; for ing or other means. The applicathe bloodvessels are the only com- tion of cold to the bead, is another pressible parts here ; and, of these, probable means of accomplishing the the veins, being the weakest, yield purpose ; this operates both by lesmost readily to pressure. The ne. sening the propulsive action of the cessary effect of this is, impeded if arteries, and also by increasing their not interrupted circulation, with a tonic contraction; the effect being proportionate interruption and dis- communicated by sympathy, from turbance of the different functions, the external to the internal vessels up to the degree of absolute stupor of the head. It is only in extreme or apoplexy; which, however, is for cases, however, that anything of this the most part temporary, lasting for kind appears to be necessary.; for a few hours only.
experience shows that ordinary cases You perceive, then, that the same of intoxication do well if left to themexciting cause is capable of either selves, so as not to require, in geneincreasing the activity of an organ, ral, the use of any remedies. situated as the brain is, in an un Other parcotic substances, such as yielding case of bone, or, on the opium, may, without difficulty, be other hand, of interrupting its func- supposed to act in a similar way with tions altogether, according to the strong drinks, in impeding the funcchange induced in the dimensions of tions of the brain ; namely, by inthe arteries, and the consequent com- creasing its vascular action, with the pression of the veins. These effects subsequent changes I have just pointare in a great measure peculiar to ed out. It can hardly be doubted, 1 the brain; other organs being capa. think, that the cause is equal to the ble of expansion altogether, so as to effect : but when we attribute the allow of both arteries and veins be- effect of opium, as is often done, to ing distended at the same time ; by its “narcotic principle destroying which the circulation is still carried the nervous energy, we are using on, and the functions continued, language to which no distinct meanthough, it may be, in a disordered ing is attached; it is only asserting a manoer.
fact, not explaining it. The termination of a fit of iotoxi Now if opium produces its narcocation is easily understood on the tic effect in the manner I havé supprinciples here laid down. The ex. posed, that is, through the mediuin cited state of the arteries being a of increased vascular action in the forced one, is necessarily temporary brain,--and that it does so is probain its duration. After a time, com- ble, from the fact that opium, as well monly a few hours, the arterial ac- as strong drinks, has a tendency to tion languishes, the arteries slowly induce and to aggravate inflammaresume their natural size, and room tion in the brain, -it is not easy to is thereby given for the veins to ex- understand how subjecting perpand, and receive the arterial blood; sons, when under the influence of the circulation is restored, and the opium, to all sorts of irritation, me
dical and mechanical, as commonly experience, and serves to explain, recommended, should be useful. On on niechanical principles, the wellthe contrary, such a practice appears known physiological fact, that the to me more likely to prove hurtful frequent exercise and consequent than beneficial ; by exciting and developement of one part of the keeping up the vascular action of braid, while they tend to the perfecthe braio, instead of allowing it to tion of an individual faculty, tend, at subside, as it soon will do spontane. the same time, to impair others. ously. No appeal, in this case, can And hence it is, that one of the senbe satisfactorily made to experience; sorial powers is only to be improved, both from the want of sufficient op- or carried to a high pitch of excelportunities, and from the infinite di. lence, at the expense of the rest. versity of cases; no two being ex Such are the effects likely to reactly parallel, so as to allow of a sult from an excited state of arterial conclusion being drawn from one to action, whether general or partial, another. At all events, there seems in the braio : and they will enable us to be an inconsistency in doing that to 'understand the various eflects of in cases of poisoning from opium, inflammation on this organ. which no one thinks of doing in cases The diseases to which the brain is of excessive intoxication. For where liable, though infinitely, various the phenomena are so similar, it is regard to their symptoms or exterreasonable to suppose that the state nal characters, are, in their nature, of organs is not very unlike in the sufficiently simple. According to two cases ; and if so, the same mode systematic writers on nosology, ibere of procedure would appear to be are a bundred or more different dis. proper.
eases of the brain, to each of which The explanation I have now given a specific denomination has been of intoxication, and which perhaps given; implying, of course, a differapplies to narcotics in general, will ence in nature. By far the greater enable you to understand the state of part of these, however, are inerely stupor, or obliteration of functions, symptoms; the number and variety that occurs in apoplexy, as proceed- of which are easily accounted for, ing from various causes; and also in when we advert to the varied structhe last stage of inflammation of tbe ture of the brain, and the diversity brain, and in certain forms and stages of its functions, together with the of fever; subjects, to which I shall great and paramount influence it exsoon direct your attention in a more erts over the whole body. particular way.
The brain not being a muscular But suppose the arteries of a part structure, is of course not liable to only of the brain, to be in the state of the diseases of muscular parts. It is preternatural excitement and disten- to disordered vascular action, and the tion I have mentioned, and which, consequences of this, that all the no doubt, may take place from causes diseases of the brain are attributable. less general in their action than The effects of a simple increase of strong drinks: the parts so excited vascular action in the brain, have, will be rendered more active in the been already pointed out, when performance of their functions; but speaking of intoxication. Whether a necessary consequence of this will any form of disease in the brain is be, that the turgid state of vessels in to be ascribed to diminished vascular the excited part, will make pressure action in this part, is, I believe, upon the surrounding parts of the brain, known. I am not acquainted with so as to impede the circulation in any circumstances that decidedly them, and thereby impair their en- support such an opinion ; while most ergy. This is quite consonant with brain affections may be clearly trac
CIANS AND NATURALISTS AT DRESDEN.
ed to inflammation, as their primary Carus delivered a description of his cause, and of which they are merely interesting discovery respecting the consequences or effects.
circulation of the blood in insects.
Dr. Oken, tbe wellknown conducGENERAL MEETING OF GERMAN PHYSI- tor of the Isis, read an essay distin
guished for perspicuity of style and About five years ago, it was ar- illustration, on the original form and ranged by the principal cultivators developement of the fetus, which of the various branches of natural was very interesting, but too long science in Germany, to establish a to admit of any further notice than society, and to have an annual meet- a mere mention. Professor Evetsching for the purpose of communicat- mer, of Frankfort, delivered a dising to each other whatever discove- course on the newly discovered race ries might have been made by any of African dogs, and on the Giraffes, members of the union in their parti- and criticised the more recent precular province. This was one ob- lections of Lichtensten, professor of jeci; but another was, that of enter- zoology at Berlin, on the same ani. taining a proper spirit of emulation mals. Count Sternberg, who is a and friendship among men who, most zealous promoter of mineralohowever separated by extent of ter- gy, delivered a discourse on peirified ritory, or debarred from opportuni- vegetables, particularly on ferps and ties of making known their opinions palms. Cotia read a paper on the by absurd legislative restrictions, volcanic phenomena of the Flammight once in the year, at least, re. merbuhl; and. Treviranus, of Bresvel in that freedom of opinion which lau, on several interesting phenomecould only be gratified at the per- na, illustrating the physiology of vesonal interviews of friends. The getables. first meeting of this kind was held The meeting was held in the large at Leipsic in 1822, when the vene- hall of the palace, as no other room rable Blumenbach gratified the as- in the town was sufficiently large for sembly by his presence. The next the number assembled. The king year the Naturforschende Freunde of Saxony ordered all his museums congregated at Halle, at which and galleries, which are very rich meeting Dobæreiner, of Jena, an- in the works of art, to be thrown nounced his valuable investigations open during the week, and the asrespecting platinum. The third semblage broke up with the greatmeeting was held in the vineclaŭ est expressions of satisfaction and town of Worsherg; and the fourth, delight. at Frankfort on the Maine, where the collections of the Linkenberg In HEARING AND SPEECH RESTORED. stitute afforded a rich treat to the We take the following particulars very numerous assembly. Soemme- from the report made by the Institute ring, Siebold, Tiedemann, and many respecting ihis curious case. Honore other distinguished anatomists were Trezel, nine years of age when ope. present. The last meeting was held raled on, was born at Paris, and was at Dresden, at which Professor Ca- classed among those of the deaf and rus, already favorably known dumb, who have not the slightest throughout Europe as a zootomist, sense of audition, even when close presided. For the following account to the most violent explosions. His of the Dresden meeting we are in- forehead was large, and his head debted to some recent numbers of well formed, but there was little exthe Allgeine Zeitung; but our space pression in his countenance. He does not allow us to give more than walked unsteadily, and he made a brief abstract of what was done. known his more immediate wants
by certain sigos. These circum- ing was very slow in being acquired, stances gave reason to believe that and it was long before be could rethe imperfection was not accompa- cognize the direction of sounds which nied by idiotism, as is too often the struck his ear. At length be was case, and consequently, that an ope- brought to pronounce some words of ration might not be useless. The more than one syllable—and now operation was neither new nor diffi- his vanity knew no bounds. He cult. It consisted in the introduction scorned the society of the deaf and of injections into the eustachian ca- dumb, among whom he had been nal, by means of a small flexible placed, and considered himself quite tube-which injections were not fol- on a level with other boys of his lowed, as is sometiines the case, by own age in general. So early does severe pains and fainting, oor by vanity :ake possession of the human suppurations in the interior of the heart,--and so easily is it faoned into tar, which destroys the good effects open flame ! of the operation. The first few days Trezel made but a slow progress; after the restoration of hearing, were, yet in the course of a year, from befor young Honore, a period of rap- ing completely deaf, he can now distures un tempts de ravissement.” tinguish all kinds of soundsmevades Every kind of noise, happy fellow, carriages and horece opons the was 10 him like the music of the door when he hears it rapped onspheres! A musical snuff box set can appreciate music, and takes him in ecstacy whenever it came great pleasure in it-endeavors to within the reach of his auditory imitate the modulations of voice nerves, but he was sometime in dis- which he bears, though with little covering that speech was a medium success--can repeat all the words of of communication between individu- the French language which are spoals. Even when he found that this ken before him, --repeats by beart was the case, he attached more im• several phrases, &c.-lo sbort, there portance to the movements of the is reason to hope that this youth lips than to the intonations of the will be placed on a level with those voice and pronunciation of words. of his age, and restored to that interIlence be thought infants when cry- course with society, from which be ing, were talking away at a most fu- was cut off by the privation of an rious raie. He soon corrected this important sense. error, however, but upfortunately The operation consisted in clear. he heard a parrot chattering some ing the eustachian tube, and admitphrases, and immediately general- . ting air into the ear. izing on this datum, as older folks sometimes do in more important A CASE OF TETANUS CURED BY THE SPImatters, he concluded that all animals had the faculty of speech, and
BY B. HUTCHINSON, ESQ. addressed himself to them according. JOHN BEEDHAM, a prisoner in the ly. He worked hard to make a dog Nottinghamsbire House of Correcpronounce the words papa and pain, tion at Southwell, about thirty years the only words he had then learnt of age, and constitutionally of a dehimself; but, as may be supposed, licaie and irritable fibre, has been without success.
for the last twelve years subject to The restoration of audition pro- attacks of epilepsy,—the exciting duced a great change in the physical cause of which be attributed to long constitution of the boy. His gait exposure to the inhalation of oxygebecame steady-his countenance paied muriatic gas, in his employ. brightened up and became more in- ment at some extensive bleachworks. tellectual. But the power of speak. On his commitment to the House of
RIT OF TURPENTINE.
Correction, I immediately perceived modic contractions of the diaphragm, that the energies of the brain, and and of the muscles subservient to his intellectual powers had, from this important office; symptoms some cause, been materially enfee- strongly threatening that peculiar bled, and many very severe par- aspect of the disease termed Prosoxysms of epilepsy soon pointed out thotonos. His pulse was 120; his to me the cause. Convulsions fre- countenance denoting the greatest quently attacked his whole frame; distress and anxiety; and my proga frothy moisture issued from his nosis was most inauspicious. mouth: he would then remain in a I immediately took from his arm state of the most perfect insensibili- about thirty ounces of blood; and, ty, and apparently in a profound one of the molares of the lower jaw sleep. After some duration of this being fortunately wanting, 1 intro. torpor, he would gradually be re- duced into his mouth three pills, stored to the power of voluntary mo- containing fifteen grains of calomel tion and to his senses; his memory and two grains of opiudi. A brisk retaining no traces whatever of his purging enema, containing one ounce immediately preceding state of epi- of the oil of turpentine, was adminisleplic paroxysms. Uoder the im- tered; and a large blister was applied pression that congestion of blood in between his shoulders. On visiting the vessels of the brain might exert my patient after the lapse of eight its baneful influence in the produc- hours, the symptoms, instead of tion of these symptoms, I began my showing the least mitigation, were remedial treatment by local and ge- aggravated by an evident increase neral bleeding, and by pnrging with of muscular rigidity, spasm, and pain. calomel and jalap. I then commenc- The flexors of the head and trunk ed my curative plan by exhibiting became so strongly affected as to antispasmodics and some preparations balance the extensors, and to keep of the metallic tonics ; under which the head and trunk straight and ritreatment the paroxysms of my suf- gidly extended, incapable of being fering patient were less frequent moved in any way, The enema and much less severe.
had produced no effect on the bowOn making my daily visits to the els. 'I immediately resolved or giv. prison in the beginning of December, ing the spirit of turpentine a fair triI was informed by one of the turn- al in this very distressing situation, keys that Beedham was unable to and directed half an ounce to be open his jaws, and that they had given every two bours in gruel. been imurovably closed since my vi. On the following morning I paid sit on the preceding day. On enter ao early visit to my patient, who reing Beedham's ward I found the ceived me with a cheerful counteturnkey's account correct, with the dance, opening and extending his addition of a sense of stiffness and mouth to show me that he had compain in the back part of the neck, pletely regained the proper coma coosiderable spasmodic rigidity of mand over these muscles. On inthe wbole of the muscles of the neck quiry I found that he bad taken two and back, accompanied with pain ounces of the turpentine ; and that, and uneasiness at the lower part of after the second half ounce had been the tongue, and with some interrup- taken, the spasms began to relax ; tion to the facility of swallowing his his pains, consequently, began to saliva. He was affected with consi- abate, and his bowels to be freely derable pain at the lower extremity evacuated ; and since that period of the sternum, extending into the there has not been the least disposiback, materially deranging the func- tion to any return of tetanus. He tions of respiration, from the spas- has suffered several paroxysms of