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able to determine whether it the membrane and its mucus, arises from injection of vessels, combined with the turgidity of or effusion between the muscular the pulmonary tissue around, is fibrils.
often mistaken for the effects of It is unnecessary to detain the inflammation, to which indeed it reader by a comparison of the bears a very close resemblance. above appearances with the local We may add a few remarks redness which is often found in from the observations of the authe intestines of man, and which thors on this pseudomorbid turgidis often hastily imputed to inflam- ity of the lungs. It is observed mation. Its characters are the more or less in almost every subsame, its seat and extent are the ject. Its cause is evidently persame, and the circumstances that colation ; for, on the one hand, if, regulate its production, so far as when it is considerable, the posithey can be ascertained, are the tion of the lung be reversed, the
It is impossible, there- pale portions will become somefore, to avoid tracing it to the what turgid in their turn ; and on same cause,-percolation of the the other, the seat of it is regublood towards the most depending lated by the position in which the parts. The red stripes caused body has laid after death. It is where the intestines lie in contact always accompanied with diminwith one another bear in particu- ished crepitation, sometimes with lar a striking resemblance to the the total absence of it. It is effects of inflammation.
likewise always accompanied with The pulmonary mucous mem- diminished cohesion, so that the brane, like that of the alimentary tissue of the luugs is easily torn. canal, is of a dull white color, -One variety of it occurs even when examined in a healthy body during life. Laennec ascertained immediately after death. It is by the stethoscope, that in disliable to two varieties of pseudo- eases which end in a long stage morbid coloration. The one is of agony, the posterior part of caused by injection of vessels the lungs becomes impervious to with blood percolating towards the air sometime before death ; the most depending parts of the and our authors have traced a tissue. This variety is often seen connexion between this pathologiforming a longitudinal band on the cal state and the appearance of posterior part of the trachea and lividity on the posterior surface greater bronchial tubes. The of the body under the same cirother is analogous to the colora- cumstances.
In all such cases tion of the inner coat of the arte- the gorging of the lungs, and likeries caused by their being dyed in wise of the depending parts of the the fluid part of the blood, and is intestines, is very great. The observed chiefly in those portions cause evidently is the insufficieuof the lungs which are gorged in cy of the feeble action of the consequence of their depending heart to counteract the gravitaposition. Both varieties are fre- tion of the blood. quently accompanied with effu MM. Rigot and Trousseau have sion of red particles of the blood, promised to lay down, in a future and consequent redness of the memoir, the rules for distinguishbronchial mucus. The tinging of ing the pseudomorbid appearances
described above from the morbid they may be reduced to the fol. appearances with which they may lowing griping pains, efforts to be confounded.-Edin. Med. and vomit, evacuations upwards and Surg. Journal.
downwards, heat in the bowels,
languor, acute and almost continORFILA ON POISONS, BY STEVEN- ual pains, cramps, convulsive mo
tions of some part of the body, insatiable thirst; pulse small, hard,
tense, and frequent. In some This class includes,
circumstances a sort of intoxica
tion manifests itself, a stupid deFirst ; The mushrooms; Second; The nux vomica, upas the patient is oppressed, till
lirium and drowsiness by which tieutè, false angustura, St. Ignatius's bean, upas antiar, ticuña, sions: sometimes, instead of being
aroused by the pains and convulwoorara, camphor, cocculus Indicus ;
drowsy, the wretched individuals Third ; Tobacco,* hemlock,* preserve all their intellectual fabelladonna, stramonium, *
culties entire ; and dreadful pains
foxglove, rosebay or oleander, rue,
and convulsions, fainting, and cold darnel, manchineel, aconite, hel- sweats exhaust their powers, and lebore, and squill ;
at length bring on death. In genFourth ; The wines, alcohol, eral, the effects of mushrooms are ether and all spirituous liquors not shown till five, seven, twelve, capable of producing intoxication; or twentyfour hours after they
have been eaten. Fifth ; The effluvia of flowers; Sixth ; Spurred rye.
Marks which should render MushWe sb ]] scribe the effects
rooms suspected. of these persons in the three fol
It is the more important to lowing paragraphs.
point out in a general manner the
external characters of bad mushOf the Poisonous Mushrooms.
rooms, as most of those, which Most of the mushrooms, which are eaten without inconvenience, are ordinarily eaten without dan- may become dangerous in certain ger, become poisonous in certain circumstances. Unfortunately the circumstances ; while some are marks, which we can point out, hurtful at all times. It is unne
are not so precise as not to admit cessary to enumerate them par- exceptions. ticularly, as the marks, by which The mushrooms, which grow in all poisonous mushrooms may be cellars, in thick, shady, and damp recognized, will be pointed out woods, are generally bad
d; their hereafter.
surface is moist and more or less Effects of Poisonous Mushrooms. dirty, and their appearance re
The effects produced by these volting. Those whose smell is substances vary a little according unpleasant, like that of radishes, to the species that may have oc
are in general of bad quality. casioned them; but in general The same is true of those, whose
taste, being at first sweetish, • l'hose marked with an asterisk are leaves a disagreeable, astringent, found in this country.
and styptic sensation in the mouth;
and of those whose taste is very are injurious to man.
" Some bitter and unpleasant, and whose precautions,” say's Persoon, “are smell is disgusting. It should to be observed in the method of however be remarked, that there gathering mushrooms. It is well, are some eatable mushrooms hav- so far as may be possible, to coling a smart, garlicky, or slightly lect them in dry weather, and esacid taste. Those mushrooms pecially after the fall of dew; to should be rejected, which are take them in their mature state, filled with a milky juice, that or- and even before the entire disapdinarily is acrid. According to pearance of the top; for when M. Persoon, the color cannot be they are too ripe, their substance regarded as affording very certain becomes flaccid, and putrefies, or characteristics ; though this bota- worms are generally on it.
Innist thinks it to be established, stead of tearing them from the that mushrooms of good quality soil, it is better to cut off the footare white, * pale, of a clear and stalks near the ground ; else this golden yellow, or of a claret and will insinuate itself into the pores violet red; this last tint is ob- and alveoli. served in the whole or only in a “ After having chosen the heal. part of the vegetable ; but more thy kinds, it is still necessary, beparticularly in the leaves.f Bad fore using them, to clear them of mushrooms, on the contrary, have the leaves and tubes ; the foota lemonyellow or a bloodred col- stalk, which is ordinarily of a less
The dark brown color of the delicate texture, is often cut off, top will not serve to distinguish As to the boleti, they ought to be the good from the bad, since it is cut, in order to see if they will common to both. The more change color and become blue, in white, compact, dry, and brittle which case it would be imprudent is the substance of the mushroom, to eat them ; then they are to be the less mischievous it is, provid- soaked in cold or lukewarm waed it does not offer the unpleasant ter, with just enough vinegar to taste and smell, of which we whiten them; this water should have spoken.
be thrown away.
It is said that Mushrooms are to be rejected by this management the most poi. which have done flowering, that sonous mushrooms may be eaten is, which are fading and undergo- with safety. Their digestion is ing decomposition ; for then they promoted, in the first place, by lose their favor, acquire a bad chewing them well, and by protaste, and become dangerous. The per condiments, such as oil or butpresence of worms and snails on ter, yolk of egg, salt, wine, and mushrooms does not prove their vinegar. They should not be kept good quality, as is commonly be- long after their preparation, for lieved, for these animals are nour- they readily change, and acquire ished quite as well on species that bad properties.'
Treatment. * There is, however, a variety of white Experiments have proved that bulbous amanita, which is very poisonous. the most poisonous mushrooms, if
+ There are some poisonous species of cut up into little pieces and alagaric, the top of which is violet border-lowed to soak a long time in vineing on purple ; but the leaves have not this color.
gar, strong salt and water, and ether,
lose their poisonous properties ; After the poison is evacuated, while the vinegar, the salted wa. the patient should take some ter, and the ether, have dissolved spoonfuls of a potion composed of all the active principles, and be four ounces of the water of orange come converted into powerful Aowers, quarter of an ounce of poisons. From this fact we may ether, and two ounces of simple conclude, that in a case of poison- syrup, or of syrup of orange peel. ing by mushrooms, these liquids If the disease continues to inshould never be given till the mush- crease, and the patient suffers room has been evacuated either up- acute pain in the abdomen, sugarwards or downwards ; in truth they ed water is prescribed, or soluwould dissolve the poisonous part tion of gum, or flaxseed tea, or in the stomach, and thus render it decoction of marsh mallow, almore active and energetic. thæa officinalis ; cloths wet with
So soon as the symptoms of poi- these liquids are laid on the painsoning are observed, three grains ful parts, and a warm bath is giof tartar emetic are administered ven. If the pain does not yet in a tumblerful of water : a quar- abate, ten or twelve leeches are ter of an hour after, another glass applied to the most sensible parts of water, containing three grains of the belly, and the management of tartar emetic, three or four is observed which was pointed out grains of emetine, for which a scru. in treating of the acrid poisons. ple of ipecacuanha, or Indian root, If it should happen that before may be substituted, and an ounce any assistance can be rendered to of Glauber's salt, is given in three the patient, he already has much doses with intervals of twenty mi- fever, and swelling and pain in the nutes. After vomiting is excited, belly, if the tongue is dry and the the mushrooms, which may have thirst extreme, and the heat of reached the bowels, are to be the skin, mouth and throat burnevacuated by means of purgatives. ing, it will be necessary to abanA spoonful of castor oil is given don the irritating purgatives which every half hour ; and an injection we have recommended ; and to is administered, prepared by boil- draw blood from the arm, apply ing two ounces of cassia,-cassia leeches to the belly, and employ fistula,—and half a drachm of sen- fomentations and injections of flaxna in a quart of water for fifteen seed. minutes, and adding half an ounce of Epsom salt, sulphate of magne- Of the Nux Vomica, Upas Tieuté, sia. If an evacuation is not pro
St. Ignatius's Bean, False Ancured, the injection may be re gustura, Strychnia, Brucea, Upas peated three times.
Antiar, The American Poisons, should these means fail to effect Camphor, and Cocculus Indicus. the discharge of the mushrooms, Effects of these Poisons.-Introand should the disease be making duced into the stomach, or applied progress, an ounce of tobacco to wounds and sores, these poisons must be boiled for fifteen minutes are rapidly absorbed, and produce in a quart of water, and the strain- an excitement of the brain or uped liquid be given by injection; per part of the spinal marrow; vomiting is almost always produced they occasion a general and conby the employment of this remedy. vulsive stiffness; the head is thrown
back, the chest expands with dif- is a powder, without smell, of a ficulty, respiration ceases or is very bitter taste, almost insoluble greatly impeded, and the patient in water, soluble in alcohol, to dies of asphyxy or suffocation ; which it communicates the comdeath takes place even in a few mon alkaline property of restoring minutes, if a considerable quanti- their color to blue vegetable inty of the poison has been swallow- fusions that have been reddened ed. None of these substances in- by an acid ; exposed to heat, it flame the parts to which they are swells, is decomposed, and yields applied. The effects of some carbon. There are few poison, among them are not constant, but ous substances posessing so much come in repeated fits, in the in- energy as strychnia has. tervals of which the individual Brucine, or Brucea. This is appears to be little affected.
another vegetable azotic alkali, in Nux Vomica. The vomic nut, the form of oblique prisms or fowhich is frequently employed to liated masses, of a white color redestroy dogs and cats, is also poi- sembling that of mother of pearl, sonous to man, though the contra- inodorous, bitter, fusible, soluble ry has been asserted by some phy- in water, giving a green color to sicians. It should therefore be blue vegetable infusions, soluble managed with caution. It owes in alcohol, becoming red by the its poisonous properties to the addition of nitric acid; it is less strychnia and brucea which it poisonous than strychnia. contains.
Upas Antiar. This is the juice Upas Tieuté. The bohon upas of the Autiarıs toxicaria, a tree is the juice of a plant, a species which grows in Java, and which is of strychnos, native of Java, with employed by the Indians to poison which the savages poison their their arrows : it is very active, arrows, to render them fatal. It when introduced into wounds. is difficult to form an idea of the Ticuna. The ticuna, or Amerapidity with which these poison- rican poison, is an extract prepared arms occasion death.
ed by the Indians from the juice St. Ignatius's Bean. This fruit of certain plants, and particularly of the strychnos Ignatii, or Ignatia of the amyris toxifera. When it amara, is analogous to the nux is dry it may be inhaled and apvomica in its chemical composi- plied to the eyes without danger; tion.
It owes its poisonous pro- the vapor that rises when it is laid perties to its strychnia and brucea. on burning coals, is not poisonous.
False Angustura. This appears It is very dangerous when it is apto be the bark of the strychnos plied to deep wounds, especially if colubrinum, and has occasioned the part of the arrow that contains fatal mistakes by being confound- it has been dipped in warm water. ed with the angustura of the shops, Camphor. Camphor is a useful the bark of the Bomplandia trifo- remedy in many cases, and few liata. Its poisonous qualities are physicians think it to be poisonto be ascribed to the presence of ous; it is nevertheless proved that the vegetable alkali, brucea. when dissolved in oil or any other
Strychnine, or Strychnia. fluid and given in considerable Strychnia is a vegetable alkali quantity, it may occasion severe containing azote, or nitrogen. It accidents and even death.