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ceptions above alluded to, is des- of an homogeneous substance, sititute of these faculties, they do milar in all respects to jelly, the afford characters peculiar to, and animal body may be considered therefore descriptive of, animal as an aggregate, formed of a existence.
number of organs; each organ is Life depends on certain condi- itself composed of a variety of tions; these conditions depend on tissues; each tissue is more or certain arrangements of material less common to all the organs. substances; such arrangements of If we examine the different solids material substances constitute or which enter into the composition ganization ; organization is thus of the living, or the recently dead an essential condition of life. In body, in all the higher orders of tracing the order of the phenom- animals, we find that they consist ena, the first thing we observe is, of the following substances; namea peculiar arrangement of certain ly, bones, with their cartilages textures, that is, a specifie organ- and ligaments, which may be conization ; the second we discover sidered as appendages to the is, that the textures thus arrang- bones ; muscles, with their tened exercise peculiar actions; that dons; membranes of various deis, this particular organization scriptions ; sacs of different strucperforms a specific function. A tures; vessels of different kinds, determinate organization consti- and cerebral matter. There is tutes what is called an organ; no solid of the animal body which the action of every organ consti- may not be included under one or tutes what is denominated its other of these substances. All function. Without the organ these substances, on a careful there is no function, for the plain analysis, are reducible to three; reason, that, without the instru- namely, the cellular, the muscument by which the action is ef- lar, and the cerebral tissues. Of fected, there is no action : in the these the most simple in strucorder of the phenomena, there- ture, the most abundant in quanfore, organization, which is the tity, and the most extensively difprimary condition of life, neces- fused, is the first. The peculiar sarily precedes the actions of that substance termed cellular tissue, organization in which the func- enters as a constituent element tions of life consist. Organiza- into every other solid. It comtion is the antecedent ; function poses the main bulk of bones ; it is the sequent. The origin of the affords an external sheath to eveorganization to which function is ry muscle ; it is interposed berelated as the sequent, is referri- tween the fibres of which every ble in every case to a preexisting muscle consists ; it encloses in a organization. Organization is not distinct envelope every nervous selfexistent, but so far back as it fibre; it composes almost the is possible for us to trace it, it is entire bulk of tendon, ligament, always preexistent. Matter nei- and cartilage ; it enters largely ther organizes itself, nor is organ- into the composition of hair, nails, ized by any cause but one, a pre- and other similar parts connected existing organization.
with the surface. The enamel Excepting in the very lowest of the the teeth is said to be the animals, which appear to consist only solid in which it cannot be
detected. It unites together all ment, founded on partial views, the different parts of the body, it which is so fatal to the advancefills up all the intervals between ment of science. The reason them. Were it possible to re- why we are so imperfectly acmove from the bones their earthy quainted with the various objects particles, and from the soft parts, around us, is, that our eyes are the muscular fibres, the nervous so bad; the great obstacle which matter and the fat; were it pos- opposes our successful prosecusible, at the same time, to empty tion of almost every science is, the vessels and to evaporate the the imperfection of our senses. fluid, the body would remain It is, therefore, most unreasonanearly of the same size, and be ble to reject the aid of an instrusustained nearly of the same form ment which increases the power by means of this substance alone. of any sense a hundred or a thouIt may, therefore, be truly con- sand times. By adding thus prosidered as the basis to which all digiously to its strength, it renders the other parts of the body are it a new sense. Without doubt attached, as the mould into which the information it appears to conall the other kinds of matter are vey must be admitted with caudeposited.
tion, and must be corrected by When examined with the naked the other senses and by the judgeye, and gently distended, this ment—-corrective
powers to substance is found to be composed which we should be obliged to of fibres or threads of extreme have recourse, were we endowdelicacy, finer than the finest ed with a new sense. In itself it cobweb. These fibres intersect is an instrument of great value, each other in all directions, so as and the labors of Prevost, Dumas, to leave between them minute and Edwards in France, and of spaces, which are termed cells. Bauer, of Sir Everard Home, and It is from this cellular appear- more recently of Captain Kater in ance, that the tissue derives its our own country, show that its name. Its elementary structure judicious employment is capable has been the subject of much dis- of communicating at once the pute: it has recently been ascer- most interesting and the most extained. It is chiefly to Dr. Milne act information. Edwards, an English physician, The cellular tissue, when in a resident in Paris, the able author state perfectly natural, having of the very interesting and impor- been subjected to no preparation tant papers at the head of this ar- capable of altering its properties, ticle, that we owe the complete and when examined with a microestablishment of the facts about scope of high magnifying power, to be detailed. In consequence is found to consist entirely of miof the opposite conclusions which nute globules. These globules the most distinguished physiolo- are arranged in irregular series, gists deduced from their observa- forming lines of different lengths, tions with the microscope, this which take every possible direcinstrument had been considered tion, and intersect each other in as valueless, and had sunk into every possible manner. From very general neglectma striking whatever part of the body the instance of that rashness of judg- tissue be taken, both the arrange
ment of the elementary globules same appearance and of the same and their diameter appear to be bulk as those of the cellular. In uniformly the same. Their dia- all vertebrated animals the genemeter is estimated at about the ral aspect and the magnitude of eight thousandth part of an inch. the elementary muscular globules
An examination of this tissue in are identical. They have rethe four classes of vertebrated cently been examined in inverteanimals has led to the establish- brated animals, and they present ment of the curious fact, that in in the whole of this class the same all the tribes of the mammalia, uniform appearance. in birds, in reptiles, and in fishes, The structure of the cerebral it is composed of globules which tissue, or brain, has been examhave precisely the same general ined with equal care. Whether appearance, and which are exact- a portion of this tissue be examly of the same magnitude. Sub- ined, taken from the brain, the sequently the investigation has spinal cord, or a nerve, whether been extended to invertebrated from an animal belonging to the animals, in all of which this tissue vertebrated or the invertebrated presents the same globular struc- class, it is found to be composed ture, with this difference only, of globules, the physical characthat while the greater number of ters of which are precisely the the globules are of the same bulk same as those of the other tissues. as in the vertebrated animals, The general conclusion deducible they are mixed with others of a from these series of observations larger volume, probably because is, that every animal solid consists these larger globules consist of a of molecules, all of which possess union of several of the elemen- a primitive form and a determitary.
nate bulk; and that these constiThe muscular tissue is arranged tute the elementary particles, by in two very different modes: first, the various combinations of which in the masses properly termed all the tissues of animals are commuscles; and secondly, in a mem- posed. We may say, then, that branelike expansion, denominated a globule of about the diameter muscular coats. There is no dif- of the eight thousandth part of an ference in the elementary struc- inch is the elementary organic ture of muscle, however the tis- molecule of which every solid of sue be arranged. The proper every animal body is composed, muscles are composed of fila- because the analysis of every such ments, the aggregation of a num- solid can be carried on till we ber of which forms what is term- come to such a globule, but by ed a fibre, while the fibres are no instrument which we at precollected into small bundles, sent possess can we carry the which are called fasciculi. The analysis further. In the present muscle itself, the fasciculi, and state of our kuowledge, therefore, the fibres, are all enveloped in a this globule must be considered distinct cellular sheath; the ulti- as the elementary organized cormate filaments appear to be des- puscle. titute of any cellular covering. The globular structure of seveThe ultimate muscular filaments ral of these tissues had been asare composed of globules of the serted by many observers, from
the first invention of the micro- similarity, but an absolute idenscope down to the present time, tity. We already know, from among the most distinguished of the study of her laws, the simpli. which may be named Leuwen- city of the means by which nature hoeck, Fontana, Prochaska, Del- works; these discoveries show la Torre, Swammerdam, and the the simplicity of the material Wenzels. Bauer in our own with which she constructs the country has published observations most varied of her productions, agreeing in all the essential points. and renders this variety, infinite Prevost and Dumas have recently as it is, still more wonderful and repeated the observations of Ed- admirable. wards, and have borne the most Many of the fluids of the anidecided testimony to their accu- mal body have also been found to racy; and Dutrochet states, that consist, for the most part, of glohe has found all the organs of all bules of the same aspect and diaanimals to be composed of globu- meter. The red globules of the lar corpuscles; that these cor- blood, for example, are composed puscles are arranged either in of two parts of a sac, which is longitudinal or linear series, or formed of the coloring matter of are agglomerated into a confused the Auid, and of a central corpusmass; that in all the secretory cle. Now this central corpuscle, organs, such as the liver, the kid- when divested of its external enneys, the salivary glands, and so velope of coloring matter, is found on, the disposition of the globules to present the same appearance, is of this latter kind; that so great and to be of the same diameter is the similarity between all the as the elementary globule of the parenchymatous organs, that in different tissues. Serum, chyle, the frog, when examined with the milk, pus, are found to consist, microscope, it is almost impossi- for the most part, of globules of ble to distinguish the tissues of the same appearance and diamethe brain, of the liver, of the kid- ter as the central globules of the ney, of the spleen, of the ovary, red particles of the blood, and the and so on; that all these organs elementary globule of the tissues. consist of glandular corpuscles, Thus it appears that the elemenagglomerated in a confused man- tary structure of all the tissues of ner, the assemblage of which con- which the animal body is composstitutes the parenchyma of the ed, from the lowest to the highorgan. In the Autumn of last est, is identical, and that the fluyear the globular structure of the ids contain the organic particles three primitive tissues was de- in the union and arrangement of monstrated by Dr. Southwood which the structure consists. Smith, in the course of his lec These discoveries, important tures on Physiolology, who, by as they are in their own nature, means of the microscope of Sel- assume a new interest when conlique, exhibited these globules to sidered in connexion with the elethe class. From the zoophyte mentary organization of vegetable up to man, then, it is proved, that bodies, and with the relation they in the structure of all the differ- establish between vegetable and ent tissues of the animal body animal life. It had long been asthere is not only a most striking certained by chemical analysis,
that the constituent parts, both of food, are considered by M. Villerplants and animals, contain pre- me to be its chief defects. Το cisely the same ultimate chemi- this cause, added to the previous cal principles ; namely, carbon, habits and privations of those conhydrogen, oxygen, and azote, fined, rather than to the insalubrity though it is commonly said that of the prisons themselves, he asazote is peculiar to animal sub- cribes their great mortality; which, stance. The correct statement, before 1819, was equal to one in however, is, that azote predomi- twentythree, but has since been nates in the animal substance, for reduced, in Paris, as well as in the the vegetable is by no means des- provincial prisons, chiefly by the titute of it. From this analogy attentions of the Royal Society of of composition it was inferred that Prisons, to one in thirtythree. there must be analogy of struc “ If the dépot de mendicité of ture. Careful investigation has Saint Denis is included in the calrendered the soundness of this in- culation, the mortality must yet be ference highly probable. All the stated at one in fifteen ; it was researches which have been in- equal to one in twelve before the stituted relative to this point, so year 1819, when the above society far as they have yet been carried, was established. So that M. Vilshow that this analogy really ex- lermé is almost justified in saying ists ; but the particular facts on that prisoners will live or die, just which the conclusion rests will as we choose. --Biblioth. Med. be better appreciated after a
The melioration in the state of brief exposition of the organiza- the prisons of France has been very tion of the most simple animals-- gradual.
An eloquent sermon, a subject which naturally follows preached by the Abbé Gros de the consideration of the elemen- Besplot, drew the attention of Loutary structure of the animal tis- is XV. to the subject. His benesues.--Westminster Review. volent successor instituted the most To be concluded next week. important plan of classification of
the prisoners. In 1801 further imMORTALITY OF PRISONS. provements took place; and Louis M. Villermé, in a memoir on XVIII., during his short reign, esthis subject, presented at a sitting tablished the Royal Society of Priof the French Institute, places at sons.
One of the most beneficial the head of the causes of the great measures was the introduction of mortality in prisons, poor and in- labor among the prisoners. Indesufficient diet. His observations pendent of the moral effects of this of course refer to the Parisian pri- arrangement, it is stated, that at sons. The daily ration of a prison- Metz the mortality within the prier is a pound and a half of bread, son was diminished one half by it. some economical soup, Count Rum- - London Med. Repository. ford's, and an unlimited quantity of water. This diet, notwithstanding
NEW MEDICINES. all the fancies of philosophical peo The following are already on this ple, is not good enough to preserve side the Atlantic. Their prices the human body in a state of health, may excite a little alarm at first, even among the French. Its uni- but when we consider the exceedformity, and the absence of animal ing minuteness of the doses, we shali