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FOR JUNE 1, 1827,

UST published by John Cotton, 184 DICINES, SURGEOISE 1. TRU

Washington St. corner of Franklin St MENTS, -Lakis, together with those

CNNTENTS.- The Parting Ship- Alice ja tore, a completo assortment, -among ---Recollections of Turkey-- Which

Ford: a Tale of 1558-On Evil-Speaking them are-narcotine, morphine, acetate pf morphine, sunphate of morphine, solue Things are a Shadow—The Story of Abfior of acetate of morphine, extract of dulla, of Khorassan-War: its Uses--opium deprived of morphine ; emetine, My Robin Redbreast-Death's Doings-iodine, hydriodate of soda, hydriodate of On the Picture of Death and the Warrior, potash, hydriodate of mercury, hydrio- by Mrs. Hemans-Lines by L. E. L.--cianic acid, colchicum seeds and rootsi do. by D. L. Richardson—The Volunextract of elaterium, extract of belladona, teer, by the author of "Whims and Odextract of henbane, extract of hops, ex

dities"-Buckingham's Travels in Mestract of hellebore, black drop, croton oil,

opotamia--Lacouics. blue pill, pneumatic nipple pumps, silver, ivory, wood, lead, glass, and gum elastic

DR. HULL'S TRUSS. aripple shields, &c.

THE very great superiority of this inStrict personal attendance paid to strument over every other heretofore Physicians prescriptions, and medicines invented, as to convenience, ease, and delivered at any hour of the night. 6w comfort to the wearer, and its curative

power, is shown by the testimony of reADAMS' PATENT, SWELLED BEAM spectable physicians, and the formal apBEDSTEAD.

probation of Medical Societies, but more Made al 422, Washinglon Sl. Boston.

than all by the actual cures it has per

formed. For a more particular descripIT T has neither screw nor lacing, and tion of this Truss, see the last Edition,

may be taken down or put up in one 1826, of Thacher's Modern Practice. minute. It gives the luxury of a sacking

Ebenezer Wight, Apothecary, Milk as tight as a drumhead. The price of Street, opposite Federal Street, has just this bedstead is no greater, with all its received an assortment of Umbilical and improvements, than the heavy, cumber- Inguinal Trusses. some, oldfashioned ones.-This founda

March 6th. tion of tranquillity and repose,-this illustration of neatness, taste and economy, YOTTONS & BARNARD have just may be seen at all hours of the day, as

published, A MILITARY JOURNAL above.

April 24.


TIONARY WAR, from 1775 to 1783 : He following medical works are for describing interesting events and Trans

actions of this period ; with numerous A Treatise on Verminous Diseases, Historical Facts and Anecdotes, from the preceded by the Natural History of Intes- Original Manuscript. To which is added tinal Worms, and their origin in the Hu

an Appendis, containing Biographical man Body. By V. L. BRERA, Professor Sketches, of several General Officers, of Clinical Medicine in the University of By JAMES TEACHER, M. D. late Surgeon Pavia, &c.

in the American Army. Second Edition, BICHAT on the Membranes.

Revised and Corrected. Discourses on Warm and Cold Bathing.

“ As Americans we hail with delight any A Dissertation on Medical Education, attempt to rescue front oblivion the words or and on the Medical Profession.

actions of those whose names we have been Remarks on the Dangers and Duties of taught to revere. Sepulture.

April 10.

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VOL. 5.

TUESDAY, JUNE 12, 1827.

NO, 4.

LIFE AND ORGANIZATION. consider what these properties 1. Memoire sur la Structure Ele- really are. mentaire des principaux Tissus

The phenomena which characOrganiques des Animaux. Par terize living beings, like the phyM. H. Milne Edwards, M.D. sical properties by which unorArchives générales de Méde- ganized bodies are distinguished, cine. Tom. 3. Paris. 1823.

can be ascertained only by obser

vation. When we examine these 2. Recherches Microscopiques sur

phenomena we are able to distinla Structure intime des Tissus Organiques des Animaux. Par guish five properties by which beM. H. M. Edwards, M. D. ings endowed with life may be

discriminated from all other obLues a la Société Philoma

jects. The first is the power tique, le 19 Aout, 1826. Annales des Sciences Naturelles. they possess of resisting within

certain limits the operation of the Dec. 1826.

ordinary laws of matter. The Though the term Physiology ap- influence of physical agents, those pears to have been primitively agents which operate most powemployed to denote an inquiry in- erfully and constantly on unorganto nature in general, yet it has ized bodies by subverting their been long appropriated exclusive- existing combinations, and by rely to an investigation into the composing the elements they disfunctions of living beings. Or- engage in new modes and new ganized bodies are distinguished proportions is, . within a wide from all other objects in nature, range, completely counteracted by the exhibition of peculiar phe- by living beings. The changes nomena, the whole of which tak- produced by air, moisture, and en together are designated by the heat, for example, on unorganized term of life. To the properties substances, and on organized bowhich they possess in common dies themselves when deprived of with all material substances, oth- life, cannot be effected in the liver properties are superadded. It ing being, because the first, and is not atry one of these properties obviously the most indispensable, that constitutes life, but the com- operation of the energy of life, is bination of them. The only pro- to resist such changes. per definition of life, therefore, The second character by which consists in the enumeration of the living body is distinguished is these properties ; and the only the power it possesses of assimimode of forming a correct and lating foreign materials to its own comprehensive notion of it is, to substance. Unorganized bodies

consist of particles of matter the configuration which results which are held together by mu- from this order is that of a symtual attraction : they increase by metrical disposition of parts. the juxtaposition of new particles The arrangement itself is termed which are merely superimposed structure ; the process by which on the preexisting mass. The it is effected is called organizaliving body is endowed with the tion, and the body in which it is power of converting materials of found is said to be organized. exceedingly different natures into This regularity of disposition is one homogeneous substance, and sufficiently apparent in vegetaof elaborating from this substance bles; and the structure which rethe various solid and fluid parts sults from it in the higher classes of which it is composed. The of animals is often exquisitely plant putting forth its roots into beautiful; but in a few species of the soil, and abstracting from it animals which are placed at the the nutrient particles it furnishes, very bottom of the scale of being, converts them into the different and which appear to consist only substances and juices peculiar to of a minute point of jelly, this the plant. The animal body re- character can scarcely be said to ceives into its interior the diver- exist. sified materials from which it de

On searching further into the rives its nourishment, dissolves economy of life, we discover adand decomposes them, recombines ditional phenomena, which are no their elements, and thus forms all less distinctive of it than those the tissues and all the organs of that have been stated : these rewhich, in the higher order of ani- late to its origin and its terminamals, its complicated structure tion. It is a general law that livconsists. The process by which ing beings derive their origin from these changes are effected is preexisting living beings. The termed in the vegetable, imbibi- first origin of a new being is veiltion, in the animal, digestion. ed in impenetrable mystery ; but The conversion of the digested its first indications of life in genematter into the proper substance ral arise in what is termed a of the body is denominated assimi- germ, that is, an organized sublation, and the power by which stance the product of the parent this process is effected is so pe- animal. Living bodies form at culiar to the living body, that some period part of other living some of the most eminent physio- bodies, from which they are sublogists have assumed it as the dis- sequently detached, and derive tinctive attribute of life.

from the living power of the boA third character by which the dies to which they originally be living body is distinguished, is the long, the degree of developement mode in which the materials of which renders them susceptible which it is constituted are dispos- of independent life: consequently, ed. Arrangement is the charac- the vital motions of living bodies ter of this disposition. The adap- arise in the parent stock ; it is tation of one part to another is from the parent that the offspring such as to force on the mind the receives the vital impulse ; it is conviction, that this disposition is life that gives origin to life. It truly arrangement. In general, was formerly conceived that there


is no exception to this law in the animal and vegetable bodies, and whole circle of nature. The the assemblage of which is exmicroscope has lately put us in pressed by the general term of possession of some facts which life. It is natural to conceive render the universality of the law that these phenomena are attachdoubtful ; in what manner, and to ed to some permanent subject, as what extent, will be stated here. we say that matter is the permaafter. In the mean time, it may nent subject of certain qualities, still be assigned as one of the such as extension, divisibility, atmost striking characters of living traction, repulsion, and so beings, that they derive their or- Vital principle, or principle of igin from generation.

life, are the terms which have And lastly, it is equally charac- been employed to denote the supteristic of them, that they termi- posed permanent subject with nate their existence by death. which the phenomena of living The vital energies, by which the beings are connected ; it is concircle of actions and reactions venient to have such words, but necessary to life is sustained, at it must never be forgotten that length decline, and finally become they are used, not to express anyexhausted. It has been truly thing that has been ascertained to said, that life is motion, superin- exist, but merely to denote our duced in matter peculiarly ar- mode of conceiving of the subject. ranged, and that death is the ceg The phenomena we have stated sation of this motion. But the are common both to vegetable vital powers cease to act from and animal bodies: there are chasome cause inherent in them- racters by which these two great selves, whereas unorganized bo- divisions of the organized world dies would preserve their exist- are distinguished from each other. ence forever were no extrinsic These characters are derived force applied to them. The at- from certain properties which traction by which their particles are possessed by the one, but of are held in union can be disturbed which the other is destitute. only by the intervention of such a Every living being must possess force. Some mechanical agent the power of assimilating foreign must separate their particles, materials into its own substance ; some chemical power must alter and, since it is a law of the vital their composition, in order that economy, that life springs from their destruction may be effected; life only, it must also be endowed but, though no mechanical agent with the property of communicatdisturbs the arrangement of its ing to its descendants a nature particles, and no chemical power similar to its own ; otherwise evchanges its composition, the living ery species of creatures must body perishes from the operation perish with the primitive race. of causes that are internal and The faculties of nutrition and reinherent. An origin by genera- production are, therefore, protion, and a termination by death, perties which must be common are thus distinctive characters of to all living beings; and accordliving beings.

ingly, with the exception hereafSuch is the train of phenomena ter to be mentioned, they are which we find associated both in possessed by the most simple.

The plant absorbs and assimilates sess, and which it is certain exnourishment; it likewise deve- ists without consciousness, and lopes a germ, by the evolution of therefore without volition. That which a being is matured that all the vegetable functions are possesses a similar organization performed without consciousness and performs a similar function. We have the demonstration in But to these are limited all the ourselves : for man exercises both functions which are exercised by classes of functions, the vegetathis extensive class of organized tive and the animal. By observbodies. To animals are super- ing what passes within ourselves, added two other faculties, those we know that there is no connexof sensation and voluntary motion. ion between mere vegetative life The faculties of animals, there- and sensation. We are conscious fore, consist of two kinds ; first, that we exist : we are not conof those which they possess in scious of the operation of the vecommon with vegetables, and getative faculties by which we which are, therefore, termed live. Of all the processes by vegetative, or which, because which the aliment is converted they are essential to the mainte- into blood, for example, and the nance of life in the individual, and blood into the proper substance to the perpetuation of it in the of the body, complicated as these species, are sometimes denomi- processes are in the higher aninated vital ; these are nutrition mals, we are wholly insensible : and reproduction. And secondly, there can, therefore, be no reaof those which are peculiar to an- son to suppose that these functions imals, and which because they are attended with consciousness belong exclusively to this division in the vegetable in which the

proof living beings, are termed ani- cesses themselves are so much mal; these are sensation and vo- more simple. If in our own body luntary motion.

a wound be made, attended with That no vegetable is really a loss of substance, this loss is capable of sensation or voluntary speedily repaired: new fibres are motion is certain, though the sen- formed, which arrange themsitive plant shrinks when touched, selves, not only as if they were and many curious cases are relat- animated and intelligent, but the ed which appear to prove that a degree of wisdom with which they few vegetables, under certain are disposed is perfect; yet all circumstances, possess the power this is effected, not only without of performing a kind of locomo- our having the least knowledge of tion. But all the movements of the mode in which it is done, but vegetables which seem to indicate even without our being sensible the possession of sensation and that it is done at all. voluntary motion, may be ex Notwithstanding the apparent plained on the supposition that exceptions, therefore, which we the substance of which they are shall have occasion more particucomposed is endowed with the larly to specify in the sequel, it power of contracting on the appli- may be stated as a general truth, cation of a stimulus; a power that, since no vegetable possesses which appears to belong to a few sensation and voluntary motion, vegetables, which all animals pos- and since no animal, with the ex

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