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lively nurses and nursemaids; and every petty uneasiness to misery for female infants, if beauty be and torment; and wears down the desirable, those who have some corporeal frame by an hourly repretensions to this attribute.
turning fever of irascibility and As the child advances in age, impatience : we feel in torture if cven before it begins to articulate a rose leaf doubles under us. No words and to understand the force individual can be healthy whose of language, much may be accom- temper is thus in a state of perplished in giving a proper bias to petual fermentation. the mind, and in laying the foun The infant cannot, therefore, dation of future comfort and en- be too early taught to disdain the joyment, as far as these depend uneasiness caused by trifles, and on the structure of the intellect to rise superior to complaint. Too and the health of the body ; for, much attention, also, to neatness as I shall have ample opportunity in clothes, to the regularities of of demonstrating as these Essays domestic arrangement, and to the proceed, mind and body recipro- prettinesses of conduct impresscally influence each other. Were ed on the infant mind, is equally I writing as a moralist, I might dangerous, by fostering that morshow that the seeds of resolution, bid sensitiveness of which we have justice, and veracity, should be already spoken, to which may be sown at this period ; that the traced many of those diseases growth of the weeds of vanity and termed nervous, which, as they pride, instead of being nurtured bafile the skill of the physician, into strength, as too frequently may truly be regarded as the happens, should be choked in their greatest of human miseries. I germination in the infant soil; and lately had an opportunity of seethat by guiding curiosity into a ing this illustrated in a visit to a proper channel at this age, the friend. The children were daily mind is formed and the under- introduced to the drawingroom, standing enlarged; but my pur- dressed with the strictest attenpose is rather to display the phy- tion to neatness and infantile fashsical effect of moral management ion; and made their bows and on health, than its influence on courtesies with as much formality character. An infant begins to as the most finished courtiers. reason much sooner than is gene- One of them, however, more rally supposed'; and if, at the pe- lively aud heedless than the othriod of which we are now speak- ers, one day neglected the usual ing, overindulgence renders him ceremonial, and was punished. The selfish, his peace will necessarily poor infant, on the following day, be resigned to little casualties, and during my stay at my friend's and peevishness of character will house, courtesied it is true; embitter and disquiet the remain- but I observed the countenance der of life. The effect of this turn pale, and the little limbs state of temper on health is too tremble, in the performance of generally observed, not to be well her instructions. I do not hesitate known ; that state of disposition to prognosticate, in this child, the which makes us fretful, and cap- ruin of a fine natural character, tious, and morose to others, when by such a plan of education ; and turned on ourselves, magnifies the formation of a nervous, irrita
ble habit, which must suffer se- consideration; nor will it really verely by those casualties from interfere with the ultimate object which no rank of life is exempt. of education ; for I have more
When a child first acquires the hope of a boy of eight years of use of language, curiosity is at its age, with a sufficient share of height, and the mind is prepared curiosity and habits of industry, to receive every neiv impression who is ignorant even of his letters, and to retain it: but much caution than of a prodigy of classical and discretion are requisite not to learning or of philosophical accarry the excitement too far. quirements of the same years. I Indeed, it is a silly vanity which may rationally expect that the efleads parents to wish to exhibit forts of the former, aided by a their children as specimens of healthful constitution, will sure premature acquirements. Few mount numerous difficulties, and who see and admire such prodi- continue pressing forwards to the gies, know the pains and sorrows full attainment of knowledge: but which the acquisitions of those the other, being already exhaustunfortunate infants entail on them; ed by premature exertion, like a and fewer still who trace those body driven forwards by a powerthat survive the training into ma- ful but single impulse, is continuturer years, ever behold the pro- ally decreasing in velocity, and in mises of their early years realized a short time must settle into dulin adult age, or those precocious ness and indifference. philosophers terminate their ca In brief; if the foregoing rereer otherwise than as dull men marks be correct, it must follow, and indolent coxcombs. In the that moral management in infandevelopement of intellect the im- cy is as requisite for the preserpulse to advance the mind in vation of health as for the formaknowledge must be at first gentle tion of character.
T. and regularly continued : it is suf April 6th, 1827. ficient that the child acquires that information which the senses, re
For the Medical Intelligencer. gulated by the experience of THE HABITS AND SUFFERINGS OF those who have preceded him, LITERARY MEN.-NO. II. can afford ; so as simply to exer When a student is young, his cise the faculty without overbur- bodily health and strength are ofdening the organ. The body ten preserved by the assistance of should be allowed to attain a cer- a strong constitution, joined to a tain degree of vigor, the constitu- vigor both of mind and body, which tion to lay up a stock of health; is natural to youth,—and this and the mind to be enriched with though he leads an inactive life. an ample store of ideas, obtained Now, he is exceedingly apt to inthrough the medium of the senses, fer from this, that he shall always before the child is set down to be equally fortunate. He graveacquire languages, or to take one ly makes up his mind that “stustep in book learning. Such a dy agrees with bim." He looks mode of proceeding is absolutely back with complacency on past requisite for delicate boys, in hours of happiness and enjoyment, whom the establishment of a vi- and flatters himself that they will gorous frame of body is a primary never decline.
This is a grievous mistake- variably produce the same efand I consider it my duty, before fects ? if I have enjoyed good I proceed any further, to show health in the past year, why the futility of it. Let us take a should I not during the next year, familiar similitude. A man sets if I live in the same manner,
and out on a journey,--and because at so on? I have but to follow thefirst he finds smooth roads, smil- same course and regimen which ing fields, agreeable shades, luxu. have thus far so well agreed with rious fountains,refreshing breezes, me, and I am safe. To such I and all the comforts and conve- would say, this mistake arises niences that one could wish, — from ignorance of the nature and can he, therefore, with safety, structure of the human body. You prophesy that he shall meet with must remember that the cold no uneven roads, that he shall knotted oak” is not bent so easily have to encounter no hardships as the “young sapling.”
You and perils, that he shall have to must remember that the human climb no dangerous precipices, frame resembles a houselock; if make his way over no bleak and it be suffered to lay by, inactive, fatiguing mountains ? And be- the wards will grow rusty, and eause the first part of his journey when you take it up and try to is crowned with success, with make use of it; you will find it health and strength both of body good for nothing, or at best the and mind, can be infer from this key will turn with a harsh, and that his health and strength will uncomfortable, and grating noise. never decay, that he can endure You must remember that the conthe toils of travelling as well at stitution of a man is formed while the end of his journey as at the he is young--and if you neglect beginning ? Because at first he the proper means of giving your was not overtaken by hunger, or body strength and vigor while you thirst, or despair, can he infer are young, it may be, it will that he shall be driven into no be impaired for ever. A diseased sandy desert, where he will be and shattered constitution will unable to obtain a drop of cold seldom show itself immediatelywater to slake his raging thirst, it is like the arch enemy of man, or a single fruit to appease his inwardly, yet secretly, preying on terrible hunger ? In a word, is him, and preparing the way for he certain that he shall come to his ruin, while he knows it not, no situation in which he would and persists in a course of thoughtdig him a grave in the burning lessness, unmindful that there is a sand, and lay himself down, and canker feeding on his vitals-till stretch out his limbs, and die ? one day, when he least expects
And yet it is a mistake precise- it, the foul demon will show itly of this nature, into which stu- self with all its destroying enerdents, particularly young students, gies. Finally, you must rememalmost universally fall. They ber that it is a law of our nature say--I have thus far enjoyed good that the mind will sympathize health, and yet I have studied as with the body,--that the mind is hard as any one whom I know. strengthened and invigorated by And will not the same causes, un- the strength and vigor of the boder the same circumstances, in- dy--and that if the latter fails,
the former must waste away. passive erercise imparted by the
The spring and activity of the motion of the vessel, which remind are checked and deranged stores vigor to the system, strength by the diseases of the body. One to the limbs, health to the body, jarring nerve, or one morbid sen- and activity to the mind. sitiveness of frame, brought on The student should be particuby early carelessness and inatten- larly careful that he does not extion, though the cause of it may ercise too freely when he finds not, or rather will not be traced himself becoming sick. This is to its right source, may mar your but too commonly the case with joy and peace of mind even to the the student. He has been acgrave.
customed to pride himself on his But to proceed to the answer constitution, and when his friends of the questions proposed in our have warned him, and advised him last. If exercise is of so much to use exercise, he has been acimportance to literary men, what customed to neglect the warning, kind is recommended ?
and despise the instruction. But Exercises are either active or so soon as the fatal consequences passive. The passive are, riding, of his neglect begin to show themsailing, swinging, &c. The active selves in the decay of his health, exercises are, leaping, dancing, he is alarmed, disappointed, and running, boxing, &c. if, by care- filled with chagrin ;-he bethinks lessness, or any other cause, a himself, all at once, to attend to student should be reduced to lan- the advice, of his friends, and guor or sickness, he must not straightway he comes to exercise think to restore his strength by in so violent a manner, that he engaging immediately in the ac- soon weakens and exhausts his tive exercises, but should begin whole frame ; and he is unfit and with the passive exercises. He unable to use any exercise, even must begin by taking regular dai- that of walking, for a fortnight ly walks, or by riding, or sailing. afterwards, and now concludes A person who is weak should be that his frame cannot bear exervery cautious how he exerts him- cise. But the fact is plainly this, self; his muscles have been re- this man has ruined himself by laxed by close application to stu- his own indiscreet violence. dy and by disease, and are unable Since a student leads a sedentary to bear that degree of pressure life, it is necessary when he beon them which can be borne by gins to exercise that he should do stronger men. It is for this rea- it at first moderately.
This moson, that when a man has been derate exercise should be gradureduced by some wasting disease, ally increased, till at length the the experienced physician will performer can bear the most viooften advise him to take a voyage. lent without injury, though they Now it is not, as some suppose, should be quite fatiguing. the seasickness only, or chiefly, The following may be recomwhich may occasion the restora- mended as a general rule of extion of the invalid ; for this sick- ercise to literary men, and to all pess may be produced in as vio- men of sedentary habits, when belent a manner by an einetic taken ginning to exercise.
With resat home. But it is exercise, the pect to duration, let the exercise
be continued to a beginning of place, they use but very little weariness. If it be continued af- exercise, and, in the second place, ter this, the muscles will become which I consider to be the princisore, and unfit for use for some pal cause, one part of their body time afterwards. With strong receives a portion of exercise, persons, who have been accustom- namely, the arms and chest from ed to exercise, this soreness does the drawing of the needle, while no injury : but we are at present the legs receive scarcely any. speaking more particularly with And this is the reason why the reference to literary men who legs of tailors are proverbially have been unused to exercise, and small and slender. whose muscles from long neglect To avoid the sufferings to and inactivity have become weak. which literary men are liable, it With such it is dangerous to ex- is necessary that they should use ercise at first so powerfully as to some exercise which will bring make the muscles sore.
into action the legs, arms, chest, Because a man feels already back, abdomen, &c. Now, there strong and vigorous, let him not is no one exercise which can acthink, as was before observed, complish this, and it must be done that he needs no exercise. He by a combination of exercises. needs it much more than the sick But where is this combination of man. A literary man, one who exercises to be found ? Where has, as it were, accustomed his can you find exercises suited to muscles to relaxation, should of bring into action all the variety of all others be alarmed if he finds muscles and organs in the human he has no inclination to exercise. body, from the smallest to the Disinclination to any exertion of largest ? Where can you find a the limbs is one most alarming set of exercises that are fitted as symptom of dyspepsia. Such a well for the weak as the strong, man should by degrees engage --for the invalid, as for the man vigorously in the most active ex- of health,—for the young, as for ercises. "Walking is too sluggish, the old ? I answer,--IN A GYMand does not give sufficient exer NASIUM
SALUS. cise to the limbs. In order that exercise should be beneficial, it is necessary that all the principal Inflammation within the Ear.muscles in the body should be Children, after they are six months brought into action. For if one old, sometimes cry violently, and set of muscles only are exercised, toss their heads from side to side, they, it is true, will grow strong expressing thereby the greatest and large, but the rest will re- agony. Not being able to point tain their former weakness,--and out the seat of pain, it is variously this is a great disadvantage. Bet- located by the parent or by the ter take no exercise at all, than practitioner. It will sometimes to exercise one part of the body stop crying very suddenly, and fall constantly, and neglect the other into a sound sleep, from which it parts. Where can you find a will be roused by renewed torture. more sickly set of men, in gene- This pain is not generally attended ral, than tailors? And the cause by any disturbance of the system ; evidently is, because, in the first fever seldom attends.
DISEASES OF CHILDREN.
It is gene