Abbildungen der Seite

speak. I said in 1802, that a cor. ken from an originally genuine kine rect definition, accurately discrimi- pock pustule, but at so late a period, nating the spurious pustule from the ihat the specific virus is absorbed ; true, was not to be foucd in any book hence we may learn the uncertainty of I had ever examined. It is to be scals for the purpose of re-inoculations. learnt by the eye, and we know that Sometimes the scab is thrown off, the eye, as well as the ear, admits and the part ulcerates, and pours of cultivation : a finished connoisseur fort a glairy fluid, which some have

painting can discriminate the copy mistaken for the true pellucid virus. a portrait from the original, by After this, pus is formed, and somee same hand. But who can teach times the pus is changed to putriditt skill by words?

ty and then it is a sort of acrid poiWe know from experience that sod. The hard scab produced from scine matter taken at an advanced this is always fallacious. This is a ciod of a forward pustule, will oc- rapid, angry-looking bile, with a ion nearly the same local appear- deep red efflorescence, producing, es, and excite a severe but falla- now and then, severe symptoms, as is disorder; as not possessiog the severe head ache, rapid pulse, cific prophylactic power. Ac- thirst, and every other mark of feding to my own observation, these ver, from a local cause.

This sore acious cases appear under two differs greatly from the slow and ns. The first arises from the reluctant one, before mentioned. lication of matter impoverished Very many such cases occurred t respects the specific virus, pro- amongst us in the autumn of 1800 ; ly weakened by being diluted and from both causes here mention1 lymph, serum, or the aqueous ed. Dr Jenner experienced the like tion of the blood; or else deteri- perplexity with myself, at his first ed by long keeping, or by ex- setting out in the practice. Dr Woodive hot weather, or by being fro- ville, as well as Dr Pearson, insistand then thawed, for

ed that the vaccine matter was caHere frost performs th' effect of fire."* pable of producing variolous pustules; atter thus impoverished, appears and these London Physicians confusfect the skin merely; and seems ed the matter greatly, * and led many ruggle on to raise the specific in- ioto error. mation, and operate the propa Dr Jepper complained more than in of the specific virus, but fails once, in his letters to me, that the vant of sufficient strength to car- most arduous task he had to peron. Most commonly its stimu- form, was that of making practitioní not great enough to excite the ers sensible of the absolute necessihatics to absorb it; hence there ty of attending to the QUALITY of the

efflorescence, and, of course, vaccine matter. 66 The vaccine fluinstitutional affection whatever. id," says be, " is extremely delicate 'e is only a soft scab formed, in its texture, and subject, from a ving gradually round the punc- variety of causes, some of them appart, having a cranberry.col- parently trifling, to partial, and to į base, which, fading away, general decomposition: to partial, s behind a crustaceous, amber- when it retains its qualities imperred scab, whence a transparent fectly to general, when these sometimes issues, but most com qualities are entirely destroyed." ý a purulent ope.

The perfect Kine Pock virus only, le second form of tbe spurious can produce the perfect vaccine pusie, owes its origin to mailer !a- tule. The perfect small pox mat* Milton.


small pos.

ter oply, can produce the perfect colour of the damask rose ; the matvariolous distersper, that which shall ter in each pustule will, io due time, destroy the predisposition, or con- acquire a yellow colour, and “ laudsume tbe pabulum that gives rise to able" consistency; and the reason is,

-the vires vitæ are bere sufficiently It is a prevalent notion among strong to throw up a redoubt against people, that the distinct and the con- the enemy, and repel his advances. fluent small pox is owing to the mild, The febrile symptoms accompaor the malignaut quality of the mat- nying such a state are of the true ter used in inoculation. But it is synocha type. owing rather to the state, condition, But io a person otherwise situaor idiosyncrasy of the patient him- ted, and predisposed, other and difself, depending on a cause hitherto ferent symptoms will appear if inocinscrutable, as hidden as that which ulated with the same matter and from prevents all other animals from tak- the same subject, and the inoculation ing small pox, be they ever so much performed at the same time. Jo him exposed to breathing a variolous at the eruptions come on sooner, are mosphere, or ever so many times more numerous, appear in clusters, inoculated.*

like measles, and do not maintaia Many years ago, I endeavoured their circular figure, and spheroidal to solve the problem by saying thaif form; but run one into another and In a healthy person, inhabiting a become flat; and when the pustules clean place, breatbing a salubrious are in any measure distinct, their air, and living temperately, a train bases are poi bounded as in the forof salutary processes are going for mer case, by an inflamed margin ; ward in his system ; digestion is well while the skin that is free from pusperformed, the chyle is proper; tules is pale and flabby. The matblood made from that chyle is per- ter in these vesicles is a whitish, or fect, and the secretions and excre- brownish sapies, and the accompanytions natural and regular.

ing fever is typhoid, while the conShould a simple wound be inflicte comitant inflammation is of the eryed, with a clean instrument, on such sipelatous species, or that sort which a person, the inflammation thence shows a disposition to spread, or raarising, would be regular in all its ther, no disposition to set bounds to stages; the pus formed, would be re- itself, as is the distinct small pox. plete with white globules, and per. At this period, should the depressfectly sweet, being as void of smell as ing effects of fear unfortunately the blood : the subsequent granula- concur, the edges of the eruptions tions, a consequent effect of the will soon show ibat they are too same cause, would be florid and firm, weak to resist the encroaching evil, and a perfect restoration of the and will all run into one shocking wounded part would soon follow. If sore. Now instead of yellow mat. such a person should be inoculated ter, or pos, ichor only is produced. with matter from the most confluent Soon after, purple spots appear, pro case, his pustules shall nevertheless fuse hæmorrhages of thin corrupt be distinct ; the basis of each encir- blood pass off by the several outlets cled by a border of crimson ; the io- of the body, and the sufferer sinks termediate spaces will approach the under his weight of misery.

lo such cases the violence of the The celebrated John HUNTER tried disease is not occasioned by the this experiment till he was tired, on dogs greater " malignity” of the variolous + Practical obserrations on Kine Pock, virus used in the inoculation ; but it 119.

is owing lo some cause which de

[ocr errors]


presses too far the “ VIRES NATURE directions for conducting this highly MEDICATRICES ;” and so the potentia important practice; and a Bill was nociva prevail. Hence the imper- brought in for that purpose, and passfect inflammation, and imperfect sup- ed two readings; but left among a puration; hence the symptoms of ap- heap of neglected business. proaching dissolution, indicated by To carry this PRESERVATIVE against the incapacity of each pustule to con- the greatest plague that ever ipflictfive its own matter which appears ed mankind, into full effect, it is confluent throughout the skin. needful that the matter should ema

From the preceding narrative it nate from ONE RESPONSIBLE ESTABappears, that the anomalous appear. LISHMENT ; and not from twenty-four ances in small pox and kine pock as has been suggested. were detailed, and cautionary advice given, as far back as 1802, Cambridge, June 14th, 1826. but neglected. Now indeed the collective symptoms come before the

DR DANA'S CHYMISTRY. public as a new and strange distem.

This is an epitome of chymical philosoper, breaking in upon the regularity phy, or an extended syllabus of the auof the order of Exanthemata, filling thor's lectures on that subject, in the the public mind with apprehension medical department of Dartmouth Coland anxiety; while the difficulty is with erring man, and not in unerring

lege. The most prominent trait in the Nature, who dever creates a new dis. character of the work, is its complete ease without an adequate and steady

adaptedness to the situation of students

attending lectures, and to all who desire cause. I found but one person disposed

a general acquaintance with the philosoto devote undivided attention to the pyh of the science, without the embarnew inoculation ; and to him. I gave rassments of technicalities, idle speculaall the aid in my power; and have tions, and useless minutiæ. We are senever reflected upon it with satisfac-sible of no good reason why the scanty time faction ; because his benevolence that is required of students to be devoted was commensurate with his industry to medical education, should be at all and judgment. Among the vast num encroached upon by an examination of ber he has vaccinated, and the ma mere matters of opinion and unsettled ny whom he has tested with small points. These, we conceive, should not pox, we hear nothing of VARIOLOID.

find place, except by notes or reference, Your correspondent, to me un in books of the principles of science ;- for known, seems duly impressed with if crude speculations which attend the a sense of our false security. He

progress of knowledge, are admitted to speaks of blameable negligence; and adds, that “when so many things ceived as established principles, induce

the dignity of a place among what are remay occur to interrupt the progress ments must be lessened to mature reand annul the effects of vaccination, what can

search. we expect but that pine

The student has enough to do tenths of the cases are imperfect ?» during the short period of his pupilage, to This is speaking rather stronger become properly acquainted with facts, than my own experience would jus. and the immediate objects of medicine. tisy. Some persons, I know not Bordou, one of the greatest physicians whom-applied to Congress, the last which France bas produced, while enusession, to establish an officer whose merating the various courses of lectures duty it should be to preserve and proposed for medical instruction, used to distribute, under certain regulations, say, “Why do they not institute a course genuine vaccine virus, with proper of common sense?" Simultaneous atten.

tion to the variety of objects that are fre

RESUSCITATION. quently crowded upon the student's

Few discoveries of the kind are destinmind, especially in lecture terms, ex ed to so great practical utility, as the farcludes the advantage which might be de- famed Stomach Syringe. This simple inrived from those that are really impor- strument, by an easy process, unattended tant, and although the appearance of at- by difficulty or danger, and giving but a tending the instruction of a large number shadow of pain, is made to draw from the of teachers may be very imposing, the ad- stomach its contents, and with equal favantages must be lessesed in proportion cility to convey substances into that orto the number of objects presented to the gan, in cases where there exists stricture mind at the same time. Beddoes used to of the æsophagus, tumours in the fauces, complain that so much was crowded into and indeed whenever circumstances rethe period assigned for medical study, quire such aid. In instances of poisoning, that the body and mipd were kept in per- its utility is evident. The new light petual hurry. Seneca taught that “the which has been thrown on the means of attention must be confined to a small resuscitation, and the causes of the great number of objects, if it be expected that difficulties which occur in the restoration the mind is to receive durable impres- of drowned persons, opens a new field for sions."

the operation and usefulness of this inObjections like these, which are fre- strument. quently urged against the use of most sys When any person is taken out of the tematic works as text books, are, in the water insensible, and apparently lifeless, one which is the subject of this sketch, and means employed for his resuscitation, entirely avoided-it being the object of if they are at all successful, frequent the author to give the facts and received retching and vomiting takes place, and doctrines of chymistry, independent of large quantities of cold water are diswhat to the student and general reader charged from the stomach. This invariais little better than useless lumber. The bly takes place before recovery is comfirst part contains an exposition of the plete. The mechanical and chilling efgeneral principles of the science, and the fects of such a body of cold water on the chymistry of inorganic substances. The stomach, must present an essential barsecond, the chymistry of organic sub- rier to resuscitation ; and it is not to be stances, or a chymical examination of regarded but with attention and satisfacNature. The arrangement and divisions tion, that the immediate discharge of this of the subjects are happy, the expositions water by means of the stomach syringe, clear, the illustrations perspicuous and has been found greatly to facilitate and entirely satisfactory,

expedite the restoration of the natural The work is also highly creditable to and healthy functions. the author on the score of originality, No physician ought to be without so though professing to be a compilation, efficient an instrument for fulfilling the and must add something to his acknowl. humane designs of his profession; and we edged high reputation as a practical chy- are happy to find that a number of them mist, and public teacher in the oldest and have been imported for sale by Messrs one of the most useful medical schools in Bartlett and Brewer, Apothecaries in this New-England. Our limits at present will city. not admit of any thing like a critical examination of the work, but we take this

NAMES OF DISEASES. opportunity of recommending it to stu

Giving names to diseases has been ridents, and all others who desire a view diculed by some of the greatest physiof the present state of the science, in its cians in the world. These talented and most intelligible and condensed form.

distinguished men have pronounced it a

system of quackery, and when their pa. valid that his doctor does not understand tients have asked if they had scarlet fe- his case, if some name-no matter whethver, they have been in the habit of an er right or wrong, whether they underswering, “ you may call it scarlet, or stand it, or have ever heard of it before or black or white, just which you choose," not-be not readily given to it.

In a and have I the rheumatism or the gout? profession, therefore, success in which is is followed by, “ both, or either, as you so dependent on whim and caprice as please to call it ; you have a pain in the ours, the evils alluded to must exist, and foot, and when you have followed my ought not to bring into the shade the obprescriptions, you will have it no longer,” vious advantages of a correct and practi&c. &c.

cal nosology Now the argument offered by these gentlemen, when they condescend to give ON THE OCCASIONAL ILL CONSEQUENCES reasons, is, that there is such an infinity

OF VENESECTION. of forms to disease, and one runs so into Secondary Hæmorrhage, occurring another, that it is impossible to draw at a period more or less remote dur. lines, and we must therefore take the ing the first twenty-four hours after symptoms as we find them, and do our bleeding, is not an unfrequent occur. best to restore health. Now this is all rence. Sometimes the quantity of true ; but the same is true of all branches blood thus lost is inconsiderable, yet of science. Even men differ from each it seldom occurs without exciting disother, like diseases. We can trace a re

trust in the miod of the patient of semblance in the heads and intellects of the skill or care of the operator.

This accident may take place from some Europeans and some Africans, and many Africans differ but little in either

the imperfect adaptation of the ban

dage and compress, or from their from some apes and ourang-outangs. Yet because we can see a gradual de ed. I have known it occur by the

giving way after having been adjustcline in the form of the head from the patient having taken off the bandage Apollo even to the frog, it is no reason

within a few hours after being bled, why men should not be divided into dif- and thus lose a quantity of blood farı ferent races, and each race be distinguish- 'exceeding what any remedial intened by its appropriate pame.

tion would justify. There are many cases in which practi A young surgeon, in a maritime tioners give a wrong name to a disease, town, bled a seaman, and from some from a misapprehension of the nature of cause or other, which was not satisthe complaint, or because, not being able factorily explained, bæmorrhage to class the symptoms at all, they save

from the orifice recurred; this, howthemselves some trouble by giving the ever, did not prevent the patient name most at hand ; and it is such

from guing to sea when his ship was

cases, we apprehend, which have induced ma

ready; the hæmorrhage returned ny high and gifted minds to be disgusted

from time to time, and before the

vessel returned with the plan of giving a name to every which she sailed, the unfortunate pa

to the port from set of symptoms we meet with. But

tient had died. No doubt, in the does not this savor a little of pettishness! well-meant endeavours of his com. There are cases, again, in which the strange panions, their attempts to stop the combination of symptoms, real and imagi- bleeding had been very unskilful, nary, defy the greatest skill at classifi- but that circumstance did not precation, and yet the patient will not be vent the opinion spreading through -satisfied without the name of his disorder; the town, that the untimely death of and many a friend will persuade the in the poor fellow was the consequence

« ZurückWeiter »