Extractive Metallurgy of Niobium
The growth and development witnessed today in modern science, engineering, and technology owes a heavy debt to the rare, refractory, and reactive metals group, of which niobium is a member. Extractive Metallurgy of Niobium presents a vivid account of the metal through its comprehensive discussions of properties and applications, resources and resource processing, chemical processing and compound preparation, metal extraction, and refining and consolidation. Typical flow sheets adopted in some leading niobium-producing countries for the beneficiation of various niobium sources are presented, and various chemical processes for producing pure forms of niobium intermediates such as chloride, fluoride, and oxide are discussed. The book also explains how to liberate the metal from its intermediates and describes the physico-chemical principles involved. It is an excellent reference for chemical metallurgists, hydrometallurgists, extraction and process metallurgists, and minerals processors. It is also valuable to a wide variety of scientists, engineers, technologists, and students interested in the topic.
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Types of Rock Complexes
Major Production Practices
B Niobium with Other Minerals
Treatment of Secondary Sources
Electron Beam Melting
Uses and Markets
b SolidVapor Processes
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acid alkali alloys aluminothermic reduction aluminum anode aqueous phase atoms bium calcium carbide carbon carbonatite carbothermic cassiterite cathode chemical chloride columbite columbite-tantalite columbium complex compounds concentration containing deoxidation deposits electrolyte electron beam melting electrorefining elements Extractive Metallurgy ferroniobium flotation flowsheet fluoride formation free energy furnace Gupta heat HSLA steels hydrofluoric acid hydrogen impurities ions iron leaching magnetic material Metallurgy minerals molten Nb,Os niobate niobium and tantalum niobium carbide niobium metal niobium oxide niobium pentachloride niobium pentoxide niobium-tantalum nitride nitrogen oxide oxygen particles pegmatites pentachloride powder precipitation present pressure Proc production properties purification pyrochlore rare earths reaction reactor recovery reduction of niobium refining refractory residue separation of niobium shown in Figure sintering sodium solid solubility solution solvent extraction sources steels sulfuric superalloys Table tantalite Tantalum and Niobium temperature tin slags tion titanium treatment tungsten vacuum vanadium vapor welding yield zirconium