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others must determine : “If I come to the green plain of the boar, he will compose, he will decompose, be will form languages : the strong-handed durter of light is he styled.

The studies and mode of living adopted by the Druids do not considerably differ from those pursued by the Brahmănas. Both Cæsar and Plutarch observe, that they cast into the pile at their funerals, every thing in which the deceased delighted ; that not merely brute animals formed a part, but that favorite servants, slaves, and even near relatives, cast themselves into the flames, in hopes of being happy with them hereafter. . The Indian parallel is sufficiently known; and Herodotus affirms of the Thracians, έχει γυναίκας έκαστος πολλάς, επεάν ών τις αυτέων αποθάνη, κρίσις γίνεται μεγίστη γυναικών, και φίλων σπουδαι ισχυραι περί τούδε, ήτις αυτέων εφίλετο μάλιστα υπό του ανδρός και η δ' αν κρίθη και τιμήθη έγκωμιασθείσα υπό τε ανδρών και γυναίκων, σφάζεται επί τον τάφον υπό του οίκηϊοτάτου έωυτής σφαχθείσα δε συνθάπτεται το ανδρί: αι δε άλλαι συμφορών μεγάλην ποιεϊνται: ονείδος γάρ σφι τούτο μέγιστον γίνεται. Τhis naturally brings back to our recollection the Inferiæ of the classic writers; and Procopius remarks, that the same practice prevailed among the Germans : Tacitus, however, says of them : “ Funerum nulla ambitio: id solum observatur, ut corpora clarorum virorum certis lignis crementur. Struem rogi nec vestibus nec odoribus cumulant: sua cuique arma, quorundam igni et equus adjicitur : sepulchrum cespes erigit.” Brotier observes that the funeral of Childeric, king of the Franks, was such; and the same custom is recorded of the Scythians. Pietro Martire asserts, that the servants and familiar friends, amongst the savage Indians, are frequently buried alive at their funerals; and Oviedo in “ su Relacion sumaria de la Historia Natural de las Indias” declares, that many killed themselves at the death of the cacique of their province; and that it is usual to bury their effects with them, and those things in which they mostly delighted. Thus, with the pagan Arabs, the cansel was a victim to his deceased master, being intended by the survivors to transport him to the other world.

In the magic rod of the Druids, we discern the sacred staff of the Brahmănas :—both possessed consecrated beads, both made almost endless lustrations, both wore linen tiaras; and Mr. Maurice remarks, that the circle, Brahma's symbol, and the crescent, that of Siva, were both Druidical ornaments. For their vices corresponding with those of ancient Persia, and other eastern countries, we must refer the inquirer to Aristotle, Athenæus, Theodoret, Strabo, Plato, and Cæsar.

The transmigration of the human soul from one body to another, through different stages of existence, appears to have been, at one

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time, received by the greatest proportion of mankind. Diodorus
Siculus, after having informed us, that amongst the Gauls the
opinions of Pythagoras respecting the Metempsychosis prevailed,
adds, διό και κατά τας ταφής των τετελευτηκότων ένιους επιστολές γε-
γραμμένας τους οικείους τετελευτηκόσιν εμβάλλειν εις την πυράν, ως των
τετελευτηκότων αναγνωσομένων ταύτας ; and like that intermediate
state in Virgil, before the waters of Lethe were to be imbibed, the
Druids allowed a certain space between each transmigration.
“All animated beings" (say the Triads) s originate in the lowest
point of existence (Annwn); whence, by a regular gradation, they
rise higher and higher in the scale of existence, till they arrive at
the highest scale of happiness and perfection that is possible for
finite beings. . . . Beings, as their souls by passing from ferocious,
go to more gentle and harmless animals, approach the scale of
humanity. Man, by attaching himself to evil, falls into
such an animal state of existence, as corresponds with the turpi-
tude of his soul, which may be so great as to cast him down into
the lowest point of existence; whence he shall again return through
such a succession of animal existences as are most proper to
divest him of his evil propensities. The sacrifice of animals
raises them to a state of humanity. ... Man, on arriving at a'?
state above humanity, recovers the perfect recollection of all his
former modes of existence, and to eternity retains it.” The babe'
Taliesin asserted, that he had been thrice born : that he had been
a blue salmon, a dog, a stag, a roebuck on the mountain, the stock
of a tree, a spade, an axe in the hand, a pin in a forceps for a year
and a half, a cock variegated with white, a stallion, a buck of
yellow hue, a grain, which vegetated on a hill, which the reaper
placed in a smoky recess, which the hen with red fangs (KệD)
received ; that nine months he was an infant in her womb, that he
Was AeDD, that he was an offering before his sovereign, that he
died, that he revived, that he had been a leader, and that now he
is Taliesin. Hence one bard writes : “ I require men to be born
again, in consideration of those liberal ones, which will be lost.”
Wherever the Pythagorean philosophy prevailed, these doctrines
were found. In Persia, in China, and in Egypt, they were reli-
gious fundamentals; and in India they were universally received
from time immemorial. The verses quoted by Halhed well elu-
cidate them :

“ As throwing aside his old garments,
A man puts on others, that are new;
So, our lives quitting the old,
Go to other newer animals.”

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In the Puranas, the cessation from transmigration is denor nated true knowledge, beatitude, and absorption into the Divi Essence; for, when a person is re-united to the Supreme Bein he is never born again; for which reason, the Ascetics exerci themselves in long Tapasya, and those (as Capt. Wilford observe who worship the Deity at Ro'DAN A-STHANA, enjoy heaven bliss, without being subject to any future transmigration. Th Metempsychosis expresses the immortality of the soul év mapaßorý and the following curious translation of Colebrooke shows on meritorious way of obtaining release from it: As the snake bearer forcibly drags the serpent from his earth, so bearing he husband from hell, she (the faithful widow, who burns herself, shall enjoy heavenly bliss :" i. e. Mucti, subject to no future transmigration.

The Druids conceive the soul to be a lapsed intelligence, and since the extremity of Annwn is the lowest point of existence, the soul, to regain its former state, was forced to pass through all the intermediate ;, and many of the Druidical ideas on this subjec wonderfully accord with those of Védantis and Sufis, who conceive, that human souls differ in-degree in infinitum, but not at all in kind, from the Divine Spirit, of which (to use Sir Wm. Jones's words) they are particles, and in which they will ultimately be absorbed. We read in one of the Triads, that “ the soul is an inconceivably minute particle of most refined matter, necessarily endued with life, and never dies : but at the dissolution of one body it passes into another, either higher or lower in the scale of existence. The Brahminical ideas on this subject are of the same nature, excepting, that nothing material is imputed to the sout: Ātman (the soul) proceeded from God by emanation, wherefore Brahm, as the source of all things, is named Mahan Ātmā, the great soul. The Ægyptians maintained corresponding doctrines; the Ægyptian Theonoe, according to Euripides, averred, that the soul, (Novs)

γνώμην δ' έχει 'Αθάνατον, εις αθάνατον αιθέρ' εμπεσών. The transmigration of souls was connected with the buy xárnou, more or less, as is evident from the 6th Æneis of Virgit, and in the accounts of that infinite spirit, whom they denominated pids Doll, and Kvoūpos, XHOYYI, or 1) NOYYI, the same sentiments may clearly be traced. Closely connected with this branch of our disquisition, are the following Triads : - There are three circles for states of existence; the circle of infinity, where there is nothing but God, of living or dead, and none

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but God can traverse it; the circle of inchoation, where all things are by nature derived from death ; this circle has been traversed by man: and the circle of felicity, where all things spring from life; this, man shall traverse in heaven. Animated beings have three states of existence; that of inchoation in the great deep (or lowest point of existence), progression in the circle of inchoation, and plenitude in heaven, or the circle of felicity; without these things, nothing can possibly exist but God...Three things are necessary in the circle of inchoation; the least of all animation, and thence, the beginning, the materials of all things, and thence, increase, which cannot take place in another state; the formation of all things out of the dead mass; hence discriminate individuality.” With these, Mr. Maurice's Dissertation on the Hindoo Bobuns, &c. &c. admirably accords : “ Creation is still in its infancy.

God will, by the progressive operations of his providence, bring all beings to the point of liberty, (human state.) . . . The path of happiness is open to man to all eternity. Cæsar, also, testifies of the Druids : “ Conditum mundum credebant, et aliquando igni periturum.” Appian, likewise, avers of the Germans, Γέρμανοι θάνατου καταφρόνηται δι' έλπιδα αναβιωσέως. Much to the same import are Lucan's spirited verses :

“ Et vos, barbaricos ritus, moremque sinistrum
Sacrorum, Druidæ, positis repetistis in armis
Solis liôsse Deos, et Cæli Numina vobis
Aut solis nescire datum : nemora alta remotis
Inculitis lucis. Vobis Auctoribus, umbræ
Non tacitas. Erebi sedes, Ditisque profundi
Pallida regna petunt; regit idem Spiritus Artus
Orbe alio, longæ (canitis si cognita) vitæ

Mors media est,” &c. &c. &c. &c.
From some of the Triads translated by Mr. Edward Williams,

appears, that they had sone obscure ideas of a future judgment: and the FLACHAMNA, or heaven of heavens, of the Irish Druids, floating in NEAMHAGAS, answers to that of the TriMURT'Ti, which floats in AK-ASS, or celestial æther. Mr. More's Hindu Pantheon will furnish numerous resemblances among the Indians, the Greek writers among the Ægyptians, and the Edda amongst the Gothic tribes; the Celtæ, particularly, believed that warlike exploits were a sure title to future happiness, as Pelloutier well observes : “ Aussi, lorsque les Irlandaises étaient accouchées d'un fils, priaient-elles Dieu, qu'il fît la grâce à cet enfant de mourir à la guerre, et les armes à la main."

Πολλών ο Καίρος γίνεται παραίτιος,

Τάχισθ' ο Καίρος μετάφερει τα πράγματα.
Dec. 1, 1817.



mily one

of Ehe he



“ Persius” [ed. Rob. Steph. Lut. M.D.XL1111.] “collatus est cum cod

MSto, annorum 300, in bibliotheca Regia, Londini.




92. abdita crudis : addita cr [1. Caballino : fons in Helicone,

93. Berecynthius Atys,: B. A quem Pegasus saxum feriens ape

105. Mænas et Atys. : Mæn ruit. Schol. Ms.]

et Attis

107. radere vero: rodere ver 4. Heliconidasque : Heliconiadasque

111. Euge omnes, omnes ben 8. Xaipe: Kere

Euge omnes et enim bene 12. refulserit: refulgeat

112. "inquis : .. Ms. 13. poetidas : poetridas

120. vidi, vidi ipse: vidi hic vi [14. Cantare-melos. In margine ipse exemplaris sui, quod jampridem

126. Vnde vaporata : Inde v. obiter inspexi, Potare adscripse

128. poscit dicere : possit dicer rat Casaubonus; et pro melos, SATIRA SECUNDA. nectar præbet Ms. Pithaanus.]

10. Ebullet : Ebullit SATIRA PRIMA.

12. Impello, expungam: : Im

pello, expungas 8. ah si fas : ac si fas

19. Hunc cuiquam?: Hunc cui. 17. Sede “ legens : - Ms. 18. colluerit: collueris

25. Sulfure : Sulpure 19. neque voce: nec voce

36. Nunc Licini in : Tunc L. i.

41. Poscis opem :-cit opem 21. Scalpuntur: sculpuntur

52. incusaque pingui : incussa24. “Quid : .. Ms.

que pingui 28. At pulchrum est: Et pul. e. 53. sudes, et pectore: sudas e:p. 35. et tenero; ac tenero

54. Excutias guttas, lætari pre36. nunc non cinis : nunc nunc

trepidum : Excuties g. 1. per trecinis

pidum 37. nunc levior cippus non : non

55. auro sacras quod : sacras au1. c. nunc

ro quod 44. carmina, vec thus?: c. n. tus

58. fitque illis aurea : sitque il46. (Quando hæc


Ms. 47. Laudari metuam 1

69. in sacro quid: in sco quid 50.. Ilias Acci: llias Attii

SATIRA TERTIA. 56. (Qui pote?: Quid pote? 60. Appula, tantum. : Appula, 10. bicolor positis : positis bicotantæ 72. Parilia : Palilia

12. Tunc querimur : nunc que76. Acci: Attii

ritur 87. bellum hoc, hoc bellum ? :

14. Dilutas querimur : Dilutas bellum hoc, bellum est

queritur 88. Mén' moveat quippe ?: Men'

16. teneroque columbo,: teneromoveat ? quippe

que palumbo


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